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Git intermediate workshop slides v1.4

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Version 1.4 of our "Git, beyond the basics" intermediate level workshop slides

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Git intermediate workshop slides v1.4

  1. 1. OptionFactory Git, beyond the basics intermediate level workshop
  2. 2. About OptionFactory Main activities ● Software development & consultancy ● Continuous Integration & Delivery ● Training & coaching Key competences ● Java, Javascript, C++, Go, Erlang and more ● Secure Software Development Lifecycle ● Lean Software Development ● Re-engineering Core domains ● High Availability and High Performance systems ● Application security ● Telcos, finance, insurance and security sensitive domains ● Startups, new markets and high uncertainty domains
  3. 3. Goals If that doesn’t fix it, git.txt contains the phone number of a friend of mine who understands git. Just wait through a few minutes of “It’s really pretty simple, just think of branches as…” and eventually you’ll learn the commands that will fix everything. HTTP://XKCD.COM/1597/ “
  4. 4. Goals (II) No, improvising is wonderful. But, the thing is that you cannot improvise unless you know exactly what you're doing. Christopher Walken “ ”
  5. 5. Establishing a common base ● Participants’ ○ background ○ VCS tools known ○ level of experience ○ expectations
  6. 6. Version control basic idea ● Frequent: ○ Do some work ○ Save and store away a copy of your work at a certain point in time ○ Give each copy a name for future reference ● Once in a while: ○ Be able to go “back in time” to see what changed ○ Possibly discard recent work and start over from a previous point ○ Communicate your changes to others Analogy: Savegame
  7. 7. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1
  8. 8. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2
  9. 9. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS
  10. 10. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - RF
  11. 11. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - RF ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS + FD
  12. 12. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - RF ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS + FD ● Git Workshop slides v1.3
  13. 13. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - RF ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS + FD ● Git Workshop slides v1.3 ● Git Workshop slides v1.4
  14. 14. Story of a file ● Corso Git Trieste - materiale di presentazione v1.1 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - RF ● Git Workshop slides v1.2 - DS + FD ● Git Workshop slides v1.3 ● Git Workshop slides v1.4 Are these all the same file? What’s the sequence?
  15. 15. What we want to capture Most of the times saving a single file is not enough - information is often distributed and correlated. In computer programs, changes to one file are often strongly related to changes in other files - to the point our program breaks down if we take into account only the changes from one file. What we are really interested in (each time) is: ● what changed (files) ● where did I start from (previous version) ● who changed it (useful when multiple people collaborate) ● when it changed ● why it changed ● some kind of handle to reference each of such changes
  16. 16. Starting up ● setup your global git environment ○ git config --global user.name “Mario Rossi” ○ git config --global user.email “mrossi@example.com” ● initialize (i.e. create) your first repository ○ mkdir myfirstrepo ○ cd myfirstrepo ○ git init
  17. 17. Creating a commit 1. Create / edit files on your working copy (your local filesystem) 2. Mark your changes for inclusion by copying them in the staging area 3. Create a new commit, providing the missing (meta) data ● What goes in the commit comes from: ○ whatever you put in the staging area (the “what”) ○ your git configuration: ■ your name & email (the “who”) ○ the (git) environment : ■ the current date (the “when”) ■ the commit you started working from (the “where”) ○ the message you specify (the “why”) ○ the commit itself (commit id, the “handle”)
  18. 18. Delta storage
  19. 19. Snapshot storage
  20. 20. Files lifecycle
  21. 21. checkout/reset (file) Checkout <file> Checkout <ref> -- <file> Reset <file> Effect on graph shape None None None Effect on Staging Area None Overwritten with version from graph Overwritten with version from graph Effect on working copy Overwrite with version from staging area Overwritten with version from graph None Staging area Working Copy Graph add <file> com m it reset<file> checkout <ref> -- <file> checkout <file>
  22. 22. Version control landscape Git Mercurial (HG) SVN ClearCase Transaction unit Commit Commit Commit File Storage model Snapshot Delta Delta ? Model Distributed (clone) Distributed (clone) Centralized (checkout) Centralized (checkout) Transaction id Hash Hash (local sequence) Global sequence Path + per-branch sequence Concurrency model Merge/Rebase (graph) Merge (graph) Merge on commit (linear) Pessimistic locking + merge (linear) Rename / move tracking No (heuristic) Yes Yes Yes*
  23. 23. Centralized vs distributed (I)
  24. 24. Centralized vs Distributed (II) Centralized Distributed Instances Single, mandatory Every istance is equal. “Central authority” is a convention, not a necessity Transaction id Centrally assigned Anyone must be able to assign it The Truth™ One and only “Luke, you're going to find that many of the truths we cling to depend greatly on our own point of view.” _ Obi-Wan Kenobi
  25. 25. Centralized vs Distributed (III) Centralized Distributed Isolation None, each transaction is “public” Many Sandboxes environments Speed per commit Low, every transaction required network communication Fast, changes are on the local filesystem. Conflicts Pain Manageable pain
  26. 26. The git graph ● Each branch tracks either (or both): ○ alternate “timelines” ○ parallel work
  27. 27. Showing the Git graph ● Some examples: ○ git log --graph --decorate --all --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline ○ git log --graph --decorate --all --abbrev-commit --format=format:'%C(bold blue)%h%C(reset) - %C(bold cyan)%aD%C(reset) %C(bold green)(%ar)%C (reset)%C(bold yellow)%d%C(reset)%n'' %C(white)%s%C(reset) %C (dim white)- %an%C(reset)' ● Found a combination you like? keep it as an alias: ○ git config --global alias.graph "log --graph --decorate --all --abbrev- commit --pretty=oneline"
  28. 28. Showing the Git graph (tools)
  29. 29. Inside a commit ● id ● parent id(s) ● timestamp ● author (& committer) ● message ● content ○ filesystem state ● NOT part of a commit ○ branch ○ tags
  30. 30. References & reachability ● A reference is just a named pointer to a commit in the graph ● Every commit, to be reachable, must be referenced: ○ directly (by a ref) ○ indirectly (by a reachable descendant, pointing to its parent) ● Bad parenting advisory: ○ Parent commits do not know about their children ○ You can’t navigate forward in time through the graph
  31. 31. references: Branches ● a “branch” identifies a sequence of commits, tracing a workflow ● “master” is by convention the project main line ● A branch ref points to a commit in the graph, and represents a pointer to such commit. It is not directly related to working copy or staging area ● Any number of branches can point to the same commit, they are all independent
  32. 32. references: HEAD ● HEAD is a special reference. It can either point to a commit or a branch, and represents where we are in the graph ● The commit it points to (directly or indirectly) is used for comparison against the staging area ● When HEAD points to a Branch reference, that branch is “current”, and will move ahead on commit ● When HEAD points directly to a commit, we are in the “detached HEAD” state ○ even if there are branches referencing that same commit
  33. 33. Checkout/Reset/Revert (ref) Checkout <ref> Reset <ref> Revert <ref> Moves HEAD only “current” Branch “current” Branch Effect on graph shape None potentially leaves back “dead” nodes Creates new node Effect on Staging Area Fails if dirty* overwritten with --mixed (default) or --hard Fails if dirty Effect on working Copy Fails if dirty overwritten only with --hard Attempts merge, fail if not possible
  34. 34. Alternate (time)lines ● Creating alternate lines of work ○ branch ● Navigating the graph ○ checkout ○ reset ● “Crossing the streams” and other weird stuff ○ merging ○ git merge-based <ref> <ref> ○ git config --global merge.conflictstyle diff3 (merge) ○ git merge -Xignore-all-space (-Xignore-space-change) ○ rebasing ○ cherry-picking
  35. 35. references: Tags ● Lightweight Tags are similar to branches (a name attached to a specific commit), but they are not meant to move ● Annotated Tags also contain an id, timestamp, author and a message on top of that ● Therefore, annotated tags can be signed
  36. 36. ● remotes: names pointer to a remote repository ○ origin is the one you cloned from (just another convention) ● remote branches ○ Remote references differ from branches (refs/heads references) mainly in that they’re considered read-only. You can git checkout to one, but Git won’t point HEAD at one, so you’ll never update it with a commit command. Git manages them as bookmarks to the last known state of where those branches were on those servers. https://git-scm.com/book/it/v2/Git-Internals-Git-References ● tracking branches ○ local branches bound to a remote branch ○ git checkout --track (remote)/(branch) ○ tracks your work on that branch to allow sync Remotes, refs, tracking branches
  37. 37. Synchronization & collaboration ● clone ● push ● fetch ● pull (fetch+merge o fetch+rebase)
  38. 38. Collaborative workflow ● commit message ● approaches (not exclusive) ○ based on merge ○ based on rebase
  39. 39. http://zeroturnaround.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Git-Cheat-Sheet.png
  40. 40. Version control landscape Git Mercurial (HG) SVN ClearCase Transaction unit Commit Commit Commit File Storage model Snapshot Delta Delta ? Model Distributed (clone) Distributed (clone) Centralized (checkout) Centralized (checkout) Transaction id Hash Hash (local sequence) Global sequence Path + per-branch sequence Concurrency model Merge/Rebase (graph) Merge (graph) Merge on commit (linear) Pessimistic locking + merge (linear) Rename / move tracking No (heuristic) Yes Yes Yes*
  41. 41. .gitignore ● Ignores untracked files in the folder or subfolders ● useful to ignore contents generated on the fly, or custom settings files (e. g.: IDE configuration for the project) ● Useful templates: ○ https://github.com/github/gitignore ○ https://help.github.com/articles/ignoring-files/
  42. 42. git as a service ● github, gitlab, bitbucket ● basic concepts mapping ● Authorization models ● “Fork” and “Pull Request” implementations ○ pull request - “Please, take my changes”
  43. 43. Plumbing
  44. 44. Resources ■ Good base: http://www.learnenough.com/git-tutorial ■ Visualizing Git Concepts with D3: https://onlywei.github.io/explain-git-with-d3/ ■ Think like a git: http://think-like-a-git.net/epic.html ■ Git workflows comparison: https://www.atlassian.com/git/tutorials/comparing-workflows ■ Cache your passwords: https://help.github.com/articles/caching-your-github-password-in-git/ ■ Git-scm book (https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2), in particular: ● https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Basics-Recording-Changes-to-the-Repository ● https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Tools-Reset-Demystified ● https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Basics-Git-Aliases ■ Some open source projects to visualize git graphs: ● https://github.com/FredrikNoren/ungit/blob/master/README.md ● https://github.com/Readify/GitViz ● https://github.com/Haacked/SeeGit ■ Always funny to watch: http://gource.io/ ■ Nice course: http://gitimmersion.com/index.html ■ Nice tool to create demo graphs: http://gitgraphjs.com/ ■ Git cheat sheet: http://zeroturnaround.com/rebellabs/git-commands-and-best-practices-cheat-sheet/ ■ Interesting videos: ● Introduction to Git with Scott Chacon of GitHub: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZDR433b0HJY ● Brilliant representation of the graph: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ffBJ4sVUb4

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