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introduction to Postmodernism: An Introduction: globalisation


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introduction to Postmodernism: An Introduction: globalisation

  1. 1. Globalisation and Art
  2. 2. The concept of globalisation is one of the most discussed subjects, not only in art but in political, economical and academic debates, and refers to the worldwide diffusion of practices, expansion of relations across continents, organisation of social life on a global scale, and grown of a shared global consciousness. Globalisation is not just expansion of capitalism and opening of financial markets round the world. The economical part of globalisation is surely important and perhaps the easiest to notice, but…globalisation is most of all transformation of time and space in our lives. See Giddens, Anthony. The Third Way - The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cornwall: Polity Press, 1998
  3. 3. Globalization <ul><li>New Communication Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher speed of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater distribution of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multinational Corporations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased International trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased flows of money across national boarders. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Increased ease of travel!) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Globalisation - A contradictory and uneven process - Pulls away from local communities and nation-states - Pushes down on those same communities and nation-states - Local communities' beliefs and cultural values may be globalised and universalised - Individuals and groups may experience this universalisation as a 'dilution' and 'corruption' of their cultural beliefs - Resistance to this process, sometimes with violence, rise of fundamentalism, nationalism and terrorism could be seen as a response to this
  5. 5. “ Exhibitions delimited by nationality, continents and other geographical demarcations have been subject to vigorous critique over the last few years, for many of the right reasons. In a cosmopolitan art world, in which artists travel to make work and take part in exhibitions, the fact an artist is British, Brazilian or Chinese is of diminishing significance. To compare artists from the perspective of their geographical origins is often to emphasise the most superficial aspects of their practice. The approach is fraught with the perils of reductiveness and stereotyping.” (FARQUHARSON, ALEX and Andreas Schlieker, British Art Show 6, 2005, P12)
  6. 6. “ With Globalisation people become move able – physically, legally, linguistically, culturally and psychologically – to engage with each other whereever on planet earth they are” (Scholte, p. 59) “ Instead of the monochrome fixation on nationality that reigned in the mid-twentieth century, identities in today’s more global world have tended to adopt a more plural and hybrid character” (Ibid, p. 225) “ Globalization has tended to generate hybridity, where persons have complex multifaceted identities and face challenges of negotiating a blend of sometimes conflicting modes of being and belonging within the same self.” (Ibid, p. 226)
  7. 8. Roderick Buchanan Work in Progress (1995)
  8. 9. Santiago Sierra, ‘Wall enclosing a Space’, Spanish pavilion, Venice Biennial, 2003
  9. 10. Santiago Sierra, ‘ 250cm line tattooed on six paid people’ (1999)
  10. 11. From the land of waving palms to the villages of Kosovo, the world is connected through newspapers and airports. Together, they form a veritable &quot;state of the world equation&quot; which is the best way to sum up World-Airport, an installation by Swiss artist Thomas Hirschhorn. Exhibited at the 1999 Venice Biennale, World-Airport which will fill the entire gallery space, is a homemade, Fisher-Price like airport and lounge area, replete with a runway come parade of nation-states as airplanes emblazoned with logos in national colors sit prepared for take-off - The weather, the war-, business, pleasure- first class, third world - flight patterns and the flow of information have reduced the world to a ball of string with all its crisses, crosses and contradictions - a global Diaspora of businessmen, terrorists and tourists.
  11. 12. Kader Attia, Dream Machine, 2002-2003
  12. 13. “ Biennials produce press releases and catalogues that constantly recycle the same buzzwords, ‘exchange’, ‘dialogue’ and ‘hybridity’ among them. What they don’t say is that in the profusion of the biennial these terms become almost meaningless. In Venice, diversity comes across as dispersal, as flattening out.” Marcus Verhagen, Biennale Inc, Art Monthly, June 05
  13. 14. “ Visitors go to Venice, Kassel or Sao Paulo expecting shows to advance a considered and progressive model of globalisation in the cultural sphere, only to find that biennials are manifestations of a different kind of globalisation, one that is driven not so much by ecumenical curatorial designs as by existing mechanisms of centralisation and dissemination.” Marcus Verhagen, Biennale Inc, Art Monthly, June 05
  14. 16. “ Seen from the point of view of the art-world as a system [artworks] appear as the component parts of a uniform machine, which produces a large range of novel combinations that are tested against various publics for marketable meaning.” (Stallabrass 2004, p.151)
  15. 17. What is Globalisation? A process in which geographic distance becomes a factor of diminishing importance in the establishment and maintenance of cross border economic, political and socio-cultural relations. [Ruud Lubbers] A decoupling of space and time, emphasizing that with instantaneous communications, knowledge and culture can be shared around the world simultaneously. [Anthony Giddens]
  16. 18. Globalization and Art “ The real story of the art world in the 1990s lies in how it subtly embraced and then reversed this trend toward hypercommodification by using the machinations of ‘marketing’ to shift the focus of art patronage away from the artist and back toward the institution... [The] 1990s did not show its unique aesthetic hand in the emergence of any identifiable period style in the visual arts; rather, it did so with a building boom in stylish museum buildings and a concomitant proliferation of international biennial exhibitions.” (Van Proyen, Mark 2006)
  17. 19. “ It has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity.” Kofi Annan    “ Globalization, as defined by rich people like us, is a very nice thing…you are talking about the internet, you are talking about cell phones, you are talking about computers. This doesn’t affect two-thirds of the people of the world.”
  18. 21. “ All this may make global culture more readily available to the embrace of multicultural aesthetics or a meticulous archival study. But the angle of visibility will not change. What was once exotic or archaic, tribal or folkloristic, inspired by strange gods, is now given a secular national presence and a international future. Sites of cultural difference too easily become part of the globalising West’s thirst for its own ethnicity; for citation and simulacral echoes from Elsewhere.” Bhabha, H. 1997. Minority Culture and Creative Anxiety. From British Council 2003 Reinventing Britain.
  19. 22. Picasso, Sitting Nude , 1908 Mask from Baule in Ivory Coast
  20. 24. Martin Kippenberger ‘Metronet’
  21. 26. MetroNet, Geneva
  22. 27. “ The virtual self is connected to the world by information technologies that invade not only the home and the office but the psyche. This can either trap or liberate people…By virtual self, I am referring to the person connected to the world and to others through electronic means such as the internet, television and cell phones…[These] technologies get inside our heads, position our bodies and dictate our everyday lives.” Agger 2004
  23. 30. Paul Virilio is a renowned urbanist, political theorist and critic of the art of technology. Born in Paris in 1932 In Speed and Politics(1986), Virilio further elaborates on the influence of acceleration, mobility, and technologies of motion on modern culture. Subtitled &quot;Essay on Dromology,&quot; Virilio proposes what he calls a &quot;dromomatics&quot; which interrogates the role of speed in history and its important functions in urban and social life, warfare, the economy, transportation and communication, and other aspects of everyday life.
  24. 31. Maurizio Cattelan
  25. 32. Fulcher, J (2004) A very short introduction: Capitalism . Oxford, Oxford University Press. Giddens, A (1999) Runaway World . London, Profile Books Ltd. Stallabrass, J (2004) Art Incorporated . Oxford, Oxford University Press. Steger, M (2003) A very short introduction: Globalization . Oxford, Oxford University Press. Scholte, Jan Aart (2005) Globalization: A Critical Introduction . Palgrave MacMillan, Hampshire. Van Proyen, Mark (2006) Contemporary Art and the Administrative Sublime . In Art Criticism 21 no 2. pp. 25-56, 162-71. Giddens, Anthony. The Third Way - The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cornwall: Polity Press, 1998