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Globalisation and art


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Globalisation and art

  2. 2. Aims• Today’s lecture will be looking at theintersection of art and globalisation•The impact of globalisation uponcontemporary visual art and its socio-culturalspheres of production, circulation, andconsumption
  3. 3. ‘Globalisation’ and ‘Globalism’• Globalisation is a mechanism that tries to chainand connect to planet together whereasglobalism is an attempt to make sense of it oreven counteract it• In contrast, globalisation refers to the increaseor decline in the degree of globalism. It focuseson the forces, the dynamism or speed of thesechanges
  4. 4. “Exhibitions delimited by nationality,continents and other geographicaldemarcations have been subject tovigorous critique over the last few years,for many of the right reasons. In acosmopolitan art world, in which artiststravel to make work and take part inexhibitions, the fact an artist is British,Brazilian or Chinese is of diminishingsignificance. To compare artists from theperspective of their geographical origins isoften to emphasise the most superficialaspects of their practice. The approach isfraught with the perils of reductivenessand stereotyping.” Hew Locke(FARQUHARSON, ALEX and ANDREAS Black Queen (2004)SCHLIEKER, BRITISH ART SHOW 6, 2005, P12)
  5. 5. The concept of globalisation is one of the mostdiscussed subjects, not only in art but inpolitical, economical and academic debates, andrefers to the worldwide diffusion ofpractices, expansion of relations acrosscontinents, organisation of social life on a globalscale, and grown of a shared global consciousness.Globalisation is not just expansion of capitalism andopening of financial markets round the world. Theeconomical part of globalisation is surely importantand perhaps the easiest to notice, but according toleading globalization theorist Anthony Giddensglobalisation is most of all transformation of time andspace in our lives.See Giddens, Anthony. The Third Way - The Renewal of Social Democracy.Cornwall: Polity Press, 1998
  6. 6. Cooperation or CorporationGlobalisation is often employed to connote the character of advanced capitalism
  7. 7. What is Globalisation?Left critics of globalisation Political Right: Radicals arguedefine the word quite that the consequences ofdifferently, presenting it as globalisation can be feltworldwide drive toward a everywhere and the globalglobalized economic system market is indifferent to nationaldominated by supranational borders. They claim thatcorporate trade and banking nations have lost most of theirinstitutions that are not sovereignty, politicians haveaccountable to democratic lost most of their capabilities toprocesses or national influence events, and that thegovernments. era of the nation state is over.
  8. 8. The Origins of Globalisation and the impact on artistsThere is a long history of artists ‘borrowing’, appropriatingand stealing inspiration, source material and imagery fromother cultures. This tended to be a one-way street(i.e. Europe ‘borrowed’ from ‘exotic’ cultures) rather thantrue cross-cultural fertilisation. These developmentsaccelerated in the 19th century with Industrialisation –expanded trade networks, faster transportation, the rise ofprinted mass media and art magazines, mechanicalreproduction of images, the growth of museums andlarge-scale exhibitions and World Fairs and so on allworked to ‘shrink’ the world and spread ideas and imagesworld-wide.
  9. 9. Picassio in his studio, Detail: New CaledonialOceanic Display 1908. Note New roof fiial figure from(detail), Trocadero Caledonian Picasso’s collection andMuseum, Paris, 1895 (Melanesia) figures Picasso’s Portrait of behind him Henry Kahnweiler (detail), 1910
  10. 10. Picasso, Sitting Nude, 19 Mask from Baule in Ivory Coast
  11. 11. Eurocentricism – the purported superiority of ‘Western Art’ Paddy Jupurrurla Nelson et al.Ground Sculpture installed in Magiciens dela terreExhibition 1989 with Richard Long’s Mud Circle on the Wall
  12. 12. Legacy of Eurocentric standardsThere remains a legacy of European Imperialism - that has existedsince the Renaissance – that defined the west as ‘civilized’ and non-western peoples as ‘primitive’
  13. 13. Legacy of Eurocentric standardsCultural Borrowing in World of Legacy: The Origins ofWarcraft CivilizationThe visual iconography of the horderaces suggests real-world cultures totems, tents, face paint), and m/legacy-the-origins-of-the horde in general are portrayed as civilization/"primitive."
  14. 14. The Rise and Rise of the Biennale
  15. 15. “Biennials produce press releases and catalogues that constantly recyclethe same buzzwords, ‘exchange’, ‘dialogue’ and ‘hybridity’ among them.What they don’t say is that in the profusion of the biennial these termsbecome almost meaningless. In Venice, diversity comes across asdispersal, as flattening out.”Marcus Verhagen, Biennale Inc, Art Monthly, June 05
  16. 16. Thomas HirschhornWorld-Airport(1999) VeniceBiennale)
  17. 17. Dream Machine dispenses drink, food and passports alikeKader AttiaDream Machine, 2002-2003
  18. 18. “It has been said that arguing againstglobalization is like arguing against the laws ofgravity.” Kofi Annan “Globalization, as defined by rich people like us,is a very nice thing…you are talking about theinternet, you are talking about cell phones, youare talking about computers. This doesn’t affecttwo-thirds of the people of the world.”
  19. 19. Further ReadingJames Elkins (Author, Editor), ZhivkaValiavicharska(Editor), Alice Kim (Editor) Art and Globalization(Stone Art Theory InstitutesBaudrillard, J. (1994), Simulacra and Simulation,trans. S, Glaser, Michigan: The University of MichiganPressGlobalisation is Good - Johan Norberg onGlobalization