Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Agricultural Intensification
and
Nipah Virus Emergence
Jonathan Epstein DVM, MPH
@epsteinjon
EcoHealth Alliance
@ecohealth...
Projections of livestock intensification
“Meat consumption in developing countries has risen
from 10 kg per person per yea...
Sg. Nipah
Ipoh
Nipah virus index farm
• 30,000+ pigs
• Network of other large
farms
• Adjacent to primary
forest / fruit bat habitat
Nipah virus in Malaysia, 1998-1999
Human encephalitic cases
11Jan97 16Aug97 16May98 3Oct98 2Jan99
Perak
01234
27Mar99
Sela...
7%
(29)
Distribution of NiV in Malaysian
Pteropus spp.
Pulau Tioman
Tanjung Agas
47%
(34)
Lenggong 52%
(27)
K. Berang
38%
...
Pig and mango production, Malaysia
Pulliam, Epstein et al., J. R. Soc. Interface 2012
12
Intervention: buffer zone
• No orchards near
livestock enclosures
• Removes bat-livestock
interface
• Still allows for inc...
Nipah virus in Bangladesh and India
• 20+ outbreaks reported since 2001
•>300 cases (~75% cfr; up to 100%)
• Spatial and s...
Spillover via date palm sap
1. Luby et al Emer. Infect. Dis. 2005
2. Khan et al., EcoHealth 2011
Photo (left) J. Epstein E...
Henipaviruses in domestic animals
• Non-neutralizing Abs found
in cattle (6.5%), goats(4.3%)
and pigs (44.2%)1
• Clinicall...
Blocking access to date palm sap
• Bamboo skirt: simple, inexpensive,
easy, but time consuming
• Effective at excluding pe...
Evidence for Henipavirus infection in bats*
Confirmed human Henipavirus infection
Henipavirus Distribution
Conclusions
• Agricultural intensification drives disease
emergence
• Simple interventions needed to disrupt
wildlife-live...
Agricultural intensification and Nipah virus emergence
Agricultural intensification and Nipah virus emergence
Agricultural intensification and Nipah virus emergence
Agricultural intensification and Nipah virus emergence
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Agricultural intensification and Nipah virus emergence

450 views

Published on

Presentation by Dr Jonathan Epstein, EcoHealth Alliance, at the One Health for the Real World: zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing symposium, London 17-18 March 2016

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Agricultural intensification and Nipah virus emergence

  1. 1. Agricultural Intensification and Nipah Virus Emergence Jonathan Epstein DVM, MPH @epsteinjon EcoHealth Alliance @ecohealthnyc #onehealth2016
  2. 2. Projections of livestock intensification “Meat consumption in developing countries has risen from 10 kg per person per year in 1964-66 to 26 in 1997-99. It is projected to rise still further, to 37 kg per person per year in 2030.” “A continued shift in production methods can be expected…towards more intensive and industrial methods.” -UN Food and Agriculture Organization World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. FAO 2002
  3. 3. Sg. Nipah Ipoh
  4. 4. Nipah virus index farm • 30,000+ pigs • Network of other large farms • Adjacent to primary forest / fruit bat habitat
  5. 5. Nipah virus in Malaysia, 1998-1999 Human encephalitic cases 11Jan97 16Aug97 16May98 3Oct98 2Jan99 Perak 01234 27Mar99 Selangor Numberofcases 01234 26Dec98 Negeri Sembilan Week of onset of illness 010203040 Numberofcases
  6. 6. 7% (29) Distribution of NiV in Malaysian Pteropus spp. Pulau Tioman Tanjung Agas 47% (34) Lenggong 52% (27) K. Berang 38% (13) 58% (24) 38% (26) Tk. Memali 17% (12) Muar Benut 6% (1164)
  7. 7. Pig and mango production, Malaysia Pulliam, Epstein et al., J. R. Soc. Interface 2012
  8. 8. 12
  9. 9. Intervention: buffer zone • No orchards near livestock enclosures • Removes bat-livestock interface • Still allows for income from cultivation www.freemalaysiatoday.com
  10. 10. Nipah virus in Bangladesh and India • 20+ outbreaks reported since 2001 •>300 cases (~75% cfr; up to 100%) • Spatial and seasonal patterns • Bat-to-human transmission1,2 • Human-to-human transmission 1. Hsu et al. EID 2005; 2. Gurley et al, 2008
  11. 11. Spillover via date palm sap 1. Luby et al Emer. Infect. Dis. 2005 2. Khan et al., EcoHealth 2011 Photo (left) J. Epstein EcoHealth Alliance (right) S.U. Khan
  12. 12. Henipaviruses in domestic animals • Non-neutralizing Abs found in cattle (6.5%), goats(4.3%) and pigs (44.2%)1 • Clinically “normal” animals • Farmers feed bitten fruit 1. Chowdhury S, Khan SU, Crameri G, Epstein JH, Broder CC, et al. (2014), PLoS Negl. Trop Dis. Photo: J. Epstein, EcoHealth Alliance
  13. 13. Blocking access to date palm sap • Bamboo skirt: simple, inexpensive, easy, but time consuming • Effective at excluding pests • Incentive to adopt? • Financial, not health related1 1. Nahar et al. Global Health Promotion. 2014 Photo J. Epstein EcoHealth Alliance
  14. 14. Evidence for Henipavirus infection in bats* Confirmed human Henipavirus infection Henipavirus Distribution
  15. 15. Conclusions • Agricultural intensification drives disease emergence • Simple interventions needed to disrupt wildlife-livestock-human interfaces • Behavior change to adopt interventions

×