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How does SACE Psychology relate to the real world? Margaret Hartstone Discipline Senior Clinical Psychologist  Northern Me...
Why Teach Psychology? <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology as a career </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology’s place in S...
Psychology as a career <ul><li>In SA there are 720 members of the SA branch of the Australian Psychological Society (+ som...
Psychology as a career <ul><li>Academic Researcher and/or teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Practising psychologist “specialties” ...
Psychology as a career <ul><li>A career as a psychologist in Australia requires 6 or 7 years of study: </li></ul><ul><li>3...
What is the  “real world” like? <ul><li>Internet quiz open to US residents aged 13 and over.  http://www.quizrocket.com/ho...
<ul><li>2. What's your kissing technique like? </li></ul><ul><li>A light approach and a strong finish  </li></ul><ul><li>L...
<ul><li>4. Which TV character do you swear is based on YOU in real life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rachel (Friends)-sexy in th...
http://quiz.ivillage.com/uk_relationships/tests/happy.htm topics Sex Family & Friends Divorce Marriage Couples Single & Da...
http://quiz.ivillage.com/uk_relationships/tests/happy.htm Most Viewed Horoscopes   Competitions   Cool baby names   Health...
<ul><li>What constitutes the “real world” of our students? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the study of Psychology different from thi...
Psychology’s place in SACE  <ul><li>SACE is designed to enable students to: </li></ul><ul><li>develop the capabilities to ...
Psychology’s place in SACE <ul><li>Psychology straddles the sciences and the humanities … </li></ul><ul><li>SACE Psycholog...
Psychology’s place in SACE:  Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><li>“ the skills learned thro...
Psychology’s place in SACE:  Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><ul><li>Psychology uses the s...
Numeracy in Psychology <ul><li>Students have opportunities to develop specific numeracy skills through their learning in P...
Literacy skills in Psychology <ul><li>Students have opportunities to develop specific literacy skills through their learni...
Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology also addresses ...
Personal Development in Psychology <ul><li>Growing capacity / personal development in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>(fo...
Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>However, acquiring knowledge,...
“ Real world” Psychology: “Real world” Ethical issues  <ul><li>Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics </li></ul><...
“ Real world” Psychology: “Real world” Ethical issues  <ul><li>Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics </li></ul><...
“ Real world” Psychology: “Real world” Ethical issues  <ul><li>Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics </li></ul><...
Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues  <ul><li>Being a Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are accustomed to situa...
Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Professional Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers of Psychology may be ...
Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Disclosure and Discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should create ...
Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Any personal information disclose...
Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Content issues </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing information about suic...
3 Caveats for students: A  little knowledge can be a dangerous thing <ul><li>Students should be reminded that the informat...
Why Teach Psychology <ul><li>SACE subject </li></ul><ul><li>SACE science </li></ul><ul><li>Social relevance </li></ul><ul>...
Four levels of explanation: Level  of explanation Biological focuses on the biological and chemical processes underlying b...
Four levels of explanation: “real world” behaviour Level of explanation Example: Interpersonal Aggression Biological might...
Four levels of explanation: ethics Level of explanation Research and practice ethics Biological consider the ethics of usi...
Psychology’s relevance to the real world:   “Do I have depression?” Biological Basic Processes Individual differences Soci...
Psychology’s relevance to the real world:   “Do I have depression? How do I fix it?” Biological Basic Processes Individual...
Towards a healthy mind… <ul><li>Dan Siegel suggests that a healthy mind has acquired: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to ...
Towards a healthy mind… <ul><li>Dan Siegel suggests that a healthy mind has 9 capacities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>influence ...
SACE Psychology <ul><li>These 8 topics are offered in Stage 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Psychology (compulsory to...
SACE Psychology <ul><li>The following six topics are offered in Stage 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Psychology (com...
<ul><li>The role of the teacher of psychology is to present, structure and reinforce the acquisition of these abilities: <...
<ul><li>The student who wants to acquire competence in Psychology needs to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the structure...
Making the study of Psychology relevant to the real world: an example <ul><li>“ Alcohol” </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people d...
Research investigation:  Alcohol to reduce feelings of sadness <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Advertised for participan...
Research investigation:  Alcohol to reduce feelings of sadness <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Random allocation to Alco...
Research investigation:  Alcohol to reduce feelings of sadness <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Mood scale administered. ...
<ul><li>Results: </li></ul>Alcohol Group Placebo Group BDI (depression scale) 10.2  +/-  5.4 9.9  +/-  5.4 MOOD scale 1 Be...
<ul><li>Results: </li></ul>Alcohol Group Placebo Group BDI (depression scale) 10.2  +/-  5.4 9.9  +/-  5.4 MOOD scale 1 Be...
Alcohol versus placebo drinks in reducing feelings of sadness:  Pilot study Sitharthan et al. (2009).  Australian Psycholo...
Alcohol versus placebo drinks in reducing feelings of sadness:  Pilot study Sitharthan et al. (2009).  Australian Psycholo...
Making the study of Psychology relevant to the real world: an example <ul><li>“ Influences on young people's stigmatising ...
<ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>A national telephone survey was carried out with 3746 people aged 12–25 years and 2005 c...
<ul><li>Results:   </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma was found to have multiple components labelled  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>`social ...
<ul><li>Conclusion:   </li></ul><ul><li>Personal experiences, parental attitudes and campaigns all affect stigmatising att...
<ul><li>Teaching Psychology can impact on real world attitudes and behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Psychology gives ...
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Hartstone Why Teach Psychology

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Hartstone Why Teach Psychology

  1. 1. How does SACE Psychology relate to the real world? Margaret Hartstone Discipline Senior Clinical Psychologist Northern Mental Health, CNAHS Jan 2010
  2. 2. Why Teach Psychology? <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology as a career </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology’s place in SACE </li></ul><ul><li>The Structure of SACE Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Why students might benefit from learning more about Psychology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychology as a career <ul><li>In SA there are 720 members of the SA branch of the Australian Psychological Society (+ some non-members). </li></ul><ul><li>In SA there are over 250 members of the College of Clinical Psychologists (able to provide Medicare rebated services). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Psychology as a career <ul><li>Academic Researcher and/or teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Practising psychologist “specialties” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forensic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuropsychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational and Developmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Psychology as a career <ul><li>A career as a psychologist in Australia requires 6 or 7 years of study: </li></ul><ul><li>3 years undergraduate study with at least a major in psychology; </li></ul><ul><li>4 th year (Honours level) in psychology; </li></ul><ul><li>EITHER: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic stream = Ph D 3+ years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical = 2 or 3 years post graduate specialist study </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is the “real world” like? <ul><li>Internet quiz open to US residents aged 13 and over. http://www.quizrocket.com/how-sexy-are-you </li></ul><ul><li>1. Let's get right down to the fun stuff! What's in your underwear drawer? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some naughty and some nice stuff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lace, leather, push-up bras, sexy stuff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton panties and super comfy bras. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. What's your kissing technique like? </li></ul><ul><li>A light approach and a strong finish </li></ul><ul><li>Lip biting and sexy tongue flicking </li></ul><ul><li>I usually just respond back to his kiss </li></ul><ul><li>3. When do you feel MOST sexy? </li></ul><ul><li>When I'm wearing sexy panties underneath my everyday clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>When I'm showered with affection. </li></ul><ul><li>All the time. I know how sexy I am. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>4. Which TV character do you swear is based on YOU in real life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rachel (Friends)-sexy in that friendly, yet seductive way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pam (The Office)-sexy in that girl next door way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samantha (Sex in the City)-sexy in that, &quot;You're damn right I'll sleep with you&quot; way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Different things are sexy for girls and guys, so your quiz results depend on your gender. What's your gender? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I exude male sexiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curvy, sexy, and all woman. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call me The Ladies Man. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guys aren't sexy. Girls like ME are sexy! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. http://quiz.ivillage.com/uk_relationships/tests/happy.htm topics Sex Family & Friends Divorce Marriage Couples Single & Dating Community Understanding Men tools & quizzes Guy Decoder Orgasmatron Perfect sex positions Is he cheating on you? The iVillage sex shop Free love reading Your love forecast Instant win games All tools and quizzes hot stuff Tone It Challenge WAG matcher game Plan a dirty weekend Fab Christmas gift deals Sex on the first date Are you a hot date? Divorce: England rules! Sex problems solved Are you good in bed? Photo galleries Win shopping vouchers
  10. 10. http://quiz.ivillage.com/uk_relationships/tests/happy.htm Most Viewed Horoscopes Competitions Cool baby names Healthy Recipes Celebrity Baby Match Alcohol Calorie Tool Pregnancy Child Development Sex positions Virtual makeover Most Searched sexual positions work from home slimming world diet healthy meals sex positions weightwatchers race for life ovulation diets
  11. 11. <ul><li>What constitutes the “real world” of our students? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the study of Psychology different from this? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the study of SACE Psychology relate or connect to the “real world”? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Psychology’s place in SACE <ul><li>SACE is designed to enable students to: </li></ul><ul><li>develop the capabilities to participate successfully in a changing world; </li></ul><ul><li>plan and engage in a range of learning experiences; </li></ul><ul><li>build their knowledge, skills, and understanding; </li></ul><ul><li>gain credit for their learning achievements against performance standards. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Psychology’s place in SACE <ul><li>Psychology straddles the sciences and the humanities … </li></ul><ul><li>SACE Psychology is considered a science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Psychology is based on evidence gathered as a result of planned investigations, following the principles of scientific method.” SSABSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology provides experience in planning and undertaking evidence-based procedures (observation, experimentation, and evaluation). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology provides opportunities to develop skills in analytical and critical thinking. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Psychology’s place in SACE: Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><li>“ the skills learned through the study of psychology are parallel to those learned in other science subjects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how to be a critical consumer of information; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to identify psychological processes at work in everyday experiences; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to apply knowledge to real-world situations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to investigate psychological issues; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to be an effective communicator.” (SSABSA) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Psychology’s place in SACE: Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><ul><li>Psychology uses the systematic study of behaviour to describe and explain elements of what is universal in human experience, as well as elements of individual and cultural diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying Psychology provides a structure within which students can develop a better understanding of themselves, others and their social contexts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying Psychology is about relating to the “real world” of our students’ experience. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Numeracy in Psychology <ul><li>Students have opportunities to develop specific numeracy skills through their learning in Psychology. These skills enable students to: </li></ul><ul><li>process raw data into summary tables </li></ul><ul><li>display data using tables and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrate an understanding of the measures of central tendency </li></ul><ul><li>appreciate the information conveyed in standard deviations </li></ul><ul><li>interpret data </li></ul><ul><li>critically evaluate findings in light of the data presented </li></ul><ul><li>predict trends/outcomes from the data collected </li></ul><ul><li>analyse data in order to supply evidence for or against given proposals. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Literacy skills in Psychology <ul><li>Students have opportunities to develop specific literacy skills through their learning in Psychology. These skills enable students to: </li></ul><ul><li>communicate within and beyond the psychology community, using the terminology and conventions of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>select and use text types appropriate for different audiences and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>locate, sort, and summarise psychological texts </li></ul><ul><li>critically evaluate psychology as it is represented in research, the media, and popular contexts </li></ul><ul><li>complete a content analysis of qualitative data. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology also addresses the ways in which behaviour can be changed in the real world. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology offers ways of intervening to advance the well-being of individuals, groups, and societies in the real world. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Personal Development in Psychology <ul><li>Growing capacity / personal development in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>(for example): </li></ul><ul><li>understanding health and well-being through psychology; </li></ul><ul><li>understanding the behaviours of self and others, and being sensitive to differences; </li></ul><ul><li>understanding and applying persistence, reflective thinking, and self-evaluation through the study of psychology; </li></ul><ul><li>making decisions about personal futures on the basis of an understanding of psychology and its relevance in the real world. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Building knowledge, skills, and understanding in Psychology <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>However, acquiring knowledge, skills and understanding that promote behavioural change also holds the possibility of potential real world harm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the process of acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the acquired skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ethics of research and intervention are therefore an integral aspect of psychology. (“ Primum non nocere” or “First do no harm.”) </li></ul>
  21. 21. “ Real world” Psychology: “Real world” Ethical issues <ul><li>Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>General Principle A: Respect for the rights and dignity of people and peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.1. Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.2. Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.3. Informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.4. Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.5. Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.6. Release of information to clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A.7. Collection of client information from associated parties </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. “ Real world” Psychology: “Real world” Ethical issues <ul><li>Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>General Principle B: Propriety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B.1. Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.2. Record keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.3. Professional responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.4. Provision of psychological services at the request of a third party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.5. Provision of psychological services to multiple clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.6. Delegation of professional tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.7. Use of interpreters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.8. Collaborating with others for the benefit of clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.9. Accepting clients of other professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.10. Suspension of psychological services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.11. Termination of psychological services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.12. Conflicting demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.13. Psychological assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B.14. Research </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. “ Real world” Psychology: “Real world” Ethical issues <ul><li>Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>General Principle C: Integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C.1. Reputable behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.2. Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.3. Conflict of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.4. Non-exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.5. Authorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.6. Financial arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.7. Ethics investigations and concerns </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Being a Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are accustomed to situations requiring sensitivity in dealing with the personal circumstances of different students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are accustomed to maintaining the confidentiality of information and showing respect for the individual differences between students in their classes. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Professional Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers of Psychology may be approached with requests for psychological services. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making clear to classes the limits of the teacher’s role. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to be aware that they are likely to be used as a mental health resource. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers should know their own strengths and limitations in this role. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers make themselves familiar with local mental health resources and ways to access these. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Disclosure and Discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should create a classroom climate that does not encourage disclosure of highly sensitive information. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to avoid situations in which student discomfort might arise. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all such situations can be foreseen so teachers should advise students about classroom activities in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Any student who is concerned that a particular activity might cause personal discomfort has the right to decline to participate in the exercise without giving any reason. Such students should be provided with a relevant alternative activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should aim to create a class climate that allows students to feel free to withdraw from activities at any time without fear of reprisals or consequences. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Any personal information disclosed in class exercises must remain confidential. Teachers should insist on impeccable standards of confidentiality from their students. </li></ul><ul><li>Information about other people that is used in class discussions or in student work must not allow any individual to be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>The ethical considerations that apply to psychological investigations must be applied to class exercises. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Psychology Teachers: Real world Ethical issues <ul><li>Content issues </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing information about suicide and eating disorders into this topic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitative behaviour by students can be triggered by exposure to information on these subjects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating disorders are driven by body size dissatisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers are encouraged to use alternative examples of psychological disorders. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Those without experience in teaching Psychology are strongly advised to follow the recommendations provided in the support materials on the SACE Board website ( www.saceboard.sa.edu.au). </li></ul>
  29. 29. 3 Caveats for students: A little knowledge can be a dangerous thing <ul><li>Students should be reminded that the information provided in this topic does not equip them to make diagnoses or to provide counselling or therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Studying topics such as this can raise deeply personal questions. Students need to be given information about the services that are available to them and the means by which they can access these. </li></ul><ul><li>The phenomenon of ‘medical student syndrome’ refers to students coming to believe that they suffer from almost all the disorders with which they are made familiar. Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the symptoms of disorders usually overlap with experiences that are universal to the human condition, e.g. feelings of sadness. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Why Teach Psychology <ul><li>SACE subject </li></ul><ul><li>SACE science </li></ul><ul><li>Social relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Personal relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides knowledge, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides structure, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>models integration of understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to inform commitment and action. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Four levels of explanation: Level of explanation Biological focuses on the biological and chemical processes underlying behaviour. Basic Processes focuses on the psychological processes that are universal (or at least very widespread) across humans. Individual differences focuses on individual differences in behaviour. Socio-cultural focuses on the influence that other people exert on behaviour by studying behaviour in social and cultural contexts.
  32. 32. Four levels of explanation: “real world” behaviour Level of explanation Example: Interpersonal Aggression Biological might focus on the role of neurochemistry or activity in specific brain areas. Basic Processes might focus on the cognitions and emotions that commonly precede it Individual differences might focus on different levels of aggression displayed by persons with different types of personalities. Socio-cultural might focus on the role played by onlookers or on different levels or types of interpersonal aggression displayed in different cultures.
  33. 33. Four levels of explanation: ethics Level of explanation Research and practice ethics Biological consider the ethics of using data collection techniques that may cause physical discomfort (taking blood samples, attaching EEG electrodes) Basic Processes quantitative research methods yield group statistics for behaviour under different conditions; consider the implications of “normality” Individual differences consider the ethics of labelling individuals (for example, intellectually gifted, an introvert) and possibly creating self-fulfilling prophecies Socio-cultural consider the cultural and social biases of investigators in interpreting data, which may be quantitative or qualitative
  34. 34. Psychology’s relevance to the real world: “Do I have depression?” Biological Basic Processes Individual differences Socio-cultural
  35. 35. Psychology’s relevance to the real world: “Do I have depression? How do I fix it?” Biological Basic Processes Individual differences Socio-cultural
  36. 36. Towards a healthy mind… <ul><li>Dan Siegel suggests that a healthy mind has acquired: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to be aware of its own processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to integrate various levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to approach rather than avoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to be aware of its awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel J. Siegel. (2007) The mindful brain : reflection and attunement in the cultivation of well-being. NY:Norton </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Towards a healthy mind… <ul><li>Dan Siegel suggests that a healthy mind has 9 capacities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>influence body states (brain stem activity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connect with others (e.g. make eye contact) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>balance emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extinguish fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pause before acting and then decide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ insight” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ empathy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ morality” – ‘the better good’ - even when alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integration of multi-level mind processes </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. SACE Psychology <ul><li>These 8 topics are offered in Stage 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Psychology (compulsory topic) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Brain and Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Human Psychological Development </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated Topic </li></ul>
  39. 39. SACE Psychology <ul><li>The following six topics are offered in Stage 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Psychology (compulsory topic) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Psychobiology of Altered States of Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy Minds. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>The role of the teacher of psychology is to present, structure and reinforce the acquisition of these abilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to be aware of one’s own processes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to integrate various levels, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to approach rather than avoid, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an ability to be aware of one’s awareness. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>The student who wants to acquire competence in Psychology needs to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the structure, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to recognise the “levels” and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to integrate the “levels”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The person wanting to use Psychology to help manage personal problems benefits from multi-level understanding and integration. </li></ul><ul><li>The SACE Psychology classroom can teach multi-level understanding and integration in relation to psychological issues. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Making the study of Psychology relevant to the real world: an example <ul><li>“ Alcohol” </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people drink alcohol? </li></ul><ul><li>How is alcohol marketed to young people? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the “real world” attitude to alcohol as a way of changing sad feelings? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Research investigation: Alcohol to reduce feelings of sadness <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Advertised for participants to explore how alcohol helps people cope with sadness. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants screened to select those who acknowledged using alcohol to cope with feelings of sadness. </li></ul><ul><li>50 subjects recruited from 206 who were screened. (27 women) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Research investigation: Alcohol to reduce feelings of sadness <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Random allocation to Alcohol consumption or Placebo consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>No significant difference between the groups for age, gender, marital status or occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of visual analogue scales for mood and intoxication. </li></ul><ul><li>Men given 3.5 standard drinks; women given 2.0 standard drinks. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Research investigation: Alcohol to reduce feelings of sadness <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Mood scale administered. </li></ul><ul><li>Seen individually and sad mood induced over 20 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mood scale administered. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinks consumed within 20 minutes, then sit quietly for another 20 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mood scale repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>What do we expect? </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Results: </li></ul>Alcohol Group Placebo Group BDI (depression scale) 10.2 +/- 5.4 9.9 +/- 5.4 MOOD scale 1 Before drinking 12.0 +/- 10.4 14.4 +/- 10.0 MOOD scale 2 After induction, before drinking 60.4 +/- 17.4 64.4 +/- 16.9 MOOD scale3 20 mins after drinking 8.0 +/- 10.5 8.2 +/- 6.6
  47. 47. <ul><li>Results: </li></ul>Alcohol Group Placebo Group BDI (depression scale) 10.2 +/- 5.4 9.9 +/- 5.4 MOOD scale 1 Before drinking 12.0 +/- 10.4 14.4 +/- 10.0 MOOD scale 2 After induction, before drinking 60.4 +/- 17.4 64.4 +/- 16.9 MOOD scale3 20 mins after drinking 8.0 +/- 10.5 8.2 +/- 6.6 Intoxication rating 44.8 +/- 12.3 42.0 +/- 14.4
  48. 48. Alcohol versus placebo drinks in reducing feelings of sadness: Pilot study Sitharthan et al. (2009). Australian Psychologist . 44:4. <ul><li>Ethical concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Participant selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclude alcohol dependent subjects, pregnant or lactating women, non-drinkers, those taking particular medications, clinically depressed, later stage of menstrual cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectation of alcohol consumption. Could it be left ambiguous? </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol consumers wait another 2 hours, then breathalysed. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxis home for all. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Alcohol versus placebo drinks in reducing feelings of sadness: Pilot study Sitharthan et al. (2009). Australian Psychologist . 44:4. <ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alcohol on sad affect. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not the alcohol consumption, per se, but the expectation that reduces sad affect. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants in the placebo group reported feeling just as intoxicated as those who consumed alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura (1999) suggested that expectations play a major role in the maintenance of substance misuse. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Making the study of Psychology relevant to the real world: an example <ul><li>“ Influences on young people's stigmatising attitudes towards peers with mental disorders: national survey of young Australians and their parents.” </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony Jorm and AnneMarie Wright. (2008) The British Journal of Psychiatry 192: 144-149. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>A national telephone survey was carried out with 3746 people aged 12–25 years and 2005 co-resident parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Stigmatising attitudes were assessed in relation to four vignettes (depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis). </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma was found to have multiple components labelled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>`social distance', </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>`dangerous/unpredictable', </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>`weak not sick', </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>`stigma perceived in others' and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>`reluctance to disclose'. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure to mental disorders and help-seeking in oneself or others was associated with lower scores on some components of stigma. Young people's attitudes showed specific associations with those of parents. Exposure to campaigns was associated with reductions in beliefs that the person is `weak not sick'. </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal experiences, parental attitudes and campaigns all affect stigmatising attitudes. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Teaching Psychology can impact on real world attitudes and behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Psychology gives students relevant understanding and skills for living a better life in the real world. </li></ul>

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