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Tsetse, Trypanosomiasis and
Communities in Transition:
Investigations into Health, Wellbeing and
Ecosystem Change in the L...
The Zambia Study Team
Noreen Machila, Neil Anderson, Simon Alderton, Joanna Kuleszo,
Kathrin Schaten, Martin Simuunza, Ewa...
Trypanosomiasis and Tsetse
• Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense – human sleeping sickness (rHAT)
Photo: Wolburg H, et al. (201...
Luangwa Valley, Zambia
• Four national parks
– Photographic safaris
• Game Management Areas
– Commercial safari hunting
– ...
A New Disease Interface?
• Problem statement
– Area of historically low human population density
– Influx of people and ne...
Household & Animal Census
• Conducted in 2013
• Official census figures for Mambwe District:
1990 ~ 60,000
2010 ~ 70,000
N...
Structured and Semi-Structured Interviews
• 28 key informant interviews
• 9 focus group discussions: 256 attendants
• 19 p...
Investigations into the Tsetse Vector
• Field surveys in June and Nov 2013
– Low apparent density
– Predominantly Glossina...
Epidemiological Survey of Livestock and
Humans
• Epidemiological surveys from 2005 (Mubanga, 2008) and 2013 (DDDAC)
• Decl...
Migration
• 62% of people reported moving location
– 37% within Mambwe District
– 17% from other parts of Zambia’s Eastern...
Year
Study area
Mambwe
District
1000 ha % 1000 ha %
1990 10 12 20 3
2000 14 16 26 4
2013 27 31 55 10
Change in the area oc...
• 85% of households grow cotton
• One third of households do not have enough food / variety
• Access to water and quality ...
Conclusions
• Landcover change significant
– Particularly towards plateau
• Migration patterns complex
– Much is over rela...
Acknowledgements
Gloria Mulenga,
John Mashili,
James Sikasindu,
Milner Mukumbwali,
David Sqaurre,
John Silutongwe,
Catheri...
This work, Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium, NERC project number
NE-J001570-1, was funded with support from...
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Tsetse, trypanosomiasis and communities in transition: investigations into health, wellbeing and ecosystem change in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

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Presentation by Dr Neil Anderson of the University of Edinburgh at the One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing symposium, London 17-18 March 2016

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Tsetse, trypanosomiasis and communities in transition: investigations into health, wellbeing and ecosystem change in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

  1. 1. Tsetse, Trypanosomiasis and Communities in Transition: Investigations into Health, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Change in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia
  2. 2. The Zambia Study Team Noreen Machila, Neil Anderson, Simon Alderton, Joanna Kuleszo, Kathrin Schaten, Martin Simuunza, Ewan MacLeod, Alexandra Shaw, Peter Atkinson, Susan Welburn
  3. 3. Trypanosomiasis and Tsetse • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense – human sleeping sickness (rHAT) Photo: Wolburg H, et al. (2012) PLoS ONE 7(3): e34304 Image © Neil Anderson Image © Neil Anderson Image © Neil Anderson
  4. 4. Luangwa Valley, Zambia • Four national parks – Photographic safaris • Game Management Areas – Commercial safari hunting – Agricultural activities – Relatively low human density – Historical lack of livestock keeping – Consistent land-use patterns Image © Neil Anderson Anderson et al., 2015
  5. 5. A New Disease Interface? • Problem statement – Area of historically low human population density – Influx of people and new settlements – Increase in livestock population – Land-use and land cover change – How has this affected disease transmission? Image © Neil Anderson Image © Neil AndersonNew interfaces most at risk of epidemics (van den Bossche, 2001) Image © Neil Anderson
  6. 6. Household & Animal Census • Conducted in 2013 • Official census figures for Mambwe District: 1990 ~ 60,000 2010 ~ 70,000 Number Households 3717 People 17656 Cattle 3169 Goats 5679 Pigs 3106 Dogs 2960
  7. 7. Structured and Semi-Structured Interviews • 28 key informant interviews • 9 focus group discussions: 256 attendants • 19 participatory mapping sessions and transect walks • Structured questionnaires: 211 households Image © Noreen Machila Image © Neil Anderson
  8. 8. Investigations into the Tsetse Vector • Field surveys in June and Nov 2013 – Low apparent density – Predominantly Glossina morsitans morsitans June November
  9. 9. Epidemiological Survey of Livestock and Humans • Epidemiological surveys from 2005 (Mubanga, 2008) and 2013 (DDDAC) • Decline in trypanosome prevalence • No human-infective T. brucei rhodesiense detected 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Cattle Sheep Goats Pigs Prevalence(%) 2005 2013
  10. 10. Migration • 62% of people reported moving location – 37% within Mambwe District – 17% from other parts of Zambia’s Eastern Province – 8% from further field
  11. 11. Year Study area Mambwe District 1000 ha % 1000 ha % 1990 10 12 20 3 2000 14 16 26 4 2013 27 31 55 10 Change in the area occupied by agriculture Image © Joanna Kuleszo
  12. 12. • 85% of households grow cotton • One third of households do not have enough food / variety • Access to water and quality of water is bad • Still, overall life satisfaction is high in the area Household well-being questionnaires Image © Neil Anderson 211 household questionnaires Health status sheets for 1012 people, 1276 animals
  13. 13. Conclusions • Landcover change significant – Particularly towards plateau • Migration patterns complex – Much is over relatively short distances • Trypanosomiasis prevalence has reduced – Size of domestic animal reservoir has increased – Tsetse density low • Local communities have little access to veterinary or human health services Image © Neil Anderson
  14. 14. Acknowledgements Gloria Mulenga, John Mashili, James Sikasindu, Milner Mukumbwali, David Sqaurre, John Silutongwe, Catherine Grant, Crawford Revie, Michael Thrusfield, Vupenyu Dzingirai, William Shereni, Amon Murwira DDDAC Consortium Image © Jessica Groengendijk Joseph Mubanga
  15. 15. This work, Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium, NERC project number NE-J001570-1, was funded with support from the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme. The ESPA programme is funded by the Department for International Development (DFID), the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

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