The methods chosen to cook various foods will greatly influence
the finished product different can be cooked in different ways to:
Make food easy to digest and safe to eat
Make food pleasant to eat, with a agreeable flavour
Add required colour and variety of colour
Give a food a good texture tender, slightly firm, crisp, depending
on the food
Give variety to our menus and our diets.
What happen when food
This can be take place in 4
•Convection occurs when a liquid or gas is heated causing hot air
to rise and cooler air to sink.
•In conduction, heat passes through one solid to another. This can
only be done with material that is good conductor of heat, such as
•Transferring heat energy to adjacent material without contact
•Heat is transferred directly to food by electromagnetic waves, such
as microwaves or infrared waves.
•Is cooking by immersion in boiling water/ liquid
•Involves use of temperature below the boiling point.
•Meat tenderizing uses simmering temperature instead of
•Is the liquid in which the food is cooked. As well as water,
different liquids can be used for specific dishes.
Two types of poaching
Water is allowed to vaporize and the food is placed on a
rack over the vaporizing steam
TYPES OF STEAMING
•High – pressure steaming
Food is cooked in an oven using dry heat
•BROILING- The heat source is above the food
•GRILLING- the heat source is below the food
Food is cooked in dry heat is added
Cooking food in small amount of preheated fat or oil.
Cooking methods the amount of oil used is enough to
completely submerge the food to be cooked.
Food is completely covered by liquid.
These methods use less liquid and slightly lower cooking
Combination of steaming, stewing and pan fry.
USE THE CORRECT PLATE
Plates come in different sizes for different courses and in
different shapes to suites various types of food.
When plating food the top consideration in coordination of
shapes, colour sizes texture, and flavour.
CAREFULLY ARRANNGE THE FOOD ON THE PLATE
Consider a plate or platter as a frame for picture.
Food must never hand over the edge or rim of the plate or
DO NOT USE CRAKED THE FOOD OR CHIPPED PLATES
ENSURE PLATES ARE SPOTLESS AFTERPLATING MUNU
Wipe any drips of sauce or finger marks before serving to
It is adds a focal point to the plate. It should attract the eye and
highlights the food. Garnishing depends upon the course, the
texture of the food and the type of dish.
The guidelines are following:
In some way related to the main food item
The food items should appear balanced, and there should be two or
three colour on the plate. Plan also plan for a variety of shapes.
•Is basic of all meat sauces, gravies,
soups and purees.
•Is the foundation of many
important in kitchen preparation.
The Key Point in Preparation of
•Unsound meat or bones and decaying vegetables
will give stocks an unpleasant flavour and causes it
to deteriorate quickly.
• Scum should be removed; otherwise it will boil into
the stocks and spoil the colour and flavour.
•Fat should be skimmed off; otherwise the stocks
will taste greasy.
•Stocks should always simmer gently; if it is allowed
to boil quickly
•Salt should not be added to stocks
•When making chicken stocks the bones will
needed to soaked first to remove the blood that is
in the cavity.
•If stocks are to be kept, strain it and cool quickly,
then place it in the refrigerator.
Type of Stocks
Brown Stocks- the stocks resulting from browning bones and
prior to simmering.
White Stocks- the flavoured obtained by simmering the
The Main Ingredients
Mirepoix –is the ingredients of all stocks are
Garni – a bundle of parsley or bay leaf.
Nages - is floured stocks often used for cooking in
different recipe needing stocks to enhance the
flavour of the dishes.
Sauce making is not difficult. It depends on an understanding of the ingredients and
how they react, and clear intentions about the result you wish to achieve.
•Sauces are thickened to improve appearance, concentrated
flavours and make easier to eat.
•Sauces should be smooth, glossy in appearance, definite in taste
and light in texture.
•The thickness of sauces should be considered according
to its use, that is, whether it will be required to:
•Thicken other ingredients (it will need to be very heavy )
•Coat or mask the food
•Act as a cooking liquid
•Moisten dry foods.
The sauces thickened by either:
Beurre manie – is a paste made from equal quantities of soft butter
Roux - is combination of fat and flour, which are cooked together.
The Type of Roux
The five mother sauces
•Soups are preparations that are derived from large
variety of ingredients. Thick or thin, they should be
dedicating in flavour, natural in colour and light in
•The possible range of different soups is unlimited for
hot and cold, clear or pureed varieties.
•The principles of soup begin with the preparation of
•The garnish should be sufficient to identify and add
interest to the soup.
•The garnish should not be more than 10% by the
volume of the soup.
•The garnish should be cut so that the guest can eat it
with a spoon without embarrassment.
Types of Soups
Clear and Thin Soup
Bisque – lobster and shellfish
Clear and Thin Soup – have a consistency between a clear liquid soup.
Thickened Soup- any stocks or broth can thicken with cream.