DRIVERS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS
TRANSMISSION AT THE HUMANANIMAL INTERFACE IN DISTINCT
COMMUNITY TYPES
Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, DVM, M...
Leptospirosis transmission cycle
Leptospirosis transmission cycle
• Components
Leptospirosis transmission cycle
• Components
• Transmission
dynamics within
each host species
Leptospirosis transmission cycle
• Components
• Transmission
dynamics within each
host species
• Interactions between
Comp...
Study site: Los Rios Region, Chile

Climate
Temperate rain forest
Rainfall: 2,588 mm
Temperature: 17°C
summer and 8°C in
w...
R. rattus
R. norvegicus
M. musculus
Wild rodents
Total

13%
0%
11%
25%
14%

Urban slums
Puddles

27%

Household water 5%

...
Rural villages
R. rattus
R. norvegicus
M. musculus
Wild rodents
Total

21%
33%
54%
27%
24%

Puddles

23%

Household water ...
Farms
R. rattus
R. norvegicus
M. musculus
Wild rodents
Total

22%
4%
23%
17%
19%

Puddles

35%

Drinking water

23%

D-1
D...
Putting it all together
Epidemiological studies:
 Leptospira in dogs:

 dog density,  slums
 rainfall 1-month prior

...
For a given specific community type,
in a specific region:
Changes in the interactions between the components and/or
in th...
For a given specific community type,
in a specific region:
Changes in the interactions between the components and/or
in th...
For a given specific community type,
in a specific region:
Changes in the interactions between the components and/or
in th...
Take home message
• Transmission dynamics are complex and
heterogeneous, with changes that occur at different
scales
• Mul...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Research Team
Carolina Encina , Miguel Salgado – Universidad Austral de Chile
Maria Diuk-We...
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Drivers of Leptospirosis Transmission at the Human-Animal Interface in Distinct Community Types

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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, University of Minnesota

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  • 18,430 km2Population of 356,396 people32% are considered rural 28% live under the poverty lineEconomy of the region is based on agriculture, livestock, fishing, forestry, and tourismIt can be considered representative of many small urban/rural areas within Chile and other non-tropical, low socio-economic areas in the Americas
  • Drivers of Leptospirosis Transmission at the Human-Animal Interface in Distinct Community Types

    1. 1. DRIVERS OF LEPTOSPIROSIS TRANSMISSION AT THE HUMANANIMAL INTERFACE IN DISTINCT COMMUNITY TYPES Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, DVM, MPVM, PhD Division of Epidemiology and Community Health School of Public Health University of Minnesota
    2. 2. Leptospirosis transmission cycle
    3. 3. Leptospirosis transmission cycle • Components
    4. 4. Leptospirosis transmission cycle • Components • Transmission dynamics within each host species
    5. 5. Leptospirosis transmission cycle • Components • Transmission dynamics within each host species • Interactions between Components Variations expected by social (urban, farms, villages) and environmental/ecological (temperate, tropical, subtropical, arid, Mediterranean) conditions
    6. 6. Study site: Los Rios Region, Chile Climate Temperate rain forest Rainfall: 2,588 mm Temperature: 17°C summer and 8°C in winter Demography 364,592 hab. % rural: 40% % poverty: 20%
    7. 7. R. rattus R. norvegicus M. musculus Wild rodents Total 13% 0% 11% 25% 14% Urban slums Puddles 27% Household water 5% U-1 U-2 U-3 U-4 U-1 U-2 U-3 U-4 32% 68% 44% 40% 29% 3% 0% 2% 2% 5%
    8. 8. Rural villages R. rattus R. norvegicus M. musculus Wild rodents Total 21% 33% 54% 27% 24% Puddles 23% Household water 0% C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 Cattle 47% Sheep 16% C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 26% 15% 36% 23% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1%
    9. 9. Farms R. rattus R. norvegicus M. musculus Wild rodents Total 22% 4% 23% 17% 19% Puddles 35% Drinking water 23% D-1 D-2 D-3 D-4 Cattle 27% Sheep 16% D-1 D-2 D-3 D-4 0% 13% 12% 5% 18% 0% 8% 4% 2% 5%
    10. 10. Putting it all together Epidemiological studies:  Leptospira in dogs:  dog density,  slums  rainfall 1-month prior  Leptospira in puddles:  Leptospira in rodents:  dogs  temperature 1-week prior  No. rodent signs,  rainfall 1-week prior  farm household income  farms,  Spring,  mice  Leptospira in people:  farms,  women from slums  men from farms Molecular/serology studies: Spatial studies:  Leptospira in puddles from slums:  Positive rodent 50 m buffer  Specific habitats (wetlands, forest) in a 250m buffer  Flow accumulation index, rainfall 1-week prior
    11. 11. For a given specific community type, in a specific region: Changes in the interactions between the components and/or in the drivers of within-species transmission and/or drivers of environmental contamination lead to: - different levels of endemicity in different regions Sao Paulo, Brazil
    12. 12. For a given specific community type, in a specific region: Changes in the interactions between the components and/or in the drivers of within-species transmission and/or drivers of environmental contamination lead to: - different levels of endemicity in different regions - seasonal changes in incidence Trinidad and Tobago
    13. 13. For a given specific community type, in a specific region: Changes in the interactions between the components and/or in the drivers of within-species transmission and/or drivers of environmental contamination lead to: - different levels of endemicity in different regions - seasonal changes in incidence - outbreaks
    14. 14. Take home message • Transmission dynamics are complex and heterogeneous, with changes that occur at different scales • Multidisciplinary team of investigators, training (from undergrads to post-docs), and capacity building • More research is needed that includes: – Prospective eco-epidemiological studies in different community types from different regions – Development of predictive/risk assessment models
    15. 15. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Research Team Carolina Encina , Miguel Salgado – Universidad Austral de Chile Maria Diuk-Weisser – Yale University James Lloyd-Smith – UCLA Renee Galloway – CDC Students Marcelo Gonzalez (DVM) Gunther Heyl (DVM) Carolina Munoz (DVM) Cesar Bauza (DVM) Angel Astroza (PhD in Microbiology) Meghan Mason (PhD in Epidemiology) Bozena Morawski (PhD in Epidemiology) Sergey Berg (PhD in Conservation Ecology) Maud Lelu (Post-doc, Ecology and Modeling) Hannah Fox (MPH in Maternal and Child Health) Chris Campbell (MPH in Epidemiology) Ashley Bekolay (MPH in Environmental Health) Brooke Higgins (Undergrad, Biological Sciences), Sarah Blau (Undergrad, Pre-Med) Megan Girsh (Undergrad, Ecology) Funding – National Science Foundation • Ecology of Infectious Disease Program (No. 0913570) • Research Experience for Undergraduates Program – University of Minnesota • Epidemiology PhD Program Graduate Student Scholarship • Undergraduates Research Opportunity Program (UROP) • Grant-in-Aid Faculty Research Program • Global Spotlight Program – National Institutes of Health • NIAID R03

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