APC Assignment

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APC Assignment

  1. 1. HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Group Members: Rui Da Silva Taslima Tanha Michael Leung Tarrene Griffiths Xi Zhang
  2. 2. HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Telegraph Printing Press Telephone Early Communication Radio Television Computer
  3. 3. EARLY COMMUNICATION The methods: Speech and Symbols
  4. 4. OVERVIEW  Speech  Symbols  Paintings & Pictures  Writing  Distance Communication
  5. 5. SPEECH  Singing  Telling Story Example: Minstrels & Harp Oral history handed down from one generation of story-tellers to another.
  6. 6. SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION Cave Painting:  Oldest know form of human art work  Pre-historic paintings on cave walls and ceilings  Interpreted as being hunting magic, meant to increase the number of animals Cave drawing at Lascaux in France, 15,000 BC. It shows the scenario of people’s life in that time.
  7. 7. SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION Petroglyph:  Creation of pictures on rocks by picking, incising and carving  The oldest petroglyph is between 10,000 to 12,000 years old  Interpreted as early forms of pre-writing
  8. 8. PAINT Mosaic The Standard of Ur, dates from around 2600 - 2400 BC, representations of a Sumerian army
  9. 9. WRITING Pictograms Egyptian Pictograms
  10. 10. WRITING Reading Egyptian Pictograms Rosetta Stone ( 190 BC) and Jean-François Champollion
  11. 11. WRITING Egyptian Paper How to make a Egyptian pager
  12. 12. WRITING Sumerian cuneiform script On the clay token/board, 2800-2600 BC.
  13. 13. WRITING Chinese script: Inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells, 1500 BC.
  14. 14. WRITING Chinese script: Bamboo carving & silk paper, 1100 BC
  15. 15. WRITING Before the Printing Press & Paper in Europe : Vellum Book and Hand Writing
  16. 16. DISTANCE COMMUNICATIONS  Horns Waving Flags Smoke Signals
  17. 17. DISTANCE COMMUNICATIONS Smoke signals
  18. 18. PRINTING PRESS
  19. 19. PRINTING PRESS  The earliest dated printing book is the “Diamond Sutra”  It was printed in China in 868 CE  Printed using wood blocks made from Mulberry Wood
  20. 20. PRINTING PRESS  First movable type printing press invented in 1450  By a German craftsman named Johannes Gutenberg  It was developed from the technology of screw-type wine press
  21. 21. PRINTING PRESS  Gutenberg was the first to use press to print the Bible  He brought down the price of printing materials  By the end of the 15th century it had spread to over 236 cities First Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg
  22. 22. PRINTING PRESS  Gutenberg printing press remained the standard until the 20th century  Two ideas altered the design of the printing press radically:  First, the use of steam power for running the machinery  Second, the replacement of the printing flatbed with the rotary motion of cylinders
  23. 23. THE TELEGRAPH A non verbal way of sending and receiving messages
  24. 24. VISUAL TELEGRAPHS  Smoke Signals  Flag Signals  Light Signals
  25. 25. SMOKE SIGNALS  Used by Native Americans  Warning  Distress call
  26. 26. SMOKE SIGNALS  Used by the Chinese Military on The Great Wall  As an intruder alert  Single smoke signal = 100 enemies  Two smoke signal = 500 enemies  Three smoke signal = 1000 or more
  27. 27. SMOKE SIGNALS  Smoke signals are still used today  For persons in need of help
  28. 28. FLAG SIGNALS  Non-electrical telegraph  Flag-based telegraph invented 1794  By Claude Chappe
  29. 29. FLAG SIGNALS  The telegraph used a semaphore system  Alphabetic signaling  Receiver had to have full view of flag  To interpret message being sent
  30. 30. SEMAPHORE SYSTEM
  31. 31. AUDIO TELEGRAPHS  Drum Signals  Abeng  Electric Telegraphs  Morse Telegraph
  32. 32. DRUM SIGNALS  Used by Nigerian Tribes to communicate  For rituals, storytelling and celebrations
  33. 33. AUDIO SIGNALS  Talking Drums  Speaks in the language of the tribe  Talking Drum were also used as an alarm  To warn slaves when the slave master was approaching
  34. 34. ABENG  Maroon tribe used the abeng  Horn instrument used to communicate
  35. 35.  William Sturgeon discovered electromagnets in 1825 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
  36. 36. ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH  First invention of the electric telegraph in 1831  By Joseph Henry  Possibility of using electromagnets to communicate  Wasn’t good enough
  37. 37. MORSE TELEGRAPH  In 1835 Samuel Morse improves Henry’s telegraph  Telegraph used pulse instead of a bell The Morse Telegraph
  38. 38. THE TELEGRAPH  Prints dots and dashes on paper  Representing alphabets and numbers from 0-9  Creating long and short pulses  Encoded by sender, decoded by receiver
  39. 39. MORSE TELEGRAPH  First message sent by Morse Telegraph, 1844  In Morse code  “.-- …. .- - …. .- - …. --. --- -.. .-- .-. --- ..- --. - ….”  “What hath God wrought?”
  40. 40. THE TELEPHONE
  41. 41. TELEPHONE  An improvement of the telegraph  Telegraph limited  Communication was not simultaneous  Inventors thought why not make a new telegraph
  42. 42. TELEPHONE  Alexander Bell knew how sound was transmitted  Possibility of multiple messages sent at the same time  Harmonic telegraph
  43. 43. TELEPHONE  Bell had another great idea  Create a device that could transmit speech  Simultaneously
  44. 44. TELEPHONE  March 10, 1876 that device was created  Now known as the telephone
  45. 45. TELEPHONE  Tele means at a distance  Phone means sound  Hence, the name Telephone  First message send over the telephone  “Mr. Watson, come here. I want to see you.”  The Telephone one of the greatest inventions
  46. 46. DID YOU KNOW?  Alexander Bell was not the only inventor of the telephone.  Elisha Gray invented the telephone the same time Alexander did  Alexander was the first to patent his invention
  47. 47. RADIO A form of audio communication signals.
  48. 48. OVERVIEW  Developed from two inventions  the telegraph and the telephone  An apparatus for receiving or transmitting radio broadcasts  There are varying disputed claims about who invented radio  At the beginning was called "wireless telegraphy".
  49. 49. RADIO WAVES  A type of electromagnetic radiation  Wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.  They travel at the speed of light.  The capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air.
  50. 50. RADIO HISTORY  In 1887, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated Maxwell’s electromagnetic waves  First predicted by mathematical work done in 1865 by James Clerk Maxwell
  51. 51. WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY  First Wireless Transmission  1901, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi oThe first voice transmission ooccurred on December 24th, 1906 oThe transmission included reading from the Bible, playing the violin, and a phonograph recording of "Largo." Canadian engineer Reginald Fessenden
  52. 52. RADIO AS COMMUNICATION  a reliable and versatile way to communicate with the rest of the world.  Broadcast consists of local / world news, music, verbal shows, and etc.  Radio is free for everyone  As long as there is a signal
  53. 53. TELEVISION A form of advanced electrical/electronic signals
  54. 54. OVERVIEW  The history of television records the work of numerous engineers and inventors in several countries over many decades.  The fundamental principles of television were initially explored using electromechanical methods to scan, transmit and reproduce an image.
  55. 55. MECHANICAL TELEVISION  Paul Nipkow developed a rotating-disc technology in 1884  Transmits pictures over wire called the Nipkow disk  Discovered the television's scanning principle  light intensities of small portions of an image are successively analyzed and transmitted
  56. 56. MECHANICAL (CONT)  Charles Jenkins invented a mechanical television system called radiovision  Claimed to have transmitted the earliest moving silhouette images on June 14, 1923.
  57. 57. CATHODE RAY TUBE  Electronic television is based on the development of the cathode ray tube  which is the picture tube found in modern TV sets. German scientist, Karl Braun invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope (CRT) in 1897.
  58. 58. TELEVISION AS COMMUNICATION  Reaches a large audience  Diversified to fit many different audiences  Carries many channels and networks which can allow the viewer a choice  Efficient and can quickly spread information  a very effective tool in spreading information and entertainment to a large and diversified audience.
  59. 59. HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER(S)
  60. 60. INVENTIONS OF KONRAD ZUSE FIRST INVENTION OF Z SERIES: Z1  In1936, Zuse made a mechanical calculator called the Z1  The first binary computer.  used it to explore several ground-breaking technologies in calculator development  floating-point arithmetic, high-capacity memory and modules or relays operating on the yes/no principle.
  61. 61. 2ND INVENTION OF Z SERIES: Z2  In 1939, Konrad Zuse completed the Z2, the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer.
  62. 62. 3RD INVENTION OF Z SERIES: Z3  His 3rd invention Z3  constructed with recycled materials  It was the world's first electronic  fully programmable digital computer  based on a binary floating-point number and switching system  Old movie films were used to store data and programs
  63. 63. THE LAST INVENTION OF THE Z SERIES  Z4 was completed and in 1955.  It had a mechanical memory with a capacity of 1,024 words.  The Z4 had punches and various facilities to enable flexible programming  including address translation and conditional branching.
  64. 64. FIRST ‘MODERN’ ELECTRIC COMPUTER  The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) first to use modern digital switching techniques  Vacuum tubes as switches  Introduced the concepts of binary arithmetic and logic circuits

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