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Virginia Dignum, Associate professor on Social Artificial Intelligence at TU Delft – Design and evaluation of human agent teamwork

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Virginia Dignum, Associate professor on Social Artificial Intelligence at TU Delft – Design and evaluation of human agent teamwork

  1. 1. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Responsible interaction in human-agent-robot teamwork Virginia Dignum SAIL - Social Artificial Intelligence Lab Delft University of Technology email: m.v.dignum@tudelft.nl twitter: @vdignum url: staff.tudelft.nl/en/M.V.Dignum
  2. 2. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence PUTTING PEOPLE FIRST IN THE DIGITAL ERA • Human-agent-robot interaction • Ethics by Design
  3. 3. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Human-like AI Partners Deep learning Big data Autonomy intelligent system Autonomous vehicles Artificial Intelligence
  4. 4. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Autonomy • Autonomous agents • Proactive (goal-directed) • Reactive (response-stimulus) • Social (communication) • Act on an environment • Action / plan autonomy • Goal autonomy • Motive autonomy
  5. 5. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Autonomy • Autonomous agents • Proactive (goal-directed) • Reactive (response-stimulus) • Social (communication) • Act on an environment • Action / plan autonomy • Goal autonomy • Motive autonomy
  6. 6. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Adaptability • Machine Learning • Focus is on performance, optimization • Bias from data • Leads to black box systems • We must build for transparency • Needs new focus in ML • Ethical feedback • Educate AI • Like children, adjusted expectations • Training wheels / L-plates • Less is more • ML is heavily relying on data correlation • Abstraction / causality • https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/small-data-next-big-thing-ai-make-smarter- virginia-dignum/
  7. 7. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Interaction Together, AI and people, we can do much more http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6249609/
  8. 8. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Interaction • Teamplayers • Commitment • Mutually predictable in their actions • Mutually directable • Maintain common ground • Challenges • Model the ‘other’ (Theory of Mind) • Coordination (take and give control) • Negotiation
  9. 9. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Designing for interaction • Interaction is dependability • Interaction is capacity • Interaction is relationship • Principles • observability • predictability • directability
  10. 10. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Johnson, M, Bradshaw, J, Feltovich, P, Jonker, C, Van Riemsdijk, B, Sierhuis, M: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260479210_Coactive_Design_Designing_Supp ort_for_Interdependence_in_Joint_Activity Coactive Design: Designing Support for Interdependence in Joint Activity
  11. 11. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Interdependence analysis
  12. 12. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Interdependence analysis - example
  13. 13. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence From AI to Responsible Artificial Intelligence Autonomy intelligent system Responsibility decide explain inspect
  14. 14. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Ethics in AI design • AI systems will take decisions that have ethical grounds and consequences • Need for design methods that ensure ART• Accountability • Explanation and justification • Responsibility • Chain of responsible actors • AI is artefact! • Transparency • Data and processes • Algorithms See more: https://ai.xprize.org/news/bringing-art-ai
  15. 15. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Ethics by Design - requirements 1. Value alignment • Identify relevant human values • Are there universal human values? • Who gets a say? Why these? 2. Ethical Behaviour • Ethical theories: How to behave according to these values? • How to prioritize those values? 3. Implementation • Role of user • Role of society • Role of AI system
  16. 16. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Ethically acceptable Socially accepted Legally allowed 1. Which values? Sources: practices, law, ethics
  17. 17. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence 2. Which Ethics theories ? • Teleology / Utilitarianism • Results matter • It is rational • reasons can be given to explain why actions are good or bad • But it ignores the unjust distribution of good consequences • Deontology / Kant • Actions matter; people matter • It is rational, i.e. logic can be used to determine if actions are ethical, but • If several rules apply gives no way to resolve a conflict between rules • It allows no exceptions to moral rules • Virtues • Motives matter • Relational rather than rational • Follow virtuous examples Does not provide ways to resolve conflicting rights • Deontology and Virtue Ethics focus on the individual decision makers while Teleology considers on all affected parties.
  18. 18. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence 2. Which ethics theories? Ethical Autonomous Vehicle • Utilitarian car • The best for most; results matter • maximize lives • Kantian car • Do no harmful action; people and actions matter • do not take a decision to swerve if that action causes others harm • Aristotelian car • Pure motives; motives matter • Harm the least; • Rawls car • Fairness matters • spare the least advantaged (pedestrians?) Can you personalise yours?
  19. 19. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence 3. Implementation: From values to functionalities values social norms functionalities interpretation concretization safety speed < 100 crash-worth … … How ethical are our norms? How social are our actions?
  20. 20. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence user&machine machine 3. Implementation choices algorithmic regulation random collaboration infrastructures & institutions
  21. 21. © Virginia Dignum, 2016Responsible Artificial Intelligence Ethical decisions by Autonomous Systems • Responsible Artificial Intelligence • Society shapes and is shaped by design • The AI systems we develop • The processes we follow • The institutions we establish • Knowing ethics is not being ethical • Not for us and not for machines • Responsible AI concerns the systems AND concerns us • We design, we use, we are responsible • Ethics is the new green
  22. 22. Responsible Artificial Intelligence WE ARE RESPONSIBLE

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