Contingencies and provisioning[1]

1,349 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Career
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,349
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
34
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Contingencies and provisioning[1]

  1. 1. Contingencies and Provisioning N R GOVINDARAJAN CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT FCA,GRAD.CWA,CISA DISA
  2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Scope and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Provision vs Liability </li></ul><ul><li>Provision vs Contingent Liability </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of provision </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of provision </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Onerous contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent assets </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosures </li></ul>
  4. 4. Scope and objectives <ul><li>Prescribes the accounting treatment as well as disclosure requirements for: </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent assets </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable to all entities while accounting for the above except those resulting from: </li></ul><ul><li>Financial instruments carried at fair value </li></ul><ul><li>Executory contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Events or transactions covered by another IAS </li></ul>
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS
  6. 6. Provision vs Liability LIABILITY Liability is a present obligation. There is no uncertainty about amount and timing. Accounts payable is an example of liability. Outstanding expense is a liability for goods and services received. Even if it is necessary to estimate the amount or timings of accruals, the uncertainty is generally much less than for provisions PROVISION There is uncertainty about the timing and amount of future obligation but Obligation is confirmed. Provision for retirement gratuity timing of the obligation is uncertain as it will arise when the employee leaves. On retirement gratuity is paid based on last pay of the employee which is uncertain.
  7. 7. Provision vs Contingent Liability No provision is recognised Disclosures required for contingent liability as per para 86 There is possible obligation or a present obligation where the likelihood of an outflow of resources is remote. No provision is recognised Disclosures required for contingent liability as per para 86 There is a possible obligation or present obligation that may but probably not require an outflow of resources Contingent Liability A provision is recognised Disclosure necessary as per Paras 84 and 85. There is a present obligation that probably requires an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate of the obligation is made IAS 37 REQUIREMENTS Provision
  8. 8. Recognition of provision <ul><li>Para 14 conditions for recognition of provision </li></ul><ul><li>Three conditons are to be fulfilled for the recognition of provision: </li></ul><ul><li>There is a present obligation which may be legal or constructive ( policy of refunds to dissatisfied customers) as a result of past events </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation </li></ul><ul><li>A reliable estimate could be made of the amount of obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Even if one of the conditions is not met, NO PROVISION IS REQUIRED </li></ul><ul><li>CASE STUDY 1 & 2 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Measurement of provision <ul><li>Provision is recognised based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates are based upon various factors such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Judgements </li></ul><ul><li>Risks and uncertainities </li></ul><ul><li>Present value </li></ul><ul><li>Reimbursements </li></ul><ul><li>Review of provision </li></ul>
  10. 10. Best Estimates <ul><li>The amount recognised as a provision shall be the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period . </li></ul><ul><li>The best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation is the amount that an entity would rationally pay to settle the obligation at the end of the reporting period or to transfer it to a third party at that time </li></ul>
  11. 11. An entity sells goods with a warranty under which customers are covered for the cost of repairs of any manufacturing defects that become apparent withinthe first six months after purchase. If minor defects were detected in all products sold, repair costs of 1 million would result. If major defects were detected in all products sold, repair costs of 4 million would result. The entity’s past experience and future expectations indicate that, for the coming year,75 per cent of the goods sold will have no defects, 20 per cent of the goods sold will have minor defects and 5 per cent of the goods sold will have major defects. In accordance with paragraph 24, an entity assesses the probability of an outflow for the warranty obligations as a whole. The expected value of the cost of repairs is: (75% of nil) + (20% of 1m) + (5% of 4m) = 400,000
  12. 12. Where a single obligation is being measured, the individual most likely outcome may be the best estimate of the liability. However, even in such a case, the entity considers other possible outcomes. Where other possible outcomes are either mostly higher or mostly lower than the most likely outcome, the best estimate will be a higher or lower amount. If an entity has to rectify a serious fault in a major plant that it has constructed for a customer, the individual most likely outcome may be for the repair to succeed at the first attempt at a cost of 1,000, but a provision for a larger amount is made if there is a significant chance that further attempts will be necessary
  13. 13. Present Value <ul><li>Where the effect of the time value of money is material, the amount of a provision shall be the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation. </li></ul><ul><li>The discount rate (or rates) shall be a pre-tax rate (or rates) that reflect(s) current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. </li></ul><ul><li>The discount rate(s) shall not reflect risks for which future cash flow estimates have been adjusted </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 3 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Onerous contracts <ul><li>An onerous contract is a contract in which the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it. </li></ul><ul><li>The unavoidable costs under a contract reflect the least net cost of exiting from the contract, which is the lower of the cost of fulfilling it and any compensation or penalties arising from failure to fulfill it. </li></ul><ul><li>Case study 4 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Restructuring <ul><li>A restructuring is a programme that is planned and controlled by management and materially changes either: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) the scope of a business undertaken by an entity; or </li></ul><ul><li>(b) the manner in which that business is conducted. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Restructuring <ul><li>The following are examples of events that may fall under the definition of restructuring: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) sale or termination of a line of business; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) the closure of business locations in a country or region or the relocation of business activities from one country or region to another; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) changes in management structure, for example, eliminating a layer of management; and </li></ul><ul><li>(d) fundamental reorganisations that have a material effect on the nature and focus of the entity’s operations </li></ul><ul><li>A provision for restructuring costs is recognised only when the general recognition criteria for provisions set out in paragraph 14 are met </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 5 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Contingent liabilities <ul><li>A contingent liability is: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity; or </li></ul><ul><li>(b) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognised because: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Contingent liabilities <ul><li>No provision is made for a contingent liability </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosures are to be made in accordance with Para 86 </li></ul><ul><li>If the possibility of outflow embodying economic benefit is remote even disclosure is not required </li></ul><ul><li>As conditions relating to contingent liability may change continous assessment to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Joint and several obligations may be treated as contingent liability to the extent of the entity’s share </li></ul>
  19. 19. Contingent assets <ul><li>A contingent asset : </li></ul><ul><li>Is a possible asset that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>This may be a case of a claim that an entity is pursuing through a legal suit, where the oucome is uncertain. It is not to be recognised </li></ul><ul><li>Like contingent liabilities they are to be continually assessed for change in circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Where an inflow of economic benefits is probable, an entity shall disclose a brief description of the nature of the contingent assets at the end of the reporting period, and, </li></ul><ul><li>Where practicable, an estimate of their financial effect, measured using the principles set out for provisions in paragraphs 36–52 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Disclosures <ul><li>Breakup of Disclosure of Provisions: </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying amount at the beginning of the period </li></ul><ul><li>+ Additional provisions made during the year </li></ul><ul><li>+ Increase because of unwinding of discount </li></ul><ul><li>- Amount used against liability / loss </li></ul><ul><li>- Amount reversed as provision is not required </li></ul><ul><li>=Carrying amount at the end of the period </li></ul>
  21. 21. Disclosures <ul><li>Provisions </li></ul><ul><li>Description of the obligation, amount and timing of outflows embodying economic benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated uncertainties and how uncertainties are reflected in the measurement of provision. </li></ul><ul><li>Reimbursements </li></ul>
  22. 22. Disclosures <ul><li>Contingent Liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>The following are disclosed if the entity does not view that the possibility of any outflow in settlement is remote: </li></ul><ul><li>An estimate of the financial effect; </li></ul><ul><li>Associated uncertainties; </li></ul><ul><li>Any reimbursement </li></ul>
  23. 23. Exemption - Disclosures <ul><li>In extremely rare cases, disclosure of some or all of the information required by paragraphs 84–89 can be expected to prejudice seriously the position of the entity in a dispute with other parties on the subject matter of the provision, contingent liability or contingent asset. </li></ul><ul><li>In such cases, an entity need not disclose the information, but shall disclose the general nature of the dispute, together with the fact that, and reason why, the information has not been disclosed </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>An entity is involved in a dispute with a competitor, who is alleging that the entity has infringed patents and is seeking damages of Rs 100 million. </li></ul><ul><li>The entity recognises a provision for its best estimate of the obligation, but discloses none of the information required by paragraphs 84 and 85 of the Standard. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The following information is disclosed: Litigation is in process against the company relating to a dispute with a competitor who alleges that the company has infringed patents and is seeking damages of Rs 100 million. The information usually required by IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets is not disclosed on the grounds that it can be expected to prejudice seriously the outcome of the litigation. The directors are of the opinion that the Claim can be successfully resisted by the company .
  26. 26. Thank you [email_address]

×