Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Hart T


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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Hart T

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Tammi Hart<br />Psychology, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br />I am a student of life – a lifetime learner who finds excitement and passion in the diversity evident in the world around me. Since my early years, I have been fascinated with the words, history, and lives of people who are different and call other cultures their own. Even the animal kingdom presented ways for me to satisfy my curiosity by offering perfect examples for me to study. As a result, I developed a knack for retaining what some would call “trivial” information, but this ability served me well in communicating with others upon initial introductions and in showing proficiency in certain subjects in the classroom.<br /> An insatiable reader, I devour materials that fill my hunger for Greek history, Roman escapades, and Egyptian mysteries. French and English castles and royalty feed my imagination about the days of yore and their influence on where we are as a society in the 21st century. Traveling to these places to immerse myself in the environments and to discover how Zeus became the god of the Greeks, how Marcus Aurelius bathed, or how Amenhotep worshiped is the ultimate lifetime experience.<br /> Incorporating my interests into a career was not easy, and in fact, has never occurred. However, I did use my skill for connecting with people to garner work in the customer service, banking, and retail arenas. These jobs allowed me to impart knowledge to others which is an underlying desire. I firmly believe that individuals can improve themselves if given the right information and I gladly give that information if I have it.<br />
  3. 3. Personal Statement<br />Obtaining a degree in Psychology is the fulfillment of a lifelong goal, and now that I have acquired it, I will move on to the next goal which is a degree in metaphysics eventually garnering a doctorate in this area. There is so much that is unknown and the field of Psychology does not and cannot answer all the questions relevant to the human experience. Seeking out those areas that are outside the norm will satisfy me and allow me to reach those who do not subscribe to traditional methods.<br /> Independence is paramount to me and I would enjoy a lifestyle that allows me to travel and investigate “histories’ mysteries” and relay the findings to those who are just as interested as I am. Therefore, traditional work and pathways are not for me and I am not for them. Exploration, adventure, and freedom are the criteria I am seeking in the next step of my journey. Actually, I have always sought these things in a career. One day, I will find them.<br />
  4. 4. Resume<br />TammiL. Hart<br />202 Aisha St. ♦ Greenville, SC 29607♦ 864.417.7844 ♦<br />OBJECTIVE<br />To secure a position as a clinical counselor to help people maximize their potential.<br />Education<br />Argosy University, Phoenix, AZ, Bachelor of Arts – Psychology: 2010; GPA: 4.0<br /> <br />Qualifications Summary<br />Outstanding communications skills…Comfortable interacting with people from all backgrounds. <br />Highly organized…Expert in multi-tasking and prioritizing. <br />Provided oversight of chronically homeless tenants<br />Flexible and Adaptable…Assimilate quickly in transitions, switching roles as needed to maintain<br />productivity. Embrace new concepts and methods.<br />Resourceful Problem-Solver…Adept at anticipating and analyzing problems, then formulating <br />solutions.<br />
  5. 5. Resume<br />Detail-Oriented and Conscientious…Keen eye for errors and inconsistencies, striving for flawless output. <br />Computer Proficiency…Microsoft Office 2007 Applications. <br /> <br />Employment History<br />Administrative Assistant<br />Day and Zimmermann II, Greenville, SC - 2008 - 2009<br />Upstate Homeless Coalition, Greenville, SC - 2008<br />Various Temporary Administrative/Receptionist Positions - 2006-2007<br />Eastern Design Services at Day and Zimmermann II, Greenville, SC <br />Upstate Homeless Coalition, Greenville, SC <br />Appleone Employment Solutions at Hewitt Coleman and Associates, Greenville, SC<br />Seasonal Tax Preparer<br />M & M Tax Service, Greenville, SC - 2006-2007<br />Library Assistant<br />Abbeville County, Abbeville, SC - 2004-2005<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  6. 6. Reflection<br /> I entered Argosy in January 2009 with a firm idea of what Psychology was about and the various fields inherent therein. What I discovered as I took course after course and interacted with classmates from all around the world is that Psychology was ever changing and I did not know as much as I previously thought.<br />With each semester, I poured myself into my classes and gave 100%, sometimes it felt as though I was giving 200%! I could not tear myself away from the computer screen at times because I wanted all of my work to be top-notch. I could not suffer the thought of ending the course with anything less than an “A.” If I encountered instructors who were even more detailed than I am, then I had to raise my expectations even higher so that I would not disappoint them or myself. Thankfully, I excelled and am graduating with a 4.0 GPA.<br /> This is not to say that Argosy is easy. By far, it has been the most demanding school I have attended and I mean that with the utmost respect. Actually, I would not have it any other way.<br />
  7. 7. Reflection<br /> Argosy has succeeded in providing students with a challenging online learning environment that instills psychological principles, ethics, and theories into the minds of classmates. It also gives the opportunity for those of diverse cultures and backgrounds to interact and exchange ideas. That is one of the greatest things about attending Argosy: meeting people from all over the globe.<br /> Another perk has been improving my writing and critical thinking skills. I have learned to analyze concepts, apply them to various situations, and put these concepts into my own words so I can share them with others. Furthermore, learning about the research methods involved in obtaining statistical information to create new theories or support old ones has given me the skills to critically review studies that are announced in the media and determine if the results are accurate or skewed.<br /> However, what has really impressed me is the level of skilled highly educated instructors Argosy employs to facilitate the classes. These people are some of the best <br />
  8. 8. Reflection<br /> instructors I have ever encountered. They are concerned with making sure I do my best and offer assistance and guidance abundantly. These are people I admire and their success and achievements push me to conquer all that I have dreamed of obtaining. <br />
  9. 9. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />**Samples of coursework will be included on the following slides.<br />
  10. 10. Critical Thinking<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and <br />Information Literacy<br />
  11. 11. Critical Thinking<br />Rorschach and MMPI: A Comparison and Contrast<br /> Personality tests have been created to assess how people think, act, and relate to their environment. Two of the most prominent tests are the Rorschach and the MMPI. These two tests have hardly anything in common, and from the research read, the only commonalities were that they are personality tests and they can be used to diagnose certain disorders such as schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses (Gregory, 2007). <br /> On the other hand, there are many differences between the two. For example, the MMPI was specifically created to give clinical diagnoses so that clinicians can help their patients and provide treatments that will improve their condition (Argosy, 2010). The MMPI is an objective test with “forced choice” answers (Argosy, 2010). This means that one can only answer true or false to a question and not provide any additional information to explain a response. The Rorschach, alternatively, is a projective test where the respondents “project” their answers or interpretations upon the stimuli (Argosy, 2010). The test consists of 10 inkblot cards that are placed in front of a person one at a time. The subject is required to tell the tester what they see. They can choose to respond to all of the blot, part of it, or none at all. This type of test gives the respondent much leeway with answers and can provide the researcher with much detail when scoring (Gregory, 2007).<br />
  12. 12. Critical Thinking<br />Another difference is the amount of respectability each test has. The MMPI, which is based on empirical evidence and has much research behind it, receives more respect and is considered more reliable and valid than the Rorschach (Gregory, 2007). In fact, when scored, validity usually hovers around .99 on both MMPI and MMPI-2 (Gregory, 2007). For the Rorschach, because of the lack of a normative sample in which to compare the scores of subjects and the fact that the creator died before he could complete more research on his test (The Original Rorschach Website, 2009), many researchers refuse to give the Rorschach validation (Gregory, 2007). They stress that the test is variable and no one can possibly know what a person is truly thinking (Argosy, 2010). <br />They also disagree with the hypothesis that is generated after the scoring because it is only a hypothesis and not a factual diagnosis (Argosy, 2010). Furthermore, the Rorschach can be easily manipulated and studies have been done to show just that (Gregory, 2007). For instance, Frueh and Kinder (1994), in their The Susceptibility of the Rorschach Inkblot Test to Malingering of Combat-Related PTSD, showed how easily it is to manipulate the Rorschach when they tested veterans who had been diagnosed with PTSD along with a control group and those who had been assigned the role of a malingerer. The subjects were given the Rorschach, the MMPI-2, and the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD. <br />
  13. 13. Critical Thinking<br />The results showed that the malingerers scored the same as those diagnosed with PTSD on the MSCR and on some Rorschach variables, but not on the MMPI-2 (Frueh and Kinder, 1994). Also, as cited in Gregory (2007), Albert, Fox, and Kahn conducted similar research to discover how easy it is to fake responses on the Rorschach and their findings supported the ease of manipulation just as well as Frueh and Kinder (1994). Needless to say, validity and reliability are greatly affected and have always been the subject of much debate with the Rorschach (Argosy, 2010). To make matters worse, the website Wikipedia has posted all the inkblots on their site along with the most popular answers (Nicholson, 2009). Wouldn’t having the answers to the test render it virtually useless? I think so.<br /> Fortunately, the Rorschach can be used successfully alone or in combination with other assessments as long as the clinician is properly trained in scoring and interpretation (Argosy, 2010). Kendra’s Predicting Suicide Using the Rorschach Inkblot Test (1979) supported previous research which stated that the Rorschach was the best indicator of suicidal tendencies. He used the Rorschach and created a scale based upon multiple signs that would be valid indicators of suicidal behaviors (Kendra, 1979). That being said, I can completely understand how the Rorschach could validly predict suicide. I can also see how it could diagnose a personality disorder in a small child or an adult especially when used in combination with other assessments. <br />
  14. 14. Critical Thinking<br /> In my opinion, the Rorschach would be the best option when assessing young children or those with limited cognitive abilities; whereas the MMPI would be too complicated and above the reading level or comprehension of the individual. Because the test is projective, the subject will have a greater chance to reveal the inner thoughts of his mind (Argosy, 2010). Looking at inkblots and telling an assessor that they see food or they see anger or a man with a knife can reveal clues about what is going on in the mind of the individual especially because the Rorschach interpretation is based upon the psychodynamic personality theory that believes all associations can be traced back to something in early childhood (Argosy, 2010). Unfortunately, this level of freedom can come with a price. Children, or those with active imaginations, are usually very expressive and when presented the opportunity will be glad to indulge their fantasies. Therefore, if given the chance, they may unintentionally receive inaccurate test results because they are given too much freedom when answering. A perfect example would be having a child tell the assessor that he sees an overweight man in one of the blots. He has on a fur coat and a hat with “horns.”<br />
  15. 15. Critical Thinking<br /> He talks like the man who comes to the child’s home to play with him when his mom is away. Now, this answer could come after the child has watched a particularly disturbing movie or television show and he is associating instead of projecting. Or, a subject could give depressing answers to the assessor when tested, but only as a result of losing a job or a loved one a few days ago instead of actually being clinically depressed. Coincidentally, the same scenario could happen while taking the MMPI, so I guess that is another thing the two tests have in common.<br />
  16. 16. Research Skills<br />Research Skills<br />
  17. 17. Research Skills<br />Running head: Pornographic Websites are Easily Accessible to Adolescents<br /> <br /> <br />  Abstract<br /> Technology has greatly influenced society and the way it lives, grows, eats, and communicates. The world is no longer a large place where few cultures interact. It is now smaller than ever with nearly everyone sharing the same information. The main reason: the internet. The World Wide Web unites remote Siberia with tropical Hawaii. It allows a lonely man in Argentina to seek out a companion in India. It also facilitates the sharing of ideas and customs from one human to the next. Everyone can watch the same television shows, listen to the same music, and watch the same videos. All is accessible, but can this accessibility be too much too soon? For example, Sloviter (2007) conducted a study of 1500 youth between the ages of 10 – 17 and found that 40% of them were regularly exposed to online porn. Furthermore, 66% of those who intentionally sought out the porn were boys. These boys were more apt to download the images, chat with strangers online about sex, and show early signs of delinquent behavior.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  18. 18. Research Skills<br />Adolescents and Pornography: Too Much Too Soon?<br /> The internet is at the forefront and is possibly the main gateway for information and entertainment. Virtually anyone has access to music, news, sexually explicit websites and movies. With the internet, parental consent is not always necessary. Because of this accessibility, teenagers may be more sexualized than any generation ever before. Braun-Courville and Rojas (2009) conducted a study of 433 adolescents to determine how many had internet access, and if so, how many viewed pornographic websites. The study found that 96% had access to the net and 55% visited porn sites. The researchers also found that those who visited porn sites were more sexually permissive, engaged in anal sex, had multiple lifetime partners, and used alcohol and drugs during sexual encounters (Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009). <br /> To show just how prevalent and accessible pornography is to today’s children, Jerome, Fowler, Stuart, Blonska, Grout, and Bane’s, The Cyberporn Generation (2004), revealed how sexualized this generation of youth may be. The authors visited an 8th grade classroom and asked how many of the students had been exposed to porn. All of the children raised their hands. Furthermore, a study they conducted of 15 – 17 year-olds disclosed that 70% view hardcore porn (Jerome, 2004). Reviewing additional research articles found similar results. For example, Bleakley, Hennessey, Fishbein, and Jordan (2009) showed in their study of 459 youth, ages 8 – 18 years-old, that they used the internet and other materials at least six hours a day for information about sex. Ybarra and Mitchell’s 2005 study of 12 – 18 year-olds supports this. <br />
  19. 19. Research Skills<br /> Their research showed that 90% of them had access to the internet and 87% of those over the age of 14 intentionally seek porn online.<br />Why would teens search for porn? According to Kinnes’ Secret Lives of High-Tech Teenagers (2004), today’s teens view porn as a way of life. It is literally “no big deal” to them and in their opinion, adults should not make a big deal out of it either. The London School of Economics, UK Children Go Online (UKCGO) (Kinnes, 2004) showed that over 505 of those aged 9 – 19 years-old encountered pornography on a regular basis and, in fact, one-fourth had received pornographic mail from peers. Apter (2010) blames parents’ lack of technological savvy for some of the exposure. In Modern Teenagers Have Access to Millions of Pages of Internet Porn. But Are We Creating a Damaged Generation as a Result (Apter, 2010), it is discovered that the less a parent knows about computers and the internet, the easier it is for a child to have access to pornographic websites. It can be inferred that the lack of parental controls and involvement contributes to this because the children basically have “free reign” on the internet. They also have become desensitized to porn since 12% of 5 – 7 year-olds and 16% of 8 – 17 year-olds have unintentionally been exposed while 38% of older teens seek it out (Apter, 2010).<br />Teenagers and porn is not a problem strictly for those in the Western world. In fact, a study by Lo and Wei (2005) of Taiwanese adolescents showed that 38% regularly viewed pornography online and as a result had a more permissive view of sexuality.<br />
  20. 20. Research Skills<br />Tsitsika, Critselis, Kormas, Konstantoulaki, Constantopoulos, & Kafetzis (2009) of Greece conducted their own study of 529 Greek high school students and discovered that 19.47% of those were users of pornographic websites, were likely to be male, and had a conduct disorder.<br /> The research so far has established that pornographic websites are readily available and easily accessible to people of all ages. However, there are several questions the research has not answered. For instance, does pornography lead to lascivious behavior? There are some studies that show a slight correlation such as the Braun-Courville and Rojas (2009) study mentioned previously, but not enough to make a definite connection.<br /> Another question that has not been researched is can viewing pornography be considered a rite of passage? Kinnes’ (2004) study suggests this when the teens that she interviews state that porn is a way of life and should be seen as nothing to worry about by parents. No other research was found to support or detract from what Kinnes (2004) discovered; therefore, more studies could be done to answer the above question.<br /> Finally, can pornography be used as sex education? None of the studies addressed this question. Most research seemed to focus on who viewed pornography and how accessible it was to those who came across it. There is a strong possibility that adolescents view pornographic websites to educate themselves about sex because they are uncomfortable asking adults for information or may not have anyone available to question about sex. Further research can be done to find the positive aspects of pornography instead of just focusing on the negative outcomes.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  21. 21. Research Skills<br />References<br />Apter, Dr. T. (2010, April 10). Modern teenagers have access to millions of pages of internet porn. But are we creating a damaged generation as a result? Retrieved on May 14, 2010, from<br />Bleakley, A., Hennessy, M., Fishbein, M., & Jordan, A. (2009, January). How sources of sexual information relate to adolescents’ beliefs about sex. American journal of Health Behavior, 33(1), 37-48. Retrieved May 14, 2010, from PsycINFO database.<br />Braun-Courville, D., & Rojas, M. (2009, August). Exposure to sexually explicit websites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(2), 156-162. Retrieved on May 14, 2010, from doi:10.1016/jadohealth.2008.12.004.<br />Kinnes, S. (2004, October 24). Secret lives of high-tech teenagers. Retrieved on May 14, 2010, from<br />Jerome, R., Fowler, J., Stuart, D., Blonska, J., Grout, P., & Bane, J. (2004). The Cyberporn Generation. People, 61(16), 72-76. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database<br />Lo, V., & Wei, R. (2005). Exposure to internet pornography and taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49(2), 221-237. doi:10.1207/s15506878jobem4902_5.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  22. 22. Research Skills<br />Sloviter, V. (2007). Internet porn and your adolescent. Pediatrics for Parents, 23(3), 4. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.Ward, L. (2003, September). Understanding the role of entertainment media in the sexual socialization of American youth: A review of empirical research. Developmental Review, 23(3), 347. Retrieved on May 14, 2010, from doi:10.1016/S0273-2297(03)00013-3.<br />Tsitsika, A., Critselis, E., Kormas, G., Konstantoulaki, E., Constantopoulos, A., & Kafetzis, D. (2009). Adolescent pornographic internet site use: A multivariate regression analysisof the predictive factors of use and psychosocial implications. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(5), 545-550. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0346.<br />Ybarra, M., & Mitchell, K. (2005). Exposure to internet pornography among children andadolescents: A national survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(5), 473-486. doi:10.1089/cpb.2005.8.473.<br />
  23. 23. Communication Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />
  24. 24. Communication Skills<br /> Community Intervention<br />PSY301 Children and Violence<br />Tammi Hart<br />Dr. Terri Greer<br />March 2, 2010<br /> <br />  “Good evening, Neighbors. I am so glad that we have all come together tonight to present a unified front to show our community that we are serious about getting rid of the violence in our neighborhood. Please be assured that this is a first and major step in eradicating the violence and in showing our children that we care about them and that they can and do have a promising and safe future.<br /> “As you all know, gangs and youth violence have become tremendous problems in our nation and communities, and although it can seem overwhelming at times, something can be done. Our first step is to utilize the federal grants that are available to revitalize our neighborhood and create intervention programs that will help the whole family. One such grant is available through the Title V Community Prevention Grants program of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (Bownes & Ingersoll, 1997). Studies have shown that intervention programs targeted at all areas of a child’s life, home, school, and community, reduce crime and its costs significantly (Bownes & Ingersoll, 1997). <br />
  25. 25. Communication Skills<br /> Also, a ten-year study has shown that delinquency rates were reduced by 91% when programs were put into place that assisted the family of at-risk youth (Bownes & Ingersoll, 1997).<br /> “That being said, we can use the grant to build a community center in the vacant lot next to the church. The center can be used as an after-school center, a recreational arena, and a resource center where we can hold support groups and counseling sessions plus health screenings and financial information presentations just to name a few (Argosy, 2010). At the center, the children can be encouraged to take an active part in rebuilding their community by helping each other and forming teams to promote group activities (Argosy, 2010). We can employ the use of mentors to instill empathy in the children so that they will feel a connection to others and want to emulate what their mentors are doing. In addition, we will target, you, Parents, and give you the education you need to spot risky behaviors in your kids and to teach your children how to be proactive in preventing and resisting violent and illegal behaviors (Argosy, 2010). We do not want our children to become victims so we need to make sure that they have safe routes to walk to and from school. We need to set up neighborhood watches that operate day and night and have safe havens for the kids – places they can run to in case of trouble (Argosy, 2010). This means that we will have to work together and put aside any differences we may have in order to benefit our community. We will also provide parental counseling and classes so that we can give our kids what they need and not necessarily what our parents told us every child needs (Bownes & Ingersoll, 1997).<br />
  26. 26. Ethics and Diversity<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />
  27. 27. Ethics and Diversity<br />Lillith: 16th Century Witch<br />PSY493 Crime and Causes<br />Tammi Hart<br />Dr. Jon Stern<br />May 14, 2010<br />Lillithhas been accused of practicing witchcraft with the intent to do harm. She has been living in this community for the last twenty years and has never been accused of breaking the law. In fact, she has been a midwife for the mayor’s sister, she has been a healer to those who are sick, and she has been the nursemaid for many children whose parents could not care for them. All of a sudden, when a new governor is elected, Lillith is the devil or at least his cohort. Does this reasoning make sense? Where is the rationale?<br />
  28. 28. Ethics and Diversity<br />Some may say that Lillith was born with the tendency to do harm – the idea of original sin – and therefore, needs redemption (Argosy, 2010). They believe that it is up to the church to handle this case since it is a moral one and only God can prove her innocence (Argosy, 2010). Others, a new school of thought, may say that she made a rational choice to commit a crime because there were positive consequences to do so (Argosy, 2010). Unfortunately, there is no evidence to support either theory. Lillith is unselfish. She is not for personal gain, but for the health and welfare of her community. She has never charged for her services and has actually offered to perform many deeds without being asked.<br /> As far as the claim that she speaks to people who are unseen or reports hearing voices, there is no harm being done. Maybe she does hear or see people that others do not. She could see angels, she could see Jesus, or she could see things that are completely her imagination. It is well known that Lillith is advanced in her age. Everybody knows an older person who is not in their “right mind” and acts oddly. <br />
  29. 29. Foundations<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />
  30. 30. Foundations<br />Theories of Crime<br />PSY493 Crime and Causes<br />Tammi Hart<br />Dr. Jon Stern<br />June 16, 2010<br />Why do people commit crimes? Is it nature? Is it nurture? Is it selfishness or desperation? Could it be all of the above? Or none of the above? It all depends upon who you ask. There are many theories in criminology that attempt to explain why people commit crimes. Some are based on sociology and the institutions of society that influence the individual (Argosy, 2010). Others are based on the nature of the crime, the individual, and his motives (Conklin, 2010). Travis Hirshi proposed the latter.<br />
  31. 31. Foundations<br />Hirshideveloped a theory to explain why people commit crimes called the social control theory. In this theory, Hirshi stated that the individual chooses delinquent behavior because he does not have intimate attachments to people, morals, values, etc (Conklin, 2010). If the delinquent valued the law or either parental values, then they are more likely to stay out of trouble. Delinquents do not care what others think and if they have formed attachments, they are with other delinquents.<br />Hirshicontinued to expound upon criminology by joining forces with Michael Gottfredson to develop the general theory of crime. Gottfredson and Hirshi believed that criminals have little self-control and are led to seek instant gratification (Conklin, 2010). They are unlikely to participate in long-term organized crime because Gottfredson and Hirshi subscribed to the belief that criminals did not operate with organization. They pursued gratification no matter the cost to the victim. In the researchers’ opinion, police created this description of criminal organization to explain multiple criminal acts committed within a short span of time (Conklin, 2010). <br /> Social control theory segued into the general theory of crime because one cannot exist without the other. The delinquent must feel no attachment to family, school, or any other social institution that would compel him to be law-abiding. Once he has severed those attachments (or not formed them from the beginning), he will commit crimes that will provide immediate thrills. Most are impulsive, according to Hirshi and Gottfredson, and are called ordinary crimes (Conklin, 2010). The need for thrills falls into the Neutralization theory proposed by Matza and Sykes.<br />
  32. 32. Applied<br />Applied Psychology<br />
  33. 33. Applied<br />Police Officers and Stress<br />PSY422 Forensic Psychology<br />Tammi Hart<br />Dr. Sara Bender<br />April 17, 2010<br />In the article, Stress in police officers: a study of the origins, prevalence andseverity of stress-related symptoms within a county police force (Collins & Gibbs, 2003.), a survey of 1206 police officers showed that 41% attributed great stress to their “organizational culture” and “workload.” Many pointed to the lack of communication and support in their departments, the lack of control over their workload, and the interference of work in their family lives as major points of stress (Collins & Gibbs, 2003). Work stress was attributed to increased physical and mental illness (Collins & Gibbs, 2003) such as depression, and also drug use (Argosy, 2010). Most disturbing was that female officers appeared to be more susceptible to stress and its negative effects than their male counterparts (Collins & Gibbs, 2003). Because police officers have been known to commit suicide (Rabasca, 2000) due to their highly stressful occupations, early intervention is paramount.<br /> <br />
  34. 34. Applied<br />Forensic psychologists who are skilled in working with police officers and their environment can offer psychotherapy to the officers (Argosy, 2010). In October 2000, police chiefs and psychologists collaborated to help the police departments become healthier environments (Rabasca, 2000). The psychologists offered to aid the departments in restructuring their organizations, in assessing officers at midcareer, and in stress management, just to name a few (Rabasca, 2000). The can also provide counseling services that will help officers who have been injured or disabled and those who, as mentioned before, may comtemplate suicide as their only option (Rabasca, 2000). They can further provide Fitness For Duty Evaluations (FFDE), if recommended by superiors, to determine if the job is too much for the officer to handle (Argosy, 2010). The evaluations are usually performed through a structured interview with the officer and clinical assessment tests such as the MMPI-2 and the PAI to evaluate competencies (Argosy, 2010). These tests will reveal any psychopathologies the officers may have, whether it will impair their ability to function on the job, or if it will negatively impact their daily life (Argosy, 2010).<br /> <br /> <br />
  35. 35. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> <br />
  36. 36. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> The Death Penalty<br />PSY423 Psychology and Criminal Justice<br />Tammi Hart<br />Dr. Ellen Weston<br />April 13, 2010<br />(Psychology Today, April 13, 2010) – The death penalty is a controversial issue and can cause much discord among society. Also known as capital punishment, the death penalty is used for those who have committed a capital crime such as murder (Argosy, 2010). The murder could be that of a child, a police officer, or under federal law, treason and spying (Argosy, 2010). Various methods are used for executions around the world: beheadings, firing squads, electrocution, and hangings (Argosy, 2010).<br /> Opponents of the death penalty believe that it is immoral and inhumane (Deats, 2000). Many also believe that it unfairly punishes those who are minority and who have been found guilty of crimes which they did not commit (Argosy, 2010). In fact, 41% of people on death row are African-American. Since 1900, 416 people were wrongly convicted and sentenced to death and unfortunately, 23 of those were executed (Argosy, 2010).<br /> <br />
  37. 37. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> Another argument for opponents is that psychologists have discovered that the death penalty is not a deterrent for crime and that murderers do not weigh the consequences before they kill (Argosy, 2010). Furthermore, states with the death penalty have higher murder rates than those without it (Argosy, 2010). <br /> On the other hand, proponents of the death penalty say that it is a deterrent for crime and that society is safer once execution is carried out (Who Speaks For, 2010). Michael Carter, a 37 year-old gentleman, believes in the death penalty, but thinks that it does not always work. He believes that most of the criminals who are killed could care less whether they die or not. <br /> Other death penalty advocates illustrate the folly of paroling those who have previously been convicted of violent crimes. According to them, violent criminals are paroled and allowed to commit heinous crimes once again (Who Speaks For, 2010). Advocates further state that the victims are lost in this battle with all of the attention being placed on the criminal being executed instead of on those whose lives will never be the same again (Who Speaks For, 2010).<br /> <br />
  38. 38. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> Before doing research, the death penalty was something arbitrary without much effect. It felt right and wrong at the same time. Maybe it was used too much or not enough. Maybe it was used in the wrong instances or in the right ones. Unfortunately, after researching the various sides and weighing the arguments, the death penalty is still somewhat elusive – like a thought that cannot be pinned down. So, the author is still on the fence – with slightly more weight on the left side. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  39. 39. My Future in Learning<br />I will never stop learning. Learning is like breathing. If I stop, I will die. Learning new ways of doing things, interacting with people of different backgrounds, speaking new languages, and just exploring the world are things I must do in order to be satisfied and function to the best of my ability. <br /> As a result, I will continue my formal education after graduation from Argosy. I am strongly interested in Philosophy and Metaphysics with an emphasis on how people define themselves spiritually, if at all.<br /> Informally, I will never stop picking up a book, I will never stop watching documentaries, I will never stop befriending others of different cultures, and I will never stop contributing what I have learned to the lives of those I meet. After all, that is what I am here to do: make someone else’s life better than it was before I met them. <br />
  40. 40. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br /> <br />