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One Health Symposium 17-18 March 2016
ZSL, London Zoo
Session III
Jan Slingenbergh
“The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institu...
WHO/FAO/OIE Tripartite
Jointly operating at the human-animal health interface:
- WHO, FAO, and OIE seek to build the capac...
World Health Organization, brief history Main disease concerns
1851 - first International Sanitary Conference cholera
1892...
Late 20th century shifting from existing to new diseases:
- HIV/aids
- SARS
- Bird flu
- Pandemic flu
- MERS
- Ebola
- Zik...
Food and Agriculture Organization, brief history Main concerns
- 1904 David Lubin traveled from the US to Italy agricultur...
Food and Agriculture Organization, brief history
President Theodore Roosevelt
June 1906
transmitted to the Senate, message...
Sir John Boyd Orr, First FAO Director General, Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize
In the years preceding the Second World War...
16 October, 1945
Representatives of 34 nations signed the constitution of the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the Uni...
Failure of the World Food Board
The Conference did not follow up on any Boyd Orr’s Substantive recommendations
Boyd Orr wa...
Instead, the preamble to the FAO constitution:
- Raising levels of nutrition
- Efficient production and distribution food ...
Freedom from Hunger
remained the ultimate objective
Short history of the OIE Ref. http://web.oie.int/eng/OIE/en_histoire.htm
1920 – rinderpest occurred unexpectedly in Belgiu...
On the issue of Animal Health and FAO vs OIE
Excerpts from FAO/55/6/3897 Report of Meeting of an ad hoc Committee on Anima...
Major disease campaigns supported by FAO:
1954 – European Commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease, vested in ...
Some of the inter-continental scale novel disease dynamics:
1980s – BSE, new prion disease in cattle
1980s - first introdu...
OIE adapting to the emergence of novel diseases…
FAO/OIE (WHO) Animal Health Year Book 1955 – 1995 series
Containing infor...
Human
living
environment
Food
and
agriculture
Natural
ecosystems
Three “animal” type
host domains
with species jumps
and m...
Changing Disease Landscapes
World Livestock 2013
Forested
areas
converted
into
pasture
and
cropland
from
2005 – 2050
Viruses out of African forests
Yellow fever
Dengue
HIV
Chikungunya
Ebola
Zika
inner-body viruses
infected carriers
arbo tr...
Disease emergence out of Asia…..food & agriculture / livestock
Avian influenza
Swine influenza
Pandemic influenza
SARS CoV...
Major strengthening? Yes
Broadening up? Yes
More focus? Yes
Still, more is needed at the animal – human interface
In order...
Drivers
- nrm, land use and ecohealth (Africa)
- safer pig and poultry production (Asia)
- address food, health and income...
Intergovernmental Panel on Pandemic Threats
IPPT Plenary
IPPT Bureau
IPPT Executive Committee
IPPT Secretariat
Task Force
...
The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?
The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?
The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?
The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?
The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?
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The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?

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Presentation by Dr Jan Slingenbergh, independent One Health policy adviser, at the One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing symposium, London 17-18 March 2016

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The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?

  1. 1. One Health Symposium 17-18 March 2016 ZSL, London Zoo Session III Jan Slingenbergh “The FAO/OIE/WHO Tripartite: an institutional void?”
  2. 2. WHO/FAO/OIE Tripartite Jointly operating at the human-animal health interface: - WHO, FAO, and OIE seek to build the capacity of member countries to detect, assess, notify and respond to the nexus of public health, food safety and animal health threats. - WHO international health regulations are designed to protect public health - FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius develops harmonised international food standards to protect the health of consumers - FAO undertakes animal disease control campaigns, and addresses biosafety concerns in the food chain - OIE, the World Animal Health Organisation, sets animal health standards in support of safe and fair livestock trade practices - OIE and Codex both address food safety and other veterinary public health issues
  3. 3. World Health Organization, brief history Main disease concerns 1851 - first International Sanitary Conference cholera 1892 – International Sanitary Convention cholera 1897 – International Sanitary Convention plague 1902 – International Sanitary Bureau (forerunner of PAHO) 1907 – L’Office International d’Hygiene Publique 1919 – Health Organisation of the League of Nations 1926 – International Sanitary Convention smallpox, typhus 1946 – Constitution of the World Health Organization 1948 – World Health Organization First Assembly malaria, tuberculosis, (budget of US$ 5 million) veneral diseases, maternal and child health - 1960s - campaigns against yaws, endemic syphilus, leprosy, and trachoma - 1970s - smallpox eradication - 1980s - polio eradication launch - river blindness Ref. THE LANCET Vol 360, October 12, 2002 www.thelancet.com
  4. 4. Late 20th century shifting from existing to new diseases: - HIV/aids - SARS - Bird flu - Pandemic flu - MERS - Ebola - Zika New era: Animal viruses newly showing up in humans and posing pandemic threats
  5. 5. Food and Agriculture Organization, brief history Main concerns - 1904 David Lubin traveled from the US to Italy agricultural research to meet King Vittorio Emanuele III intergovernmental body - 1905 International Institute of Agriculture founded support to farmers - 1906 forty states signed up IIA forerunner of FAO
  6. 6. Food and Agriculture Organization, brief history President Theodore Roosevelt June 1906 transmitted to the Senate, message on International Institute of Agriculture referring to the Convention signed June 1906 at Rome
  7. 7. Sir John Boyd Orr, First FAO Director General, Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize In the years preceding the Second World War, one third of the population of the United Kingdom suffered from poverty-induced malnutrition, with poor health caused by insufficient consumption.
  8. 8. 16 October, 1945 Representatives of 34 nations signed the constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations May 1946, World Food Board FAO convened a special Meeting on Urgent Food problems, upon request by Sir John Boyd Orr, Director General. The Food Board would end hunger through a three pronged system - credits - price regulation & buffer stocks - distribute famine relief
  9. 9. Failure of the World Food Board The Conference did not follow up on any Boyd Orr’s Substantive recommendations Boyd Orr was acutely disappointed He resigned the post of FAO Director General cold war?
  10. 10. Instead, the preamble to the FAO constitution: - Raising levels of nutrition - Efficient production and distribution food and agricultural products - Bettering conditions rural populations - Still, 20 years later, - Freedom from hunger for all mankind was (re-)inserted
  11. 11. Freedom from Hunger remained the ultimate objective
  12. 12. Short history of the OIE Ref. http://web.oie.int/eng/OIE/en_histoire.htm 1920 – rinderpest occurred unexpectedly in Belgium, Antwerp port 1924 – International agreement obtained by 28 states on Office International des Epizooties 1927 – Agreement had been ratified by 24 countries and first General Session held in Geneva, Prof. Leclainche appointed first Director 1928 – First General Session, Geneva, 8 experts established basis for international sanitary police The United Nations established FAO in 1946 and WHO in 1948. “Their aims partially covered those of the Office. The presence of these two Agencies called the existence of the OIE into question and the possibility of simply dissolving the organisation was envisaged in 1946, and again in 1951. Thanks to the opposition of numerous OIE Member Countries and Delegates, the functions of the Office were kept alive. “ 1952 - OIE / FAO Agreement 1960 – OIE / WHO Agreement
  13. 13. On the issue of Animal Health and FAO vs OIE Excerpts from FAO/55/6/3897 Report of Meeting of an ad hoc Committee on Animal Health Notes on FAO Veterinary Meeting held in London 13-15 August 1946 “Important point stressed: The Paris Bureau of Epizootics came under serious discussion. 1. Leclainche thinks it should remain free from FAO control but have the support and assistance of that body. He suggests that an effort be made to have as many other countries as possible brought into the Bureau ranks and so strengthen the Bureau. (USA and Canada are at present not included). Several members feel it would be advisable to have the Bureau placed under the direct jurisdiction of FAO or under a Standing Committee to be formed by FAO. They hesitate to hurt LeClainche who has for so long headed the Bureau. 2. A permanent Standing Committee which would control all animal health matters was recommended. This committee would probably take charge of the Bureau…. ….. 4. Rinderpest was discussed as an example of a serious disease requiring worldwide control.”
  14. 14. Major disease campaigns supported by FAO: 1954 – European Commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease, vested in FAO HQs in Rome, one of FAO’s oldest Commissions, continues till today, operating globally; 1960s – Field programme support for rinderpest prevention and control in Africa and Asia; 1970s – Tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa; 1980s – Ticks and tick borne diseases in East and Southern Africa; control of CBPP, brucellosis, helminths 1992 - launch progressive control rinderpest; 1994 - Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP)
  15. 15. Some of the inter-continental scale novel disease dynamics: 1980s – BSE, new prion disease in cattle 1980s - first introduction Old World Screewworm myiasis in Gulf countries 1988 – 1992 Screwworm Emergency Campaign North Africa (SECNA), first introduction New World Screwworm myiasis in the Old World 1990S - introduction of Rift Valley Fever into arabian peninsula 1999 – first flare up West Nile Virus in USA, to assume subcontinental scale proportions 2004 – first major epizootic H5N1 avian influenza South-East Asia 2005 – first H5N1 avian influenza panzootic wave 2000s – Bluetongue viruses newly encroaching Mediterranean basin and Europe rabies newly spreading with wild carnivores across eastern Europe first outbreaks Henipah viruses Asia and Oceania 2007 – African Swine Fever starting to spread across Caucasian countries, Russian Federation and eastern parts of Europe 2009 – new, pH1N1 re-assortment of avian, swine and seasonal flu genes 2011 – Schmallenberg virus first encroaching Europe 2014 – new MERS-CoV found to be widespread in camels in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia New geographic invasions, species and virulence jumpers
  16. 16. OIE adapting to the emergence of novel diseases… FAO/OIE (WHO) Animal Health Year Book 1955 – 1995 series Containing information on the occurrence of major, classical livestock and zoonotic infections and diseases as reported by countries from around the world to FAO and OIE By mid 1990s the AHYB had turned obsolete and OIE undertook to revise the system and, eventually, create a novel, World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface for realtime reporting of old and new diseases.
  17. 17. Human living environment Food and agriculture Natural ecosystems Three “animal” type host domains with species jumps and microbial exchanges going into 6 directions 4620 mammal spp 17 main livestock spp Medical and veterinary health protection bias
  18. 18. Changing Disease Landscapes World Livestock 2013
  19. 19. Forested areas converted into pasture and cropland from 2005 – 2050
  20. 20. Viruses out of African forests Yellow fever Dengue HIV Chikungunya Ebola Zika inner-body viruses infected carriers arbo transmission endemicity no livestock Unlike Asia….. Virus life history Disease drivers infection – transmission dynamics
  21. 21. Disease emergence out of Asia…..food & agriculture / livestock Avian influenza Swine influenza Pandemic influenza SARS CoV MERS CoV Nipah Hendra epithelial viruses horiz. transmission erratic epidemics livestock involvement Virus life history Disease drivers infection – transmission dynamics
  22. 22. Major strengthening? Yes Broadening up? Yes More focus? Yes Still, more is needed at the animal – human interface In order to stop pandemics from happening. Drivers are currently not considered; mitigation is not even on the table! Nobel prize winning institution: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Conclusion
  23. 23. Drivers - nrm, land use and ecohealth (Africa) - safer pig and poultry production (Asia) - address food, health and income as nexus (developing world) - safer trade and travel (global) - less global warming (global) - …… DRIVERS Afford shift to the left, progressively reducing both endemic diseases prevalence in resource poor settings and pandemic threats. The IPCC 2 degrees Celsius equivalent
  24. 24. Intergovernmental Panel on Pandemic Threats IPPT Plenary IPPT Bureau IPPT Executive Committee IPPT Secretariat Task Force on National Animal Virus Inventories Working Group I The Life and Social Science Basis Working Group III Mitigation of Pandemic Threats Working Group II Pandemic Impact and Preparedness 40% 30% 1% 5% = estimated current coverage of what may be required globally

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