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Health management-1.pptx

  1. Fish Health Management
  2. Introduction • Health of fish is dependent on many factors like environmental conditions • Quality of diet • Stocking density • Quality of water • Sources and types of pathogens Species/strain of fish
  3. Feed • Use a species-appropriate high quality feed • Different formulations for different life stages Nutritional deficiencies lead to growth defects, internal organ dysfunction, anemia, etc. • Poor diet can lead to immune dysfunction, resulting in increased risk of infection
  4. Stocking Density • High density increases disease transmission • Reduces water quality • Increases stress
  5. Water Quality • Poor water quality can cause stress and hinder immune responses • support the growth of unwanted microbes directly result in mortality. • Maintaining a Biofilter • Adequate surface area • Limited use of chemicals in the system.
  6. Infectious Agents • Fish are susceptible to various infectious agents • Bacteria • Viruses • Fungi • Parasites
  7. Opportunistic Infectious Agents • Cause disease when fish are stressed or injured. • Primary Infectious Agents • Pathogens that infect healthy fish its tend to cause more severe infections .
  8. Susceptibility of Fish to Infection • Young fish tend to be more susceptible • Some pathogens are species or strainspecific, while others infect many species • Stress increases susceptibility – Temperature, pH, water quality, etc • Nutritional deficiencies increase susceptibility.
  9. What to Do Next • Remove any dead fish immediately • If possible quarantine sick fish • Review water quality records; check feed • Contact a veterinarian and/or submit fish to a diagnostic lab.
  10. • The best treatment is prevention : • Quality fish • Good water quality • High quality feed • Minimize stress • Minimize cross-contamination between systems.
  11. Good and best management practices • Aquaculture is an activity producing fish or shellfish mainly for human consumption. It is carried out in ponds, enclosures or in open water bodies and thus involves continuous interaction with the environment. Aquaculture can be a sustainable activity, if it is carried out in socially and environmentally responsible manner, by adopting good aquaculture practices.
  12. Crop planning • Introduction: Crop planning in advance of the cropping season in consultation with all farmers involves stocking density based on pond carrying capacity, crop insurance and bank finance and bulk input purchase like good quality seed through contract hatchery system,
  13. Crop calendar • Preparation of Crop calendar- two months before stocking fix dates for pond preparation, biosecurity, water pumping, contract hatchery, seed stocking and harvest. for analysis of farm inputs like seed, feed and any common ingredient used and shrimp for presence of banned antibiotic residues cluster certification, renewals, inspections/audit before the crop.
  14. Adoption of Better Management Practices • Pond preparation practices : To provide the shrimp with a clean pond bottom and good, stable water quality to reduce disease risks & to reduce the excessive reliance on water exchange, pond water holding capacity has to be increased maintaining water depth at minimum water level of 1.2 meter at the middle of the pond.
  15. Completely drain out the water from the pond • Complete draining of water helps in removing the disease carrying fish and crustaceans from previous crops in the pond. If it is not possible to drain the water follow wet preparation method.
  16. Remove the organic waste from pond bottom • Organic matter releases toxic gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pond leading to stress or death of shrimps. Organic waste is in the form of layer on the soil with black color found in feeding area, corners, trenches and in the centre in ponds with aerators and should be checked for the presence of black layer when it is in wet condition.
  17. • Make sure that the displaced organic waste does not enter the pond again through rain water. If it is difficult to completely remove the black soil, plough when it is wet and let it dry.