SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Radio

Ashish Richhariya
Ashish Richhariya
Ashish RichhariyaFaculty at Thakur College Of Science & Commerce

This PPT is only for educational purpose for the students belonging to BMM & FTNMP or other such Professional courses.

Radio

1 of 70
Download to read offline
Radio – A tool for Communication
Notes By : Ashish Richhariya
Course : FTNMP / BMM
Designation : Faculty at Thakur College Of Science & Commerce
Query : arichhariya30@gmail.com
Contents
1. Meaning
2. Timeline of Radio
3. Invention and History
4. Etymology
5. Radio technology
6. Radio communications
7. Applications
8. Regulations
9. Important tool in mass media.
10.Radio in India
11.Broadcasts
12.Broadcasting channels
Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
Meaning of Radio.
According to the Collins Dictionary:- Radio is the broadcasting of
programmes for the public to listen to, by sending out signals from
a transmitter.
Another definition according to Merriam – Webster dictionary states: the
wireless transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of
electromagnetic waves
Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves.
Radio waves are nothing but the electromagnetic waves of
frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz).
They are usually generated by an electronic device called a transmitter that is
connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, and are in turn received by
a radio receiver connected to another antenna.
Radio is now a days very widely used in modern technology, in radio
communication, radar, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and
other applications.
Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
Radio communication
Used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way
radios, wireless networking and satellite communication.
The Radio waves are used to carry information across space from a
transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio in the transmitter.
In radar, which is used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships,
spacecraft and missiles, here radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter
reflects off the target object, and the reflected waves reveal the object's
location.
In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR.
In wireless radio remote control devices like drones, garage door openers,
and keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device
control the actions of a remote device.
Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
Timeline of radio
December 1894: In Italy, Guglielmo Marconi conducts experiments in pursuit of
building a wireless telegraph system based on Herzian Waves (radio), demonstrated a
radio transmitter and receiver to his mother, a set-up that made a bell ring on the other
side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench.
Financed by his family, over the next year he works on adapting experimental
equipment into a radio wave telegraphic transmitter and receiver system that could work
over long distances. This is considered to be the first development of a radio system
specifically for communication
1896: Marconi was awarded a patent for radio with British Patent 12039, Improvements
in Transmitting Electrical Impulses and Signals and in Apparatus There-for. This is the
initial patent for radio based wireless telegraphy.
1896: Bose goes to London on a lecture tour and meets Marconi, who was conducting
wireless experiments for the British post office.
1897: Marconi establishes a radio station on the Isle of Wight, England. In the U.S.
during 1897, Tesla applies for several wireless power patents. Those two patents were
issued in early 1900.
Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai

More Related Content

What's hot

Newsroom structure
Newsroom structureNewsroom structure
Newsroom structureSaqib Naveed
 
Broadcasting Journalism & Production
Broadcasting  Journalism & ProductionBroadcasting  Journalism & Production
Broadcasting Journalism & ProductionAbinash Pani
 
RADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTION
RADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTIONRADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTION
RADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTIONKATAMU NEDINANI
 
A brief history of radio
A brief history of radioA brief history of radio
A brief history of radiomattsheard1
 
Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS
Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS
Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS Trinity Dwarka
 
Nature and scope of sub editing
Nature and scope of sub editingNature and scope of sub editing
Nature and scope of sub editingDr Shafayat Malik
 
Trends in-print media
Trends in-print mediaTrends in-print media
Trends in-print mediaAnand Marda
 
History of radio
History of radioHistory of radio
History of radiomanislcj
 
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)jatinvashisth1
 
Making a radio documentary
Making a radio documentaryMaking a radio documentary
Making a radio documentaryIestyn Williams
 
Community Video
Community VideoCommunity Video
Community VideoCEMCA
 
History of radio in india
History of radio in indiaHistory of radio in india
History of radio in indiaSonal Mane
 
ITFT-MEDIA Radio production
ITFT-MEDIA Radio productionITFT-MEDIA Radio production
ITFT-MEDIA Radio productionSurbhi Rishi
 
THE HISTORY OF RADIO
THE HISTORY OF RADIOTHE HISTORY OF RADIO
THE HISTORY OF RADIOrohimab
 

What's hot (20)

Newsroom structure
Newsroom structureNewsroom structure
Newsroom structure
 
Broadcasting Journalism & Production
Broadcasting  Journalism & ProductionBroadcasting  Journalism & Production
Broadcasting Journalism & Production
 
RADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTION
RADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTIONRADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTION
RADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTION
 
Radio news
Radio newsRadio news
Radio news
 
all india radio ppt
all india radio pptall india radio ppt
all india radio ppt
 
A brief history of radio
A brief history of radioA brief history of radio
A brief history of radio
 
Internet radio
Internet radioInternet radio
Internet radio
 
Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS
Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS
Radio Journalism & Production - RADIO FORMATS
 
Nature and scope of sub editing
Nature and scope of sub editingNature and scope of sub editing
Nature and scope of sub editing
 
Trends in-print media
Trends in-print mediaTrends in-print media
Trends in-print media
 
Radio interview
Radio interviewRadio interview
Radio interview
 
History of radio
History of radioHistory of radio
History of radio
 
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE)
 
Making a radio documentary
Making a radio documentaryMaking a radio documentary
Making a radio documentary
 
Community Video
Community VideoCommunity Video
Community Video
 
History of radio in india
History of radio in indiaHistory of radio in india
History of radio in india
 
ITFT-MEDIA Radio production
ITFT-MEDIA Radio productionITFT-MEDIA Radio production
ITFT-MEDIA Radio production
 
Radio documentary
Radio documentaryRadio documentary
Radio documentary
 
THE HISTORY OF RADIO
THE HISTORY OF RADIOTHE HISTORY OF RADIO
THE HISTORY OF RADIO
 
Public service radio in india
Public service radio in indiaPublic service radio in india
Public service radio in india
 

Similar to Radio

20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radio20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radiohwangboram
 
20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radio20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radiohwangboram
 
The Radio
The RadioThe Radio
The Radioiaristu
 
19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas
19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas
19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamasjaspereh
 
Overview of ITU’s History
Overview of ITU’s History Overview of ITU’s History
Overview of ITU’s History Dr Lendy Spires
 
History of telecommunication
History of telecommunication History of telecommunication
History of telecommunication Fluttar Shy
 
Bjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radio
Bjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radioBjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radio
Bjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radioRai University
 
Air tel 3 g operators
Air tel 3 g operatorsAir tel 3 g operators
Air tel 3 g operatorsluckydigital0
 
Telecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its historyTelecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its historymauriciodj1
 
Telecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its historyTelecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its historymauriciodj1
 
Radio 20072490 yoon jun
Radio 20072490 yoon junRadio 20072490 yoon jun
Radio 20072490 yoon jun준 윤
 
The Evolution of Microwave Communications
The Evolution of Microwave CommunicationsThe Evolution of Microwave Communications
The Evolution of Microwave CommunicationsAviat Networks
 

Similar to Radio (20)

The history of radio
The history of radioThe history of radio
The history of radio
 
Radio
RadioRadio
Radio
 
20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radio20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radio
 
20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radio20082563 hwangboram about the radio
20082563 hwangboram about the radio
 
Nadeem883
Nadeem883Nadeem883
Nadeem883
 
Nadeem883
Nadeem883Nadeem883
Nadeem883
 
Nadeem883
Nadeem883Nadeem883
Nadeem883
 
Guglielmo marconi 1
Guglielmo marconi 1Guglielmo marconi 1
Guglielmo marconi 1
 
Radio
RadioRadio
Radio
 
The Radio
The RadioThe Radio
The Radio
 
19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas
19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas
19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas
 
The history of radio new
The history of radio newThe history of radio new
The history of radio new
 
Overview of ITU’s History
Overview of ITU’s History Overview of ITU’s History
Overview of ITU’s History
 
History of telecommunication
History of telecommunication History of telecommunication
History of telecommunication
 
Bjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radio
Bjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radioBjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radio
Bjmc i-i, met, unit-iv, marconi, hertz and radio
 
Air tel 3 g operators
Air tel 3 g operatorsAir tel 3 g operators
Air tel 3 g operators
 
Telecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its historyTelecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its history
 
Telecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its historyTelecommunications and its history
Telecommunications and its history
 
Radio 20072490 yoon jun
Radio 20072490 yoon junRadio 20072490 yoon jun
Radio 20072490 yoon jun
 
The Evolution of Microwave Communications
The Evolution of Microwave CommunicationsThe Evolution of Microwave Communications
The Evolution of Microwave Communications
 

More from Ashish Richhariya (20)

Television and radio
Television and radioTelevision and radio
Television and radio
 
Advertising
AdvertisingAdvertising
Advertising
 
VISUAL COMMUNICATION
VISUAL COMMUNICATIONVISUAL COMMUNICATION
VISUAL COMMUNICATION
 
Visual communication (1)
Visual communication (1)Visual communication (1)
Visual communication (1)
 
Basics of photography
Basics of photography Basics of photography
Basics of photography
 
Preparing for production - Media Project Management
Preparing for production - Media Project ManagementPreparing for production - Media Project Management
Preparing for production - Media Project Management
 
Media project management Part (B)
Media project management  Part (B)Media project management  Part (B)
Media project management Part (B)
 
Media project management
Media project managementMedia project management
Media project management
 
Prasar bharti
Prasar bhartiPrasar bharti
Prasar bharti
 
Need of media in india
Need of media in indiaNeed of media in india
Need of media in india
 
History of Newspaper in India (Pre-Independence)
History of Newspaper in India (Pre-Independence)History of Newspaper in India (Pre-Independence)
History of Newspaper in India (Pre-Independence)
 
Theories of Mass Communication
Theories of Mass CommunicationTheories of Mass Communication
Theories of Mass Communication
 
Media & Press Acts
Media & Press Acts Media & Press Acts
Media & Press Acts
 
Newspapers History & Function
Newspapers History & FunctionNewspapers History & Function
Newspapers History & Function
 
Theories of mass communication
Theories of mass communicationTheories of mass communication
Theories of mass communication
 
Introduction to Televison
 Introduction to Televison Introduction to Televison
Introduction to Televison
 
Niche television programming
Niche television programmingNiche television programming
Niche television programming
 
TRP
TRPTRP
TRP
 
Photography -
Photography -Photography -
Photography -
 
NatyaShastra
NatyaShastraNatyaShastra
NatyaShastra
 

Recently uploaded

CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapitolTechU
 
Media Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations ClassMedia Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations ClassCorinne Weisgerber
 
John See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative StoryJohn See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative StoryAlan See
 
Depiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptx
Depiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptxDepiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptx
Depiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptxDrashtiJoshi21
 
2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptx
2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptx2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptx
2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Blue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdf
Blue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdfBlue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdf
Blue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdfAngelaAmparado
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesTushar Tank
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfElizabeth Walsh
 
Grantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff PDF.pdf
Grantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff  PDF.pdfGrantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff  PDF.pdf
Grantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff PDF.pdfTechSoup
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Narrative Exploration of New Categories at Mondelēz
Narrative Exploration of New Categories at MondelēzNarrative Exploration of New Categories at Mondelēz
Narrative Exploration of New Categories at MondelēzRay Poynter
 
Use integers to explore high and low places.pptx
Use integers to explore high and low places.pptxUse integers to explore high and low places.pptx
Use integers to explore high and low places.pptxchristianmathematics
 
Digital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptx
Digital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptxDigital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptx
Digital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptxJisc
 
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfD.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptxMetabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptxDr. Santhosh Kumar. N
 
Introduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptx
Introduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptxIntroduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptx
Introduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptxRenuka N Sunagad
 
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATIONUNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATIONSayali Powar
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
 
Media Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations ClassMedia Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations Class
 
John See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative StoryJohn See - Narrative Story
John See - Narrative Story
 
Caldecott Medal Book Winners and Media Used
Caldecott Medal Book Winners and Media UsedCaldecott Medal Book Winners and Media Used
Caldecott Medal Book Winners and Media Used
 
Depiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptx
Depiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptxDepiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptx
Depiction of Mythology in Western and Bollywood cinemas.pptx
 
2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptx
2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptx2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptx
2.15.24 Making Whiteness -- Baldwin.pptx
 
Blue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdf
Blue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdfBlue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdf
Blue Persuasive Writing English Essay Worksheet (1).pdf
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
 
Grantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff PDF.pdf
Grantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff  PDF.pdfGrantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff  PDF.pdf
Grantseeking Solo- Securing Awards with Limited Staff PDF.pdf
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
 
Narrative Exploration of New Categories at Mondelēz
Narrative Exploration of New Categories at MondelēzNarrative Exploration of New Categories at Mondelēz
Narrative Exploration of New Categories at Mondelēz
 
Use integers to explore high and low places.pptx
Use integers to explore high and low places.pptxUse integers to explore high and low places.pptx
Use integers to explore high and low places.pptx
 
Digital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptx
Digital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptxDigital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptx
Digital Storytelling Community Launch!.pptx
 
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfD.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
 
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
“ Importance of seed, seed structure & function ”.pptx
 
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
 
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptxMetabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
Metabolism of Galactose & fructose .pptx
 
Introduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptx
Introduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptxIntroduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptx
Introduction of General Pharmacology PPT.pptx
 
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATIONUNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION
 

Radio

  • 1. Radio – A tool for Communication Notes By : Ashish Richhariya Course : FTNMP / BMM Designation : Faculty at Thakur College Of Science & Commerce Query : arichhariya30@gmail.com
  • 2. Contents 1. Meaning 2. Timeline of Radio 3. Invention and History 4. Etymology 5. Radio technology 6. Radio communications 7. Applications 8. Regulations 9. Important tool in mass media. 10.Radio in India 11.Broadcasts 12.Broadcasting channels Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 3. Meaning of Radio. According to the Collins Dictionary:- Radio is the broadcasting of programmes for the public to listen to, by sending out signals from a transmitter. Another definition according to Merriam – Webster dictionary states: the wireless transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electromagnetic waves Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 4. Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are nothing but the electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are usually generated by an electronic device called a transmitter that is connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, and are in turn received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is now a days very widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radar, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 5. Radio communication Used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication. The Radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio in the transmitter. In radar, which is used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships, spacecraft and missiles, here radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, and the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR. In wireless radio remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, and keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 6. Timeline of radio December 1894: In Italy, Guglielmo Marconi conducts experiments in pursuit of building a wireless telegraph system based on Herzian Waves (radio), demonstrated a radio transmitter and receiver to his mother, a set-up that made a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench. Financed by his family, over the next year he works on adapting experimental equipment into a radio wave telegraphic transmitter and receiver system that could work over long distances. This is considered to be the first development of a radio system specifically for communication 1896: Marconi was awarded a patent for radio with British Patent 12039, Improvements in Transmitting Electrical Impulses and Signals and in Apparatus There-for. This is the initial patent for radio based wireless telegraphy. 1896: Bose goes to London on a lecture tour and meets Marconi, who was conducting wireless experiments for the British post office. 1897: Marconi establishes a radio station on the Isle of Wight, England. In the U.S. during 1897, Tesla applies for several wireless power patents. Those two patents were issued in early 1900. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 7. 1897: Although Australia's first officially recognized broadcast was made in 1906, some sources claim that there were transmissions in Australia in 1897, either conducted solely by Professor William Henry Bragg of Adelaide University or by Prof. Bragg in conjunction with G.W. Selby of Melbourne. 1898: Marconi opened the first radio factory, on Hall Street, Chelmsford, England, employing around 50 people. 1904: The U.S. Patent Office reversed its decision, awarding Marconi a patent for the invention of radio. 1916: First regular broadcasts on 9XM (now WHA) – Wisconsin state weather, delivered in Morse Code 1919: First clear transmission of human speech, (on 9XM) after experiments with voice (1918) and music (1917). 1920: Regular wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in Argentina, pioneered by the group around Enrique Telémaco Susini. 20 August 1920: E.W. Scripps's WWJ in Detroit received its commercial broadcasting license and started broadcasting. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 8. 31 August 1920: The first known radio news program was broadcast by station 8MK, the unlicensed predecessor of WWJ (AM) in Detroit, Michigan. October 1920: Westinghouse in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania became the first US commercial broadcasting station to be licensed when it was granted call letters KDKA. 1921: In Australia, Charles Maclurcan of 2CM commenced broadcasting Sunday night classical music concerts on the long wave band (214 kHz.), using seven watts. 26 February 1922: In California, Joseph Franklin Rutherford transmitted his first radio Bible sermon. 23 November 1923: 2SB was the first Australian station to be officially recognized. 23 May 1925 : First broadcast in Tbilisi, Georgia. 1933: FM radio was patented; Edwin H. Armstrong invented it. 1937: W1XOJ, the first experimental FM radio station, was granted a construction permit by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 9. 1954: Regency introduced a pocket transistor radio, the TR-1, powered by a "standard 22.5V Battery". 1960: Sony introduced their first transistorized radio, small enough to fit in a vest pocket, and able to be powered by a small battery. It was durable, because there were no tubes to burn out. 1970s: LORAN became the premier radio navigation system Early 1990s: Amateur radio experimenters began to use personal computers with audio cards to process radio signals. 1994: The U.S. Army and DARPA launched an aggressive successful project to construct a software radio that could become a different radio on the fly by changing software. Late 1990s: The digital transmissions began to be applied to broadcasting. 2015: It was reported that Cambridge Consultants had developed the first fully digital radio transmitter, followed by the first digital radio receiver in 2016. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 10. Invention Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 11. Discovered in 1904 by an Italian inventor named Guglielmo Marconi, born in Bologna, Italy in 1874. He was a physicist, inventor, and Noble Prize winner; credited for all technology relatable to the radio. The first effective radio communication was established by Marconi in the nineteen hundreds. By 1901, Marconi became the only person to successfully develop a sufficient wireless signal. Marconi won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1909. Marconi improved on Hertz’s experiments in a number of important ways. First, to the spark-gap transmitter he attached a Morse telegraph key, which could send out dot-dash signals. The electrical impulses traveled into a Morse inker, the machine that telegraphs operators used to record the dots and dashes onto narrow strips of paper. Second, Marconi discovered that grounding --- connecting the transmitter and receiver to the earth --- greatly increased the distance over which he could send signals. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 12. History After World War II, radio was the most reliable source of information and news. Historic events that were present during the age of radio were World War II and The Great Depression. Great shows such as: Amos and Andy, the Shadow, The Long Ranger, etc. were popular during the time. However, the most monumental show that made history was The War of the Worlds. The broadcast of The War of the Worlds became the highest rated radio broadcast in history, aired on October 30, 1938 ,grossing over a million listeners. Radio in this age was not of the portable medium. Prior to transistors and solid-state integrated circuits, most radio sets required large glass tubes housed in heavy wooden pieces of furniture. At the time, only a handful of stations operated in most large radio markets, and popular stations were affiliated with either CBS or one of the two NBC networks. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 13. A family gathered around a radio console, 1930s. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 14. Etymology The word "radio" is derived from the Latin word "radius", meaning "spoke of a wheel, beam of light, ray". It was first applied to communications in 1881 at the suggestion of French scientist Ernest Mercadier. Alexander Graham Bell adopted "radiophone" (meaning "radiated sound") as an alternate name for his photophone optical transmission system. After Heinrich Hertz's discovery of the existence of radio waves in 1886, a variety of terms were initially used for this radiation, including "Hertzian waves", "electric waves", and "ether waves". The first practical radio communications systems, developed by Guglielmo Marconi in 1894–5, transmitted telegraph signals by radio waves, so radio communication was first called "wireless telegraphy". Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 15. The radio- prefix was later used to form additional descriptive compound and hyphenated words, especially in Europe. For example, in early 1898 the British publication The Practical Engineer included a reference to "the radiotelegraph" and "radiotelegraphy“. The French text of both the 1903 and 1906 Berlin Radiotelegraphic Conventions includes the phrases "radiotélégraphique" and "radiotélégrammes“. The use of "radio" as a standalone word dates back to at least December 30, 1904, when instructions issued by the British Post Office for transmitting telegrams specified that "The word 'Radio'... is sent in the Service Instructions". This practice was universally adopted, and the word "radio" introduced internationally, by the 1906 Berlin Radiotelegraphic Convention. In recent years "wireless" has gained renewed popularity as a more general term for devices communicating using electromagnetic radiation, either radio waves or light, due to the rapid growth of short-range computer networking, e.g., wireless local area networks Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth, as well as cell phones, to distinguish these uses from traditional "radio" communication, such as broadcasting. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 16. Radio Technology Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration. They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna, thus accelerating. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency which is applied to an antenna. The antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current. The radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. Radio waves have the ability to pass through the atmosphere, foliage, and most building materials, and by diffraction can bend around obstructions, and unlike other electromagnetic waves they tend to be scattered rather than absorbed by objects larger than their wavelength. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 17. Radio communication In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal. The modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air. The information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 18. Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM (amplitude modulation) – in an AM transmitter, the amplitude (strength) of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM (frequency modulation) – in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK (frequency shift keying) – used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) – a family of complicated digital modulation methods very widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, cellphones, digital television broadcasting, and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. It has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 19. Applications 1. Broadcasting 2. Two way voice communication 3. One way voice communication 4. Data communication 5. Space communication 6. Radar 7. Remote Sensing 8. Scientific Research Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 20. Broadcasting is the one-way transmission of information from a radio transmitter to receivers belonging to a public audience. Since the radio waves become weaker with distance, a broadcasting station can only be received within a limited distance of its transmitter. Systems which broadcast from satellites can generally be received over an entire country or continent. In subscription systems like satellite television and satellite radio the customer pays a monthly fee and the radio signal is encrypted and can only be decrypted by the receiver, which is controlled by the company and can be deactivated if the customer doesn't pay his bill. Broadcasting Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 21. Broadcasting uses several parts of the radio spectrum, depending on the type of signals transmitted and the desired target audience. Longwave and medium wave signals can give reliable coverage of areas but have more limited information carrying capacity and so work best with audio signals (speech and music), and the sound quality can be degraded by radio noise from natural and artificial sources. The shortwave bands have greater potential range, but are more subject to interference by distant stations and varying atmospheric conditions that affect reception. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 22. Radio broadcasting Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. Signals can be either analog audio or digital audio. The earliest radio stations were radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 23. Stations A radio broadcasting station is usually associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission (sound and television) take place using both wires and radio waves. The point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. Types Broadcasting by radio takes several forms. These include AM and FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational (NCE) , public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and hospital radio stations can be found throughout the world. Many stations broadcast on shortwave bands using AM technology that can be received over thousands of miles (especially at night). For example, the BBC, VOA, VOR, and Deutsche Welle have transmitted via shortwave to Africa and Asia. These broadcasts are very sensitive to atmospheric conditions and solar activity. Nielsen Audio, formerly known as Arbitron, the United States-based company that reports on radio audiences, defines a "radio station" as a government-licensed AM or FM station. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 24. AM AM stations were the earliest broadcasting stations to be developed. AM refers to amplitude modulation, a mode of broadcasting radio waves by varying the amplitude of the carrier signal in response to the amplitude of the signal to be transmitted. The medium-wave band is used worldwide for AM broadcasting. Europe also uses the long wave band. In response to the growing popularity of FM stereo radio stations in the late 1980s and early 1990s, some North American stations began broadcasting in AM stereo, though this never gained popularity, and very few receivers were ever sold. The signal is subject to interference from electrical storms (lightning) and other electromagnetic interference (EMI). One advantage of AM radio signal is that it can be detected (turned into sound) with simple equipment. If a signal is strong enough, not even a power source is needed; building an unpowered crystal radio receiver was a common childhood project in the early decades of AM broadcasting. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 25. FM FM refers to frequency modulation, and occurs on VHF airwaves in the frequency range of 88 to 108 MHz everywhere except Japan and Russia. Russia, like the former Soviet Union, uses 65.9 to 74 MHz frequencies in addition to the world standard. Japan uses the 76 to 90 MHz frequency band. Edwin Howard Armstrong invented FM radio to overcome the problem of radio-frequency interference (RFI), which plagued AM radio reception. At the same time, greater fidelity was made possible by spacing stations further apart in the radio frequency spectrum. Instead of 10 kHz apart, as on the AM band in the US, FM channels are 200 kHz (0.2 MHz) apart. The improved fidelity made available was far in advance of the audio equipment of the 1940s, but wide interchannel spacing was chosen to take advantage of the noise-suppressing feature of wideband FM. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 26. The original FM radio service in the U.S. was the Yankee Network, located in New England. Regular FM broadcasting began in 1939 but did not pose a significant threat to the AM broadcasting industry. It required purchase of a special receiver. The frequencies used, 42 to 50 MHz, were not those used today. The change to the current frequencies, 88 to 108 MHz, began after the end of World War II and was to some extent imposed by AM broadcasters as an attempt to cripple what was by now realized to be a potentially serious threat. FM radio as a commercial venture, remained a little-used audio enthusiasts' medium until the 1960s. The more prosperous AM stations, or their owners, acquired FM licenses and often broadcast the same programming on the FM station as on the AM station ("simulcasting"). The FCC limited this practice in the 1960s. By the 1980s, since almost all new radios included both AM and FM tuners, FM became the dominant medium, especially in cities because of its greater range, AM remained more common in rural environments. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 27. If you want to start your own radio, you must register for an AM station or an FM station. The application must be submitted to the Federal Communications Commission (also known as FCC) electronically. Along with the submission of the application, there is a submission fee and several charges implemented during the application process. The FCC is a government operated company that develops regulations for radio, television, wire, satellite, cable, internet, and press. The registration application is the only application submitted electronically. The written applications are the construction permit and license. The construction permit is for the placement and construction of the station’s satellite. Both the license and construction permit can be obtained by the bidding process. After obtaining a station, license, and permit, a bid must be placed to obtain a radio frequency. This is the signal which the owner will broadcast a variety of entertainment and news. Starting A Radio Channel Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 28. Radio in India HISTORY OF RADIO IN INDIA Nov. 1923 – First radio club in Calcutta 16 May 1924 – Radio club in Madras 23 July 1927 – Bombay station 26 August 1927 – Calcutta radio station 15 July 1927 – First radio program journal “The India Radio’ 1930 – Indian broadcasting company handover Bombay station to government. It was renamed as ISBS (Indian State Broadcasting Station). 8 July 1936 – It renamed as AIR (All India Radio) 1952 – National program of music started 2 Oct. 1957 – Vividh Bharti launched 1967 – Commercials on AIR was started 23 July 1969 – Yuv vani launched 1976 – Doordarshan delinked from AIR (Chanda Committee 1964-66) 1974 – Sky radio channel concept launched. The enable subscribers to receive 20 radio channels via satellite on FM receivers. 1977 – First FM service launched in Madras Mid 1980s – Phone in program were experimented in Delhi, Pune and other cities 1988 – National channel launched 1990s – AIR on network of 219 centers, including 32 Vividh Bharti/ commercial station, 73 local countries, 114 regional channel. Over 6 radio sets were in rural households. AIR 300 news bulletins every day in national, regional and external services in different language. 1992 – FM broadcast started in Jalandhar 1993 – Privatization of FM 15 August 1993 – FM channel launched in Bombay by Times FM 1997 – Prasar Bharti came into existence 1998 – AIR news on telephone and AIR radio on internet. Till now AIR covers 90% of geographical area and 97% population. 1998 to present – many new channels have been added. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 29. The FM broadcasting in India began in 1977, but boomed after 2001 when the privatization of FM broadcasting began. As of December 2018, there are more than 369 operational private radio stations in more than 101 cities and towns across India. The Government of India-owned All India Radio has about 450 FM stations covering 39% of the area and 52% of the population of India. FM broadcasting in India Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 30. History of broadcasting in india FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, then Madras, and was expanded during the 1990s, nearly 50 years after it mushroomed in the US. The country first experimented with private FM broadcasts in the small tourist destination of Goa and the large metropolitan areas of Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. These were followed by private stations in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Jaipur and Lucknow. Until 1993, All India Radio, a government undertaking, was the only radio broadcaster in India. The government then decided to privatize the radio broadcasting sector. It sold airtime blocks on its FM channels in Indore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Vizag and Goa to private operators, who developed their own program content. The Times Group operated its brand, Times FM, till June 1998. After that, the government decided not to renew contracts given to private operators. Instead, in 2000, the government announced the auction of 108 FM frequencies across India, opening up the FM broadcasting industry to private competition. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 31. Radio City Bangalore, started on July 3, 2001, is India's first private FM radio station. It launched with presenters such as Vera, Rohit Barker, Seetal Iyer, Jonzie Kurian, Geeta Modgil, Suresh Venkat, and Chaitanya Hegde and Priya Ganapathy on the weekends. The Times Group rebranded their radio operations, establishing the Radio Mirchi brand. The first Radio Mirchi station began broadcasting on October 4, 2001 in Indore. Indian policy currently states that these broadcasters are assessed a one-time entry fee (OTEF), for a license period of 10 years. Under the Indian accounting system, this amount is amortized over the 10-year period at 10% per annum. The annual license fee for private broadcasters is either 4% of revenue share or 10% of reserve price, whichever is higher. India's earlier attempts to privatize its FM channels ran into rough weather when private players bid heavily and most could not meet their commitments to pay the government the amounts they owed. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 32. Broadcasting Channels Name Frequency Language Radio Jamia 90.4 MHz Multilingual Delhi University Community Radio 90.4 MHz Multilingual Radio SD 90.8 90.8 MHz Hindi Radio City 91.1 MHz Multilingual Big FM 92.7 MHz Multilingual Red FM 93.5 MHz Multilingual Radio One 94.3 MHz English Hit FM 95.0 MHz Hindi Apna Radio (Indian Institute of Mass Communication) 96.9 MHz Multilingual Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz Multilingual AIR FM Gold 100.1 MHz Multilingual AIR FM Rainbow 102.6 MHz Hindi Fever 104 104.0 MHz Hindi 104.8 Ishq 104.8 MHz Hindi Gyan Vani 105.6 MHz Hindi Vividh Bharti (All India Radio) 106.4 MHz Hindi Radio Nasha 107.2 MHz Hindi Noida FM 107.4 MHz Hindi Gurgaon Ki Awaz 107.8 MHz Hindi National Capital Region Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 33. Bansal FM 95.5 Vividh Bharati Jago Mumbai 90.8 Radio City 91.1 FM Big FM 92.7 Red FM 93.5 Radio One 94.3 (Only English Radio station of Mumbai) Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM Radio Dhamaal 106.4 AIR FM Gold 100.7 RAINBOW FM 102.2 Fever 104 FM 104.0 Oye 104.8 104.8 AIR FM Rainbow 107.1 Mumbai One Redtro 106.4 Gyan Vani Radio MUST Mumbai, Maharashtra Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 34. Radio City 91.1 FM - Kannada Indigo 91.9 FM FM - (English, Devotional) Big 92.7 FM - Kannada Red FM 93.5 FM - Hindi Radio ONE FM 94.3 - English Mirchi 95 95 FM - Hindi[14] Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM Kannada Ragam 100.1 FM (Classical) FM Rainbow 101.3 FM (Kannada, Hindi, English) Vividh Bharti 102.9 FM (Kannada, Hindi) Fever FM 104 FM (Hindi) Radio Active Community Radio 106.4 FM (Kannada, English, Hindi) Bengaluru, Karnataka Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 35. Radio Mirchi - 98.3 FM (Times Group) My FM - 94.3 FM D B Corp Ltd. Red FM - 93.5 FM (Sun Group Radio City - 91.1 FM (Music Broadcast Limited) Radio One - 95.0 FM (Only Bollywood Retro Station of Ahmedabad) AIR Vividh Bharati - 96.7 FM (All India Radio) Micavaani - 90.4 FM (Mudra Institute of Communications) AIR Gyan Vaani - 105.4 FM (All India Radio) Mirchi Love - 104 FM (Times Group) All India radio - 100.1 FM Radio Nazariya - 107.8 FM (Drishti) Ahmedabad, Gujarat Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 36. All India Radio All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Akashvani ("Voice from the Sky"), is the national public radio broadcaster of India and is a division of Prasar Bharati. It was established in 1936. It is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, an Indian television broadcaster. Headquartered in the Akashvani Bhavan building in New Delhi, it houses the Drama Section, the FM Section, the National Service, and is also home to the Indian television station Doordarshan Kendra, (Delhi). All India Radio is the largest radio network in the world, and one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the number of languages broadcast and the spectrum of socio-economic and cultural diversity it serves. AIR’s home service comprises 420 stations located across the country, reaching nearly 92% of the country’s area and 99.19% of the total population. AIR originates programming in 23 languages and 179 dialects. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 37. Etymology Ākāśavānī (आकाशवाणी) is a Sanskrit word meaning 'celestial announcement' or 'voice from the sky/heaven'. In Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, Akashvanis are often featured in stories as a medium of communication from heaven to mankind. 'Akashvani' was first used in the context of radio by M. V. Gopalaswami in 1936 after setting up India's first private radio station in his residence, "Vittal Vihar" (about two hundred yards from AIR’s current Mysore radio station). Akashvani was later adopted as All India Radio's on-air name in 1957. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 38. Broadcasting began in June 1923 during the British Raj with programs by the Bombay Presidency Radio Club and other radio clubs. According to an agreement on 23 July 1927, the private Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd (IBC) was authorized to operate two radio stations: the Bombay station which began on 23 July 1927, and the Calcutta station which followed on 26 August 1927. The company went into liquidation on 1 March 1930. The government took over the broadcasting facilities and began the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on 1 April 1930 on an experimental basis for two years, and permanently in May 1932 it then went on to become All India Radio on 8 June 1936. History of AIR Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 39. On 1 October 1939, the External Service began with a broadcast in Pushtu and was intended to counter radio propaganda from Germany directed at Afghanistan, Persia and Arab nations. 1939 also saw the opening of the Dhaka station of Eastern India, now Bangladesh. This station catered and nurtured the pioneers of Bengali intellectuals. The foremost among them, Natyaguru Nurul Momen, became the trail-blazer of the talk-show in 1939 who wrote and directed the first modern radio-play for this station in 1942. When India became independent in 1947, the AIR network had only six stations (Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Lucknow, and Tiruchirappalli). The three radio stations at Lahore,Peshawar and Dhaka remained in what became Pakistan after the division. The total number of radio sets in India at that time was about 275,000. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 40. On 3 October 1957, the Vividh Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon. Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was split off from the radio network asDoordarshan on 1 April 1976. FM broadcasting began on 23 July 1977 in Chennai, and expanded during the 1990s. Deccan Radio (Nizam Radio 1932), the first radio station in Hyderabad State (now Hyderabad, India), went live on air on 3 February 1935. It was launched by Mir Osman Ali Khanthe the 7th Nizam of Hyderabad with a transmitting power of 200 Watts. On 1 April 1950, Deccan Radio was taken over by the Indian Government, and in 1956 it was merged with All India Radio (AIR). Since then, it has been known as AIR-Hyderabad (100 kW). Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 41. Services of AIR AIR has many services in a number of languages, each serving different regions across India. Vividh Bharati Vividh Bharati is one of the best-known services of All India Radio. Its name roughly translates as "Diverse Indian". It is also known as the Commercial Broadcasting Service or CBS. Commercially, it is the most accessible AIR network and is popular in Mumbai and other large cities. Offers a wide range of programs including news, film music, short plays, music and comedy. It operates on different medium wave-band as well as FM frequencies in each city. Some programs broadcast on Vividh Bharati are: Hawa-mahal: Radio plays based on novels and plays Santogen ki mehfil: Comedy Regional services The headquarters of the Regional Deputy Directors General are located in Delhi and Chandigarh (NR), Lucknow and Bhopal (CR), Guwahati (NER), Kolkata (ER), Mumbai and Ahmedabad (WR), Chennai and Bangalore (SR). Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 42. External services The external services of All India Radio are broadcast in 27 languages to countries outside India. In addition to broadcasts targeted at specific countries by language, there is a General Overseas Service broadcasting in English with 8¼ hours of programming each day aimed at a general international audience. The external broadcasts were begun on 1 October 1939 by the British government to counter the propaganda of the Nazis directed at the Afghan people. The first broadcasts were in Pushto, beamed to Afghanistan and the North-West Frontier Province. Broadcasts soon began in other languages including: Dari, Persian, Arabic, English, Burmese, Japanese, Chinese, Malay and French. The external services broadcast in 16 foreign and 11 Indian languages gave a total program output of 70¼ hours per day on medium and shortwave frequencies. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 43. Two high powered FM stations of All India Radio are being installed in Amritsar and Fazilka in the Punjab to supplement the programs broadcast from transmitters operating from different cities and to improve the broadcast services during unfavourable weather conditions in the border regions of Punjab. Today, the External Services Division of All India Radio broadcasts daily with 57 transmissions with almost 72 hours or programming covering over 108 countries in 27 languages, of which 15 are foreign and 12 Indian. The foreign languages are: Arabic, Baluchi, Burmese, Chinese, Dari, French, Indonesian, Persian, Pushtu, Russian, Sinhala, Swahili, Thai, Tibetan and English (General Overseas Service). The Indian languages are Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Konkani, Kashmiri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Nepali, Punjabi, Saraiki, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 44. The longest daily broadcast is the Urdu Service to Pakistan, around the clock on DTH (direct-broadcast satellite) and on short- and medium wave for 12¼ hrs. During Hajj, there are special broadcasts beamed to Saudi Arabia in Urdu. AIR is planning to produce programmes in the Baluchi language. The external services of AIR are also broadcast to Europe in DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) on 9950 kHz between 1745–2230 UTC. These external transmissions are broadcast by high-power transmitters located at Aligarh, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Mumbai and Panaji on shortwave and from Jalandhar, Kolkata, Nagpur, Rajkot and Tuticorin on medium wave. Soon All India Radio Amritsar will also start a booster service on the FM band. Some of these transmitters are 1000 kW (1 MW) or 500 kW. Programs are beamed to different parts of the world except for the Americas and the reception quality is very good in the target areas Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 45. Direct-To-Home Direct-to-home (DTH) service is a satellite broadcast service in which a large number of radio channels are digitally beamed down over a territory from a high-power satellite. AIR broadcasts various national and regional stations available to listen on DD Free Dish. The DTH signals can be received directly at homes using a small-sized dish receiver unit containing a dish antenna installed on a building’s rooftop or on a wall facing clear south and one indoors. DTH service is offered on twenty one channels via Insat. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 46. Other services Digital Radio Mondiale News-on-phone All India Radio launched news-on-phone service on 25 February 1998 in New Delhi; it now has service in Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna and Bangalore. The service is accessible through Subscriber trunk dialing (STD), International Direct Dialing (ISD) and local calls. Documentaries There is a long tradition of broadcasting documentary features on AIR. There is great interest in radio documentaries, particularly in countries like India, Iran, South Korea and Malaysia. The most prominent broadcaster of English Features was Melville de Mellow, and of Hindi Features, Shiv Sagar Mishra. This format has been revived by AIR producers across India because of its flexibility, its relative low cost to produce, its messaging potential and its creative potential. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 47. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai Central Drama Unit AIR's Central Drama Unit (CDU) is responsible for the national broadcast of plays. Plays produced by the CDU are translated and produced by regional stations. Since its inception in the 1960s, the unit has produced more than 1,500 plays, and the CDU houses a repository of old scripts and productions. The National Programme of Plays is broadcast by the CDU on the fourth Thursday of each month at 9.30 pm. Each play included in the National Programme of Plays is produced in 22 Indian languages and broadcast at the same time by all regional and national network stations. The CDU also produces Chain Plays, half-hour dramas broadcast in succession by a chain of stations. Social Media Cell The News Service Division's Social Media Cell was established on 20 May 2013 and is responsible for providing AIR news on new media platforms such as websites, Twitter, Facebook, and SMS.
  • 48. Milestones of AIR The phenomenal growth achieved by All India Radio through decades has made it one of the largest media organizations in the world. Today AIR reaches out to 99.18% of the population spread over about 91.85% of the area through 262 broadcasting Centres. The inception can be traced back to the enforcement of the Telegraph Act on October1, 1885. Major landmarks of broadcasting are as below: 1920s June, 1923 : Broadcast of programmes by the Radio Club of Bombay. November, 1923 : Calcutta Radio Club put out programmmes. July 31,1924 : Broadcasting Service initiated by the Madras Presidency Radio Club. July 23,1927 : Indian Broadcast Company (IBC), Bombay Station inaugurated by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India. August 26,1927 : Calcutta Station of IBC inaugurated. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 49. 1930s March 1, 1930 : IBC went into liquidation. April 1,1930 : Indian State Broadcasting Service under Department of Industries and Labour commenced on experimental basis. March,1935 : Post of "Controller of Broadcast" innstituted. August 30,1935 : Lionel Fielden appointed the first controller of Broadcasting in India. September 10,1935 : Akashvani Mysore, a private radio station, set up. January 19,1936 : First news bulletin broadcast from AIR. June 8, 1936 : Indian State Broadcasting Service became All India Radio. August 1,1937 : Central News Organisation came into existence. November,1937 : AIR came under Department of Communication. October 1,1939 : External Service started with Pushtu broadcast. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 50. 1940s October 24,1941 : AIR came under the Department of I&B. January 1,1942 : Akashvani Mysore was taken over by Maharaja of Mysore. February 23,1946 : AIR came under the Department of Information & Arts. September 10,1946 : Department of Information and Arts changed to Department of Information and Broadcasting. 1947 (at the time of partition): Six Radio Stations in India (Delhi,Bombay,Calcutta,Madras, Tiruchirapalli and Lucknow) and three Radio Stations in Pakistan (Peshawar, Lahore and Dacca). September, 1948 : Central News Organisation (CNO) was split up into two Divisions, News Service Division and External Service Division (ESD). 1950s July 20,1952 : First National Programme of Music broadcast from AIR. July 29,1953 : National Programme of Talks (English) commenced from AIR. 1954 : First Radio Sangeet Sammelan held. August 15,1956 : National Programme of Play commenced. October 3,1957 : Vividh Bharati Services started. November 1, 1959 : First TV Station in Delhi started as part of AIR. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 51. 1960s November 1,1967 : Commercials on Vividh Bharati introduced. July 21, 1969 : Yuv-Vani service started from Delhi. August 15, 1969 : 1000 KW Superpower Medium Wave Transmitter commissioned at Calcutta (Mogra). 1970s January 8,1971 : 1000 KW Superpower Medium Wave Transmitter commissioned at Rajkot. 1974 : Akashvani Annual Awards instituted. April 1, 1976 : Doordarshan separated from AIR. 1977 : Introduction of political party broadcasts. July 23, 1977 : First ever FM Service was inaugurated from Madras. 1980s May,1983 : AIR Baroda became a CBS station. September 14,1984 : Two High Power 250 KW shortwave transmitters inaugurated at Aligarh. October 30,1984 : First Local Station at Nagarcoil started. January 26,1985 : Commercials on Primary Channel introduced. August 15,1985 : Introduction of hourly news bulletins. 1985 : All AIR Stations were provided with 5 channel satellite receiver terminals. May 18,1988 : Introduction of National Channel. April 8,1989 : Commissioning of Integrated North East Service. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 52. 1990s March 2, 1990 : The 100th Station of AIR commissioned at Warangal (A.P.). March 10,1990 : Two 500 KW Superpower short wave transmitters Inaugurated at Bangalore. 1990 : AIR introduced Lassa Kaul Award for the best production on the theme of National Integration. 1990 : AIR introduced Award for the best News Correspondent of the year. October 2,1991 : Vividh Bharti Panaji became a CBS Channel. October 2, 1992 : Commissioning of FM Channel at Jalandhar. January 10,1993 : Introduction of Phone-in-programme at AIR Delhi. January 28,1993 : Commissioning of VB Channel at Varanasi. April 1, 1993 : The150th Station of AIR inaugurated at Berhampur (Orissa). August 15,1993 : Introduction of selling of Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Delhi - Mumbai. September 1,1993 : Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Chennai. April 1, 1994 : Sky Radio became operational. July 25,1994 : Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Kolkata. September 10,1994 : Multi Track Recording Studio commissioned at Mumbai. September 28,1994 : Four 500 KW Superpower shortwave transmitters at Bangalore,inaugurated making Bangalore one of the biggest transmitting centres in the world. November 13,1994 : Time Slot s on FM Channel to private parties at Panaji. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 53. January 15,1995 : Radio paging service inaugurated. August 5,1995 : Multi-track recording studios inaugurated at Chennai. 1995 : AIR introduced Akashvani Awards for best Audience Research Survey Report. February 1,1996 : Foundation stone laid for new Broadcasting House in Delhi. May 2,1996 : Launching of AIR on-line Information Service on Internet. January 13,1997 : Audio in real time on Internet Service started. November 23,1997 : Prasar Bharati Corporation came into existence. January 26,1998 : Radio on Demand’ Service on 2nd FM Channel. February 25,1998 : AIR news on telephone, live on internet. April,1998 : Sale of Time Slots on FM stopped. August 29,1998 : Prasar Bharati Bill was passed by Lok Sabha on 31.7.1998 made operational through an ordinance. June,1999 : Shri R.R.Shah, IAS, named officiating Member Executive. Private FM Channels announced by GOI. August 15,1999 : Radio Station commissioned at Kokrajhar in Bodo Land Autonomous Council Areas. August 15,1999 : Second FM Channels commissioned at Delhi and Calcutta. November, 1999 : AIR launched a daily Malayalam Service for the Gulf Region. It consists of a 10 mts. News Bulletins at 2315 hrs. followed by a 5 mts. Commentary on a topical issue. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 54. 2000-2007 February 11, 2000 : Introduction of VB Channel at AIR Jabalpur. March 13, 2000 : Radio Station commissioned at Dhubri in Bodo Land Autonomous Council Area. March 24, 2000 : Introduction of VB Channel at AIR, Jammu. June, 2000 : Community Radio Stations commissioned at Nongstoin & William Nagar in (Meghalaya), Saiha (Mizoram), Tuensang and Mon in Nagaland. July 17,2000 : Regional Staff Training Institute (Tech.) started functioning at Bhubaneshwar (Orissa) August 15,2000 : Introduction of VB Channel at AIR, Coimbatore. September 3, 2000 : Introduction of VB Channel at AIR,Jamshedpur. February 7,2001 : Radio Station commissioned at Gopeshwar (Chamoli) in the newly created State of Uttaranchal. September 1, 2001 : AIR launched Infotainment channels, FM-II, at the four metro’s.,Chennai,Delhi.,Kolkata Mumbai. November 12, 2001 : This day declared as The Public Service Broadcasting day to commemorate Gandhji’s visit to AIR. Museum of Radio and Doordarshan inaugurated. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 55. February 27, 2002 : AIR launched its first ever digital satellite home service to cater to the Indian sub-continent and South East Asia. July 2002 : 75 years of Broadcasting celebrated. April 2003 : Marketing Division of Prasar Bharati inaugurated. January 26th, 2004 : Bhasha Bharati channel of AIR launched at Delhi. January 26th, 2004 : Classical Music channel launched at Bangalore. February 19, 2004 : Shri Brijeshwar Singh, IAS took over as DG:AIR. March 29th, 2004 : National Artists Awards ceremony held at Hyderabad. April 1st, 2004 : Launch of Kisan Vani Programme from 12 stations. May 25, 2004 : 20KW MW transmission at Kupwara Commissioned to strengthen Radio coverage in the border area of J&K. September 6, 2004 : Min. of Information & Broadcasting laid foundation stone for 10 KW FM transmitter at Vijayawada. December 16,2004 : Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh inaugurated DTH Service of AIR & Doordarshan. :12 AIR channels in different regional languages from various state capitals made available countrywide through the KU Band on DTH platform of Prasar Bharati. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 56. 15th June,2005 : FM transmitter commionsioned at Port Blair, Himmatnager, Saraipalli, Mandla, Rajgarh, Agartala and Imphal. 9th July,2005 : 1 kW FM transmitter commissioned at Shimla. 15th Aug, 2005 : FM transmitter commisioned at Udaipur, Rohtak, Gulbarga, Aurangabad and Madurai. 23rd Aug, 2005 : New Broadcasting House equipped with digital studio setup for News Service Division, External Service and Home Service inaugurated by Hon’ble Minister of I&B and Culture. 2nd Sept, 2005 : 1 kW FM transmitter commissioned at Gorakhpur. 23rd Decmeber,2005 : 1 kW FM transmitter commissioned at Deogarh in Orissa. 25th December,2005 : 5 kW FM transmitter commissioned at both Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh and Kurseong in West Bengal. 27th December,2005 : 10 kW FM transmitter commissioned at Shillong in Meghalaya and 1kW transmitter commissioned at Darjeeling in West Bengal. 15th & 16th Feb-06 : Commonwealth Broadcasting Association conference held at Delhi. 17th June, 2006 : 1 KW FM transmitter commissioned at Vijayawada (AP). 30th June, 2006 : Uplinking of DTH channel increased from 12 to 20. 11th July, 2006 : 1KW FM transmitter commissioned at Kanpur (UP). 1st Sept, 2006 : 200 KW MW transmitter commissioned at Kargil (J&K).1KW MW transmitters commissioned at Drass & Tiesuru (J&K). 2nd October, 2006 : 20 KW MW transmitter commissioned at Kota (Raj.) Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 57. Jan-2007 to Dec-2007 New Stations with FM Transmitters commisioned at Tamilnadu),Dharampur(Macherla(AndhraPradesh) and Aurangabad (Bihar). FM Transmitters commissioned at existing stations at Itanagar (ArunachalPradesh), Aizawl (Mizoram), Kohima (Nagaland), Baripada (Orissa), Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) and Puducherry. Existing FM Transmitters at Chennai i.e. 5 KW FM Tr. of FM Gold and 10 KW FM Tr. of FM Rainbow replaced by 20 KW FM Transmitters. Existing 5 KW FM Tr. of FM Gold service at Kolkata replaced by 20 KW FM Transmitter. New station with 1 KW MW Transmitter commissioned at Soro (Orissa). Existing 100 KW MW Transmitters at Delhi & Raipur (Chhatisgarh) replaced with new state-of-the art technology transmitters. As part of J&K special package for boosting border coverage, new Stations with 1 KW MW Transmitters at Nyoma & Diskit in Leh region commissioned. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 58. Jan-2008 to Dec-2008 FM Transmitter at Leh (J&K) commissioned. A 200 KW MW Transmitter commissioned replacing 100 KW MW Transmitter.at Najibabad. As part of J&K speacial package for boosting border coverage, a new station with 1KW MW Transmitter commissioned. at Padum in Kargil. With this all the 12 projects included in J&K special package Phase-1 commissioned. Digital Captive Earth Stations at Leh, Varanasi, Rohtak and Aurangabad commissioned. New uplink stations at Dehradun and Silchar under implementation. A new DTH Channel, Radio Kashmir, Srinagar added in the Direct to Home Service of AIR. There are now 21 radio channel available countrywide through the KU Band DTH Platform of Prasar Bharati (DD +), benefitting the listeners all over India. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 59. Jan-2009 to Dec-2009 New station with 5 KW FM Transmitter commissioned at Oras (Sindhudurganagry) in Maharashtra. Computerization of AIR stations and offices in progress to facilitate online exchange of information and improvement of efficiency. Permanent studio facilities equipped with Digital equipment and computerized Hard Disc Work Stations for recording, dubbing, editing & playback provided at Jaipur (Raj) & Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh). Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 60. Jan-2010 to Dec-2010 An exclusive dedicated FM channel "AIR FM DILLI" with one KW transmitter installed at AIR Broadcasting House Delhi. This channel was available on 100.1 MHZ in National Capital Region. The following new transmitters were installed: Churachandpur (Manipur)-6 KW FM Tr., Studio & S/Qrs. Bharmour (Himachal Pradesh)- 100 W FM Tr., Keylong (Himachal Pradesh)- 100 W FM Tr., Ooty (Tamilnadu)- 100 W FM Tr., Thanjavur (Tamilnadu)- 100 W FM Tr. AIR ‘News on Phone’ Service made available at 14 places i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Patna, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Bangalore, Thiuvananthapuram, Imphal, Lucknow , Raipur, Guwahati, and Shimla. Jan-2011 to Dec-2011 Coverage of World Cup Cricket. FM Gold started 24 Hours Service from 2nd October, 2011. 2012 Bangladesh recognizes Akashvani for its contribution in Bangladesh Liberation War on 27th March, 2012 at Dhaka. Sh. L. D. Mandloi, DG, AIR received the award at a special ceremony in Dhaka. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 61. A two-way radio is an audio transceiver, a receiver and transmitter in the same device, used for bidirectional person-to-person voice communication with other users with similar radios. An older term for this mode of communication is radiotelephony. The radio link may be half-duplex, as in a walkie-talkie, using a single radio channel in which only one radio can transmit at a time, so different users take turns talking, pressing a "push to talk" button on their radio which switches off the receiver and switches on the transmitter. Or the radio link may be full duplex, a bidirectional link using two radio channels so both people can talk at the same time, as in a cell phone. Examples of Two way Voice Communication system are: CellPhones, Satellite Phones, Cord-less Phone or a Land –Line telephone, Land mobile radio system, Walkie-talkie , Airband, Marine radio, Amateur radio. Two way voice communication Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 62. One way, unidirectional radio transmission is called simplex. Baby monitor – this is a cribside appliance for parents of infants that transmits the baby's sounds to a receiver carried by the parent, so they can monitor the baby while they are in other parts of the house. Wireless microphone – a battery powered microphone with a short-range transmitter which is handheld or worn on a person's body which transmits its sound by radio to a nearby receiver unit connected to a sound system. Wireless microphones are used by public speakers, performers, and television personalities so they can move freely without trailing a microphone cord. One way voice communication Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 63. Data communications Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radiowave, microwave, or infrared signal. Analog or analogue transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited set of continuously varying waveforms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation method. The passband modulation and corresponding demodulation (also known as detection) is carried out by modem equipment. Examples: Wireless networking, Wireless LAN, Wireless WAN, Bluetooth, Packet radio, Text messaging, Microwave relay, Telemetry, Radio Frequency Identification, Submarine communication Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 64. Space communication This is radio communication between a spacecraft and an Earth-based ground station, or another spacecraft. Communication with spacecraft involves the longest transmission distances of any radio links, up to billions of kilometers for interplanetary spacecraft. In order to receive the weak signals from distant spacecraft, satellite ground stations use large parabolic "dish" antennas up to 25 metres (82 ft) in diameter and extremely sensitive receivers. High frequencies in the microwave band are used, since microwaves pass through the ionosphere without refraction, and at microwave frequencies the high gain antennas needed to focus the radio energy into a narrow beam pointed at the receiver are small and take up a minimum of space in a satellite. A radio link which transmits data from the Earth's surface to a spacecraft is called an uplink, while a link which transmits data from the spacecraft to the ground is called a downlink. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 65. Radar is a radiolocation method used to locate and track aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, ships, vehicles, and also to map weather patterns and terrain. A radar set consists of a transmitter and receiver. The transmitter emits a narrow beam of radio waves which is swept around the surrounding space. When the beam strikes a target object, radio waves are reflected back to the receiver. The direction of the beam reveals the object's location. Since radio waves travel at a constant speed close to the speed of light, by measuring the brief time delay between the outgoing pulse and the received "echo", the range to the target can be calculated. The targets are often displayed graphically on a map display called radar screen. Radar Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 66. Remote sensing – in radio, remote sensing is the reception of electromagnetic waves radiated by natural objects or the atmosphere for scientific research. All warm objects emit microwaves and the spectrum emitted can be used to determine temperature. Microwave radiometers are used in meteorology and earth sciences to determine temperature of the atmosphere and earth surface, as well as chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Remote sensing Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 67. Radio astronomy is the scientific study of radio waves emitted by astronomical objects. Radio astronomers use radio telescopes, large radio antennas and receivers, to receive and study the radio waves from astronomical radio sources. Since astronomical radio sources are so far away, the radio waves from them are extremely weak, requiring extremely sensitive receivers, and radio telescopes are the most sensitive radio receivers in existence. Scientific Research Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 68. Important tool in mass media During the 1930s, radio was considered an intimate and credible medium. The public used it as a news source and expected it to provide factual information. Radio was the first truly mass medium of communication, reaching millions of people instantly and altering social attitudes, family relationships, and how people related to their environment. Radio is an attractive medium among the various mass communication media because of its special characteristics. It continues to be as relevant and potent as it was in the early years despite the emergence of more glamorous media. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 69. It is a truism that in the first phase of broadcasting spanning three decades from the early twenties, radio reigned alone or was the dominant player. However, despite the presence of a plethora of media, there is room and scope for each medium. Experience has revealed that ‘new technologies add things on but they don’t replace’. One medium is not displaced by another – each medium reinvents itself in the context of changes in the communication environment. In the changed media scenario, radio is reorienting itself with more innovative programmes and formats. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai
  • 70. Thanks! I am done now you need to revise. Thakur College Of Science & Commerce , Mumbai