Culinary 2


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Culinary 2

  3. 3. How to Read Recipe
  4. 4. Ingredients / kitchen utensils Optional ingredients Ingredients without a specific measurement Substitute/alternate ingredients Directions Nutritional Information Serving Suggestions
  5. 5. Food Preparation & Presentation Cooking Methods & Technique
  6. 6. The methods chosen to cook various foods will greatly influence the finished product different can be cooked in different ways to: Make food easy to digest and safe to eat Make food pleasant to eat, with a agreeable flavour Add required colour and variety of colour Give a food a good texture tender, slightly firm, crisp, depending on the food Give variety to our menus and our diets.
  7. 7. What happen when food is cooked? This can be take place in 4 ways:
  8. 8. CONVECTION •Convection occurs when a liquid or gas is heated causing hot air to rise and cooler air to sink. CONDUCTION •In conduction, heat passes through one solid to another. This can only be done with material that is good conductor of heat, such as metal. INDUCTION •Transferring heat energy to adjacent material without contact RADIATION •Heat is transferred directly to food by electromagnetic waves, such as microwaves or infrared waves.
  9. 9. Cooking Methods & Technique Moist Heat Cooking Methods Dry Heat Cooking Methods
  10. 10. BOILING •Is cooking by immersion in boiling water/ liquid SIMMERING •Involves use of temperature below the boiling point. •Meat tenderizing uses simmering temperature instead of boiling.
  11. 11. POACHING •Is the liquid in which the food is cooked. As well as water, different liquids can be used for specific dishes. . Two types of poaching •Shallow poaching •Deep poaching
  12. 12. STEAMING Water is allowed to vaporize and the food is placed on a rack over the vaporizing steam TYPES OF STEAMING •Atmospheric steaming •High – pressure steaming •Combination steaming .
  13. 13. BAKING Food is cooked in an oven using dry heat BROILING /GRILLING •BROILING- The heat source is above the food •GRILLING- the heat source is below the food .
  14. 14. ROASTING Food is cooked in dry heat is added •Basting •Barding •Larding
  15. 15. SHALLOW FRYING Cooking food in small amount of preheated fat or oil. DEEP FRYING Cooking methods the amount of oil used is enough to completely submerge the food to be cooked. •SAUTEING •STIR- FRY •PAN –FRY
  16. 16. STEWING Food is completely covered by liquid. CASSEROLING These methods use less liquid and slightly lower cooking temperature. BRAISING Combination of steaming, stewing and pan fry.
  17. 17. The Importance of Food Presentation
  18. 18. P LATES USE THE CORRECT PLATE Plates come in different sizes for different courses and in different shapes to suites various types of food. When plating food the top consideration in coordination of shapes, colour sizes texture, and flavour.
  19. 19. CAREFULLY ARRANNGE THE FOOD ON THE PLATE Consider a plate or platter as a frame for picture. Food must never hand over the edge or rim of the plate or platter DO NOT USE CRAKED THE FOOD OR CHIPPED PLATES ENSURE PLATES ARE SPOTLESS AFTERPLATING MUNU Wipe any drips of sauce or finger marks before serving to the guest.
  20. 20. GARNISH It is adds a focal point to the plate. It should attract the eye and highlights the food. Garnishing depends upon the course, the texture of the food and the type of dish. The guidelines are following: Simple In some way related to the main food item Small Edible attractive
  21. 21. A RRANGEMENT The food items should appear balanced, and there should be two or three colour on the plate. Plan also plan for a variety of shapes.
  22. 22. Stocks •Is basic of all meat sauces, gravies, soups and purees. •Is the foundation of many important in kitchen preparation.
  23. 23. The Key Point in Preparation of Stocks: •Unsound meat or bones and decaying vegetables will give stocks an unpleasant flavour and causes it to deteriorate quickly. • Scum should be removed; otherwise it will boil into the stocks and spoil the colour and flavour. •Fat should be skimmed off; otherwise the stocks will taste greasy.
  24. 24. •Stocks should always simmer gently; if it is allowed to boil quickly •Salt should not be added to stocks •When making chicken stocks the bones will needed to soaked first to remove the blood that is in the cavity. •If stocks are to be kept, strain it and cool quickly, then place it in the refrigerator.
  25. 25. Type of Stocks Brown Stocks- the stocks resulting from browning bones and prior to simmering. White Stocks- the flavoured obtained by simmering the bones. Fish Stocks Chicken Stocks Vegetable Stocks
  26. 26. The Main Ingredients Mirepoix –is the ingredients of all stocks are consists: Onion Carrot Celery Garni – a bundle of parsley or bay leaf. Nages - is floured stocks often used for cooking in different recipe needing stocks to enhance the flavour of the dishes.
  27. 27. Sauces Sauce making is not difficult. It depends on an understanding of the ingredients and how they react, and clear intentions about the result you wish to achieve. •Sauces are thickened to improve appearance, concentrated flavours and make easier to eat. •Sauces should be smooth, glossy in appearance, definite in taste and light in texture.
  28. 28. •The thickness of sauces should be considered according to its use, that is, whether it will be required to: •Thicken other ingredients (it will need to be very heavy ) •Coat or mask the food •Act as a cooking liquid •Moisten dry foods. The sauces thickened by either: Beurre manie – is a paste made from equal quantities of soft butter and flour. Roux - is combination of fat and flour, which are cooked together.
  29. 29. The Type of Roux White Roux Blond Roux Brown Roux Continental Roux The five mother sauces Béchamel sauce Tomato sauce Hollandaise sauce Veloute sauce Espagnole sauce
  30. 30. Soup •Soups are preparations that are derived from large variety of ingredients. Thick or thin, they should be dedicating in flavour, natural in colour and light in texture. •The possible range of different soups is unlimited for hot and cold, clear or pureed varieties. •The principles of soup begin with the preparation of stocks.
  31. 31. Soup Garnishes •The garnish should be sufficient to identify and add interest to the soup. •The garnish should not be more than 10% by the volume of the soup. •The garnish should be cut so that the guest can eat it with a spoon without embarrassment.
  32. 32. Types of Soups Clear and Thin Soup Bouillon Broth Consommé Potage Puree Thickened Soup Cream Puree Bisque – lobster and shellfish Sauce Clear and Thin Soup – have a consistency between a clear liquid soup. Thickened Soup- any stocks or broth can thicken with cream.
  33. 33. Thank You