Emotion
–Subjective
–Physiological
–Behavioral
–Social
Aspects of Emotion
Components of Emotion
Cognitive component
• subjective conscious feelings—thoughts,
values and expectations
Components of Emotion
Physiological (arousal) component
• controlled by certain brain structures and
autonomic nervous sys...
“Fight or Flight” Restore Calm
Components of Emotion
Behavioural component
(emotional expression—facial expressions,
gestures, body position, use of eye ...
• Why do we feel emotion?
• What purpose does it serve?
• Are humans the only animals that feel
emotion?
• How many emotio...
James-Lange Theory
• A stimulus directly produces physiological
changes and behavior, and then these events
produce the fe...
James-Lange Theory
• Smiling makes you feel happy
• Crying makes you feel sad
Class experiment
Hold a pen/pencil in your mouth
Group 1: hold pen with lips
Group 2: hold pen with teeth
Group 3: hold pe...
Rate the following cartoons for the
level of humour 1 – 5
1 not humourous
2 a bit humourous
3 moderately humourous
4 very ...
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
• Facial feedback is interpreted by the brain as
being a certain emotion.
• Once an emotion is ...
Facial Feedback Hypothesis:
The modern version of James-Lange theory
Facial
expressions
Emotional
experience
Passive Facial Feedback
Participants and apparatus (do not note)
One hundred and eight-nine Japanese
undergraduates (101 ...
Method
Water dripped on the
participants cheeks or
temples.
Then, the raters rated
their subjective emotion
on a seven p...
0
10
20
30
40
50
Sad Neutral Cheerful Mixed
Cheeks
Temples
Water dropping on the cheeks tended to cause the
sad emotion mo...
Cannon-Bard Theory
Theory in which the physiological reaction and
the emotion occur at the same time.
Stimulus
Emotion
Phy...
Theory of Cognitive Appraisal
(Schachter-Singer 2 factor theory of
emotion)
A two-stage theory stating that for an
emotion...
Two key variables manipulated-
1. Arousal
2. Emotional Explanation for the Arousal were the two
• Participants injected wi...
Epinephrine uninformed more angry/happy than
informed because they attributed their arousal
(which was drug induced) to th...
Evaluation of Emotion Theories
Emotional responses vary more than any one
theory allows depending on the situation.
Curren...
Three Ways to Measure Emotion
1. Body/Physical
2. Thoughts
3. Behavior
Culture and Emotional Expression
Basic emotions are similar
Social rules about display of emotions vary
from culture to cu...
Three Ways to Measure Emotion
• Body/Physical
– blood pressure
– heart rate
– epinephrine levels
– muscle activity when sm...
Three Ways to Measure Emotion
• Thoughts (observed indirectly through)
– spoken and written words on rating scales
– answe...
Three Ways to Measure Emotion
• Behavior
– facial expressions
– activity level
– alertness
– screaming
– laughing
– smilin...
Ethical Issues of Polygraphs
• Lie detectors only 75% reliable
• Some people better at hiding facial/body
expression of em...
Overview of General Theories of Emotion
• James-Lange Theory (arousal and expression
produce emotion)
• ii. Cannon-Bard Th...
Ms Collins Psychology Class Semester 2 2009
Facial Feedback Experiment
Results show that facial expression has an affect o...
Emotion annesley 2010
Emotion annesley 2010
Emotion annesley 2010
Emotion annesley 2010
Emotion annesley 2010
Emotion annesley 2010
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Emotion annesley 2010

  1. 1. Emotion
  2. 2. –Subjective –Physiological –Behavioral –Social Aspects of Emotion
  3. 3. Components of Emotion Cognitive component • subjective conscious feelings—thoughts, values and expectations
  4. 4. Components of Emotion Physiological (arousal) component • controlled by certain brain structures and autonomic nervous system
  5. 5. “Fight or Flight” Restore Calm
  6. 6. Components of Emotion Behavioural component (emotional expression—facial expressions, gestures, body position, use of eye gaze, touch and tone of voice)
  7. 7. • Why do we feel emotion? • What purpose does it serve? • Are humans the only animals that feel emotion? • How many emotions are there?
  8. 8. James-Lange Theory • A stimulus directly produces physiological changes and behavior, and then these events produce the feeling of an emotion. stimulus Physiological response Emotion
  9. 9. James-Lange Theory • Smiling makes you feel happy • Crying makes you feel sad
  10. 10. Class experiment Hold a pen/pencil in your mouth Group 1: hold pen with lips Group 2: hold pen with teeth Group 3: hold pen in non-dominant hand
  11. 11. Rate the following cartoons for the level of humour 1 – 5 1 not humourous 2 a bit humourous 3 moderately humourous 4 very humourous 5 extremely humourous
  12. 12. Facial Feedback Hypothesis • Facial feedback is interpreted by the brain as being a certain emotion. • Once an emotion is activated, the whole body becomes aroused. • Arousal and external stimuli maintain the emotion after facial feedback initiates it.
  13. 13. Facial Feedback Hypothesis: The modern version of James-Lange theory Facial expressions Emotional experience
  14. 14. Passive Facial Feedback Participants and apparatus (do not note) One hundred and eight-nine Japanese undergraduates (101 males and 88 females) participated. One hundred and thirteen were assigned to the experimental condition, and 76 to the control condition. Small plastic pipettes and warmed water were used.
  15. 15. Method Water dripped on the participants cheeks or temples. Then, the raters rated their subjective emotion on a seven point scale. Experimental Condition Control Condition
  16. 16. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Sad Neutral Cheerful Mixed Cheeks Temples Water dropping on the cheeks tended to cause the sad emotion more often than the cheerfulness.
  17. 17. Cannon-Bard Theory Theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion occur at the same time. Stimulus Emotion Physiological Response
  18. 18. Theory of Cognitive Appraisal (Schachter-Singer 2 factor theory of emotion) A two-stage theory stating that for an emotion to occur, there must be 1.physiological arousal and 2.an explanation for the arousal
  19. 19. Two key variables manipulated- 1. Arousal 2. Emotional Explanation for the Arousal were the two • Participants injected with “suproxin” – Placebo or Epinephrine – Participants either informed or misinformed about the effects of the drug • Confederate acted angry or euphoric Schachter and Singer (1962) Experiment
  20. 20. Epinephrine uninformed more angry/happy than informed because they attributed their arousal (which was drug induced) to the situation. • Implication: Emotions are somewhat arbitrary, depending on what the most plausible explanation for the arousal happens to be.
  21. 21. Evaluation of Emotion Theories Emotional responses vary more than any one theory allows depending on the situation. Currently no emotional theory is accepted as completely correct .
  22. 22. Three Ways to Measure Emotion 1. Body/Physical 2. Thoughts 3. Behavior
  23. 23. Culture and Emotional Expression Basic emotions are similar Social rules about display of emotions vary from culture to culture eg Japanese vs Italian
  24. 24. Three Ways to Measure Emotion • Body/Physical – blood pressure – heart rate – epinephrine levels – muscle activity when smiling, frowning, etc. – neural images – posture – tears, – perspiration – lie detector readings
  25. 25. Three Ways to Measure Emotion • Thoughts (observed indirectly through) – spoken and written words on rating scales – answers to open-ended questions on surveys and during interviews – self-assessments or perceptions regarding the behavior and intentions of others – other cognitive operations such as rational/logical thinking
  26. 26. Three Ways to Measure Emotion • Behavior – facial expressions – activity level – alertness – screaming – laughing – smiling – aggression – approach/avoidance – attention/distraction – insomnia
  27. 27. Ethical Issues of Polygraphs • Lie detectors only 75% reliable • Some people better at hiding facial/body expression of emotion
  28. 28. Overview of General Theories of Emotion • James-Lange Theory (arousal and expression produce emotion) • ii. Cannon-Bard Theory (cognitions, arousal and expression are simultaneous) • iii. Facial-Feedback Hypothesis (expression produces emotion) • iv. Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory (emotions depend on 2 factors—physical arousal and cognitive labelling of that arousal)
  29. 29. Ms Collins Psychology Class Semester 2 2009 Facial Feedback Experiment Results show that facial expression has an affect on how humorous a participant found a series of cartoons. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 Frown Group Control Group Smile Group

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