The expression Romantic gained currency during its own time, roughly 1780-1850. However, even within its own period of existence, few Romantics would have agreed on a general meaning. Perhaps this tells us something. To speak of a Romantic era is to identify a period in which certain ideas and attitudes arose, gained currency and in most areas of intellectual endeavor, became dominant. That is, they became the dominant mode of expression. Which tells us something else about the Romantics: expression was perhaps everything to them -- expression in art, music, poetry, drama, literature and philosophy. Just the same, older ideas did not simply wither away. Romantic ideas arose both as implicit and explicit criticisms of 18th century Enlightenment thought. For the most part, these ideas were generated by a sense of inadequacy with the dominant ideals of the Enlightenment and of the society that produced them. As intellectual and cultural movements, Enlightenment and Romanticism played a crucial role in the creation of the modern world during the long eighteenth century. Traditionally, scholars have tended to view Romanticism as a reaction against Enlightenment, with individuals, for instance, rediscovering the passion apparently attenuated by a growing emphasis on reason, or seeing new value in the past as opposed to the rising celebration of progress.
ROMANTICISM appeared in conflict with the Enlightenment. You could go as far as to say that Romanticism reflected a crisis in Enlightenment thought itself, a crisis which shook the comfortable 18th century philosophe out of his intellectual single-mindedness. The Romantics attacked the Enlightenment because it blocked the free play of the emotions and creativity. Man must liberate himself from these intellectual chains. The Romantics were rebels and they knew it.
Exemplified by: William Blake, Newton as a divine geometer (1795) Blake, was critical of reductive scientific thought. In this picture, the straight lines and sharp angles of Newton’s profile suggest that he cannot see beyond the rules of his compass. Behind him, the colourful, textured rock may be seen to represent the creative world, to which he is blind.
The history of the Romantic period is often dominated by the political events that occurred within it Industrial Revolution and the Enlightment influenced the Romantic period From 1793 to 1815 was a period of European war and also revolutionary combat French Revolution, the Terror, and Napoleon
There were a number of key developments that had a big impact on artists working in the 19th century
For instance, the Enlightenment, which was characterised by an impulse towards modernity in matters of government, politics, religion and aesthetics. The Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th-century Europe, that sought to mobilize the power of reason, in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted science and intellectual interchange and opposed superstition.
The transformations and changes happening in Europe between led to demand new ways of looking at, understanding and explaining things and events through the social science. The Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th-century Europe, that sought to mobilize the power of reason, in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted science and intellectual interchange and opposed superstition
This preoccupied many great thinkers to theorize on the phenomena of changes. They were motivated by feelings of beneficent humanity, that they were on the side of the future and that the future was on their side. In spite of its allegiance to the classical tradition, the Enlightenment was a modernising force, keen to review and regenerate culture and society.
In its desire to replace outmoded, irrational ways of thinking by the rational, the sensible and the progressive, the Enlightenment was self-consciously modern. A manifestly scientific age and the visible advancement of knowledge in the eighteenth century required, it was felt, an overhaul – or at least a careful critical and radical scrutiny – of culture, society and their institutions.
The Enlightenment project of modernity stressed the importance of truth and abstract reason; universalizing grand narratives that aspire to completeness; the distinction between "high" and "low" or popular culture.
The Industrial Revolution -- in full swing in England since the 1760s -- spread to the Continent in the 1820s, thus adding entirely new social concerns. The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was revolutionary because it changed -- revolutionized -- the productive capacity of England, Europe and United States. But the revolution was something more than just new machines, smoke-belching factories, increased productivity and an increased standard of living. It was a revolution which transformed English, European, and American society down to its very roots. Like the Reformation or the French Revolution, no one was left unaffected. Everyone was touched in one way or another -- peasant and noble, parent and child, artisan and captain of industry. The Industrial Revolution serves as a key to the origins of modern Western society. The Slave ShipJoseph Mallord William Turner, 1842 Rain, Steam, and SpeedJoseph Mallord William Turner, 1844
How Art Works Week 9: Revolutionism Case Studies: Romanticism Impressionism
How Art Works
• I believe poetry, paintings and literature are valuable ways to express emotion
• All that Enlightenment emphasis on reason goes too far, there needs to be more
emphasis on imagination and emotion
• I find medieval legends and folklore to be more interesting than Greek and Roman
• While the Enlightenment guys might have said “reason is all!”, I believe “Feeling is
all!” (to quote Romantic writer Goethe)
• It is more important to live intensely and guided by feelings than to live wisely and
guided by reason
• I like poems and paintings that glorify nature
• I prefer art and literature that is emotional and fantastical rather than portraying
reality exactly as is
• I am not sure that the Industrial Revolution improved society. In fact, I think it was
• I would like to travel/read about exotic lands
• I might even be open to helping people fight for independence in faraway lands
because I feel that it is important (and exciting)
Napoleon At Saint-Bernard
France the formative
stage of romanticism
coincided with the
(1799-1815), the first
painters found their
A Revolutionary Movement
• The artist must be separate from
from corrupting society
• The artist must be the Critic of
society, must start Revolution
• The artist as genius
• Support for the French Revolution.
• The Industrial Revolution is affecting
• Individuals are important but they feel
alone and isolated
• Industrialization dehumanizes workers
• Maybe violent change is better
Arabs Skirmishing in the
Romanticism and the Enlightenment
Newton as a divine
Liberty Leading the People
Dehumanization of industrialization
The Slave Ship (formerly known as:
Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead
and Dying: Typhoon Coming On
Rain, Steam, and Speed
Glorification of Nature
Romanticising Country Life
The Raft of the Medusa
off a Harbors Mouth.
Caspar David Friedrich
Wandering Above the Sea of Fog
lLiberty Leading the People
Romantics and Realists
French Barbizon School
The Impressionist Revolution
The Impressionists: 1870s-
1890s The first group of
artists to organize themselves
to defend a new artistic style.
Based in Paris: the world
capital of art at the time.
"View from the Window at Le
Gras" (circa 1826)Joseph
It was no longer important to represent a subject realistically
since the invention of photography and cameras becoming
increasingly had made this function of art obsolete