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# Six sigma

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### Six sigma

1. 1. `
2. 2. Did You Know? How many Billion dollars was saved by Six Sigma. `
3. 3. REAL WORLD EXAMPLE: Six Sigma Implementation (Web link:http://www.sixsigma.com/six-sigma-results/) `
4. 4. Who is believing? Companies that implemented Six Sigma `
5. 5. Some Believers `
6. 6. CHAPTER 1 Six sigma in perspective `
7. 7. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. What is sigma What is Six Sigma Why Six Sigma Six Concepts • • • • • Defect Prevention Cost of poor quality Increasing consistency Fact-based Decisions Teamwork 5. Tools and Training 6. DFSS `
8. 8. What is Sigma? A term used in statistics to represent standard deviation, an indicator of the degree of variation in a set of a process. Sigma `
9. 9. What is Six Sigma? Six Sigma A statistical concept that measures a process in terms of defects-at the six sigma level, there 3.4 defects per million opportunities. `
10. 10. Why Sigma? • • • • • The word is a statistical term that measures how far a given process deviates from perfection. The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many "defects" you have in a process. you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to "zero defects" as possible. To achieve Six Sigma Quality. a process must produce no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. An "opportunity" is defined as a chance for nonconformance, or not meeting the required specifications. This means we need to be nearly flawless in executing our key processes. `
11. 11. But most companies operate between three and Four Sigma's. Here’s the comparison of Sigma levels Three through Six. `
12. 12. Example: How it actually works 3α 6α  900 flights cancellations/weekUSA  1 Us flight cancellations/3 Weeks  Every hour 47,000 ISD Calls drop  The same number of drops would take 2 years  11000 typos in 1 Harry Potter Book.  7 typos in 1 Harry Potter Book `
13. 13. Six Sigma Concepts      Prevent defects Reduce variation Focus on the Customer Make decisions based on facts Encourage teamwork `
14. 14. Defect Prevention “Prevention is better than cure”  Classic quality control inspected products to find the defects ,then corrected them.  Six Sigma analyzes the process to determine what causes the defects, then changes the process to prevent them. Check syntax errors all the time !!! Comparison of Six sigma and quality Control Action taken Action is On Effect Is Effect is On Need to Repeat Quality Control Inspect Product Correction of Error 1 Product Constantly Six Sigma Analyse Process Prevention Of defect All Product None `
15. 15. Cost of Quality • The cost of quality has two main components: the cost of good quality (or the cost of conformance) and the cost of poor quality (or the cost of non-conformance) `
16. 16. Cost of poor quality  The cost of poor quality affects: – Internal and external costs resulting from failing to meet requirement  Cost of Poor Quality: Internal Failure Costs Internal failure costs are costs that are caused by products or services not conforming to requirements or customer/user needs and are found before delivery of products and services to external customers.  Cost of Poor Quality: External Failure Costs External failure costs are costs that are caused by deficiencies found after delivery of products and services to external customers, which lead to customer dissatisfaction. `
17. 17. Six Sigma helps in increasing Consistency.  Consistency is important because it is predictable. Here’s an example explaining process to determine consistency.  The first player has too much variation but his darts were close to the bull’s eye.  Six sigma company would prefer the consistency of the second player although he never came close to the bull’s eye.  For a Six Sigma company, the next steps would be to examine the process that caused the defect and then change the process to eliminate the defect.  With training or improved tools ,he should be able to hit the bull’s eye consistently.  Consistent ,on-target results are the goal of every company .Six Sigma helps them to get there. `
18. 18. Customer Focus Six sigma companies Spend a lot of time talking-about-and to-customers     External customers: The ones who buy the products or services the company sells. Internal customers: The one such as a department that uses a service another department provides. Six Sigma projects begin by listening to the “voice of the customer” The entire project life cycle is characterized by constant communication, and it is much more than delivering periodic reports. `
19. 19. Fact-Based Decisions  It is important to understand exactly how a process is operating before making any changes.  It is important to ensure that the changes made are the Right ones.  Before making the change six Sigma companies makes sure what the customer really wants.  By having all the facts, six Sigma Eliminates reworks, waste . `
20. 20. Teamwork • Teams are, quite simply , the mechanism Six Sigma companies use to eliminate defects. `
21. 21. Tools Tools and Training Training  Six sigma companies recognize that training is a necessity.  Green Belt: Which consists of up to two weeks of training ,provide basic knowledge of the concepts and tools.  Black Belt: Are given in-depth training ,normally an additional four weeks.  Master Black Belt: Specialized training in the statistical tools.  This training includes “Real-worlds “ problems. `
22. 22. DFSS  Six Sigma process begins after design is complete.  It may be impossible to correct all of the problems and achieve the company’s goal of near-perfection.  DFSS tackles this problem by starting earlier in the process.  As its name implies, it focuses on the design of the product or service. Comparison of Six sigma and DFSS Action taken Timing of Action Action is On Effects Are Effect is On Need to Repeat Six Sigma Analyze At any point in the lifecycle of the process Any portion of existing Process. Prevention of defects All products None DFSS Design Before the process Entirety of new process Prevention of defects All products None `
23. 23. Company which uses both Six Sigma and DFSS (Web Link-http://www.raytheon.com/connections/supplier/r6s/) `
24. 24. CHAPTER 2 The Six sigma Difference `
25. 25. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. What is so much new about Six sigma Six Sigma and Quality Assurance What is CMMI Companies using CMMI for services • Real World Example 5. Six Sigma and CMMI 6. Six Sigma and Lean • • • Case study Real World Example1 Real world Example `
26. 26. What is so much new about Six Sigma? Question Answer Reason Is it a new concept? NO It was in use in late 1980’s Is it a new fad? NO It is currently used by many companies Why we need this new concept when we have ISO 9001,QA and CMMI and etc? They never produced desired effect on profitability `
27. 27. Six Sigma and Quality Assurance Six Sigma had its foundation in the quality movement. But Six sigma encompasses QA principles, it also goes beyond them. The difference between them are: Six Sigma Quality Assurance • • • One of the goals of quality assurance is customer’s satisfaction. QA seeks to prevent defects in existing processes. Analysis and confirmation of facts before making decisions is not explicit part of a QA. • • • • • • QA can be performed by a single department or by one individual. QA tends to be more narrowly focused. • ` Greater focus on the customer: In Six sigma companies customer is the most important. Six Sigma encourage to challenge the process, even if it is working well. The procedures for analyzing processes and ensuring that the implications of making change are fully understood before it is implemented in Six Sigma. Six Sigma projects normally cross departmental and functional boundaries. Six Sigma impacts everyone and every aspect of a company
28. 28. what is CMMI ?  History The CMMI is the successor of CMMI. The goal of the CMMI project is to improve usability of maturity models for software engineering and other disciplines, by integrating many different models into one framework. It was created by members of industry, government and the SEI.  Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes.  These levels belong to the continuous representation, apply to an organization’s process-improvement achievement for each process area. There are six capability levels, numbered 0 through 5. `
29. 29. CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Int.) `
30. 30. These are some of the companies using CMMI for Services `
31. 31. Real world Example:CMMI (Web-link-http://cmmiinstitute.com/results/benefits-of-cmmi/) `
32. 32. CMMI Process Template for Visual Studio ALM `
33. 33. Six Sigma and CMMI `
34. 34. Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma and Lean should be recognized as complementary.  Six Sigma Focuses on improvement of quality.  Lean Focuses on speed of the process. It should be obvious that the combination of greater speed with increased quality will result in improved customer satisfaction. `
35. 35. Case Study :Factory using lean (Web-link:http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2002/august/cover.html) `
36. 36. Real world Example:Enterprise Boeing adoptes Lean to Identify and Eliminate Waste (Web link-http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2002/au)gust/cover.html `
37. 37. Real world Example(2): Lean manufacturing helps companies survive recession (Web linkhttp://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/manufacturing/2009-11-01-lean-manufacturing-rece ) `
38. 38. CHAPTER 3 Managing change `
39. 39. Table of contents 1. The Human Effects of Change 2. The Roles People Play 3. Components of successful Change • Case Study 1. Communication `
40. 40. Managing Change • One of the principles of Six sigma is that improvement is continous, and improvement by definition means change. • Human Effects of Change • A seemingly minor change may have unexpected effects on the employees who are directly impacted by it. `
41. 41. The Roles People Play Roles Charactertics  Sponsors'  They are the champions of change, the ones who instigate it.  Agents  They are the activists who make change happen.  Targets  They are those who are changed.  Advocates  They support the change `
42. 42. Components of successful change  Direction.  Commitment.  Sustainability. `
43. 43. Components of successful change Direction Sustainability Commitment 1. Vision 2. Reason 3. Champion 1. Methods 2. Measurement 3. Control 1. Recognizing the benefits of change 2. Build a coalition 3. Reduce Affected ` employees
44. 44. Case Study: British Airways Adopted the change and was Successful. `
45. 45. Communication Formal Communication: Informal Communication: It is a planned communication.  These are normally verbal communication. Whereas informal communications are unplanned. A communication plan outlines what will be communicated by whom, and when. The questions raised in the meeting are oWhat changes are being planned? oWhy is the change needed? oWhen will it happen? oWho will be impacted? oWhere will it happen? `
46. 46. CHAPTER 4 Introduction to DMAIC `
48. 48. About Six Sigma  Six Sigma at many organizations simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects in any process – from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service.  This is accomplished through the use of two Six Sigma submethodologies: DMAIC `
49. 49. DMAIC: Goals DMAIC:It is an acronym for five phases in six Sigma that are: •Define •Measure •Analyze •Improve •Control `
50. 50. DMAIC: Objectives `
51. 51. CHAPTER 5 The Definition phase `
52. 52. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Definition Phase The Project Champion Define The Problem Form A Team Establish a Project Charter • Project Charter includes 1. Develop a Project Plan • 1. 2. 3. 4. High-Level Schedule includes Identify The Customer Identify Key Outputs Identify and Prioritize customer requirements Documents the current process • • • Top-level Map Detailed Process Map Functional Map `
53. 53. Definition Phase The objective of this phase is to understand the problem to be solved and the process that will be changed as part of the problem resolution so that the correct decisions can be made.  The key steps within the Definition phase are: • Define the problem. • Form a team. • Establish a project charter. • Develop a project plan. • Identify the customers. • Identify key outputs. • Identify and prioritize customer requirements. • Document the current process. `
54. 54. The Project Champion This role is essential to the success of the project. The champion is the person who leads the change .She/he is the motivation force ,the spokesperson, and the destroyer of roadblocks. • An effective champion should be aware of everything about the project. `
55. 55. Define the problem Developing a good problem statement which should be Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Time bound `
56. 56. Form a Team Involving people from different department in the team is a basic concept of Six Sigma. Support Functions to consider for team membership `
57. 57. Characteristics of effective Team members        Commitment Bias of Action Flexibility Innovation Personal Influence Teamwork Available time `
58. 58. Establish a Project charter  The charter is designed to help team members clearly understand why the team was formed. `
59. 59. Project Charter Includes Real world Example of project Charter       Business case Problem statement Project scope Goals and objectives Milestones Roles and (Web linkhttp://www.6sigma.us/SixSigmaProjectExample/images/ima ) `
60. 60. Develop a Project Plan  The first step in planning the project was to establish a high-level schedule, showing when each of the DMAIC phases was expected to ` be completed.
61. 61. High-Level Schedule Includes • • • • • • • Name the process Establish start and stop points Determine the output Determine the customers Determine the supplier Determine the input Agree on five to seven high level steps Source: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/33167882/DCIPS-High-LevelMidpointMock-Pay-Pool-Schedule `
62. 62. Identify the customers There are different categories of customers: • External • Ultimate • Internal Here’s an example to Demonstrate types of Customers `
63. 63. Identify Key Outputs In Six Sigma company the output should include not just tangibles, such as the actual order , but intangibles such as speed of processing and accuracy of information. `
64. 64. Identify and prioritize customer requirements.  The heart of Six Sigma is understanding and then delivering what customer need and what will transform them from simply being satisfied to being delighted. `
65. 65. Methods to determine customer Requirements. `
66. 66. Document the current process Six sigma organizations use process maps rather than pure description.  A process map provides a pictorial representation of process being analyzed  Showing the sequence of tasks along with key inputs and outputs. Types of process Maps  Top-Level Map  Detailed process Map  Functional Map `
67. 67. Top-Level Map A Top-Level map attempts to reduce a process to major steps. `
68. 68. Detailed Process Map  Detailed process map displays each step. Including intermediate ones, pictorially and includes decision blocks. `
69. 69. Functional Map Functional maps clearly delineates responsibilities as well as the sequence of events. `
70. 70. Definition Phase `
71. 71. CHAPTER 6 The Measurement phase `
72. 72. Table of contents 1. The Measurement Phase 2. Determine what to measure • • Types of Variation Measure what you butter 1. Conduct the measurement • Understanding Variation 1. Calculate Current Sigma level 2. DPMO 3. Determine Process Capability • Capability Indices 1. Benchmark Process headers `
73. 73. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. What is so much new about Six sigma Six Sigma and Quality Assurance What is CMMI Companies using CMMI for services • Real World Example 5. Six Sigma and CMMI 6. Six Sigma and Lean • • • Case study Real World Example1 Real world Example `
74. 74. The measurement Phase To measure the aspects of the current process and collect relevant data. To revise and clarify the problem statement To define the desired outcome. The key steps within the Measurement phase are:      Determine what to measure Conduct the measurements Calculate current sigma level Determine process capability Benchmark process leaders. `
75. 75. Determine what to measure In Six Sigma, the team should understand  Order of entry process  How long each step takes?  How many defects were created in each step?  Where there were avoidable delays? To understand the factors that affects the order entry process and then to eliminate defects. Here’s a mathematical equation which explains it. `
76. 76. Types of variation The traditional 6Ms are: Element Explanation Man This is the human element, the differences that occur when more than one person operates a equipment. Machine Variances among different pieces of the same type. Material Raw materials or ingredients are included in this category. Method More than one way to perform a process affect variation Measurement Because of measurement equipment flawed or different observers. Mother Nature Environmental factors `
77. 77. Measure what you value One of the Six Sigma tenet is that it is important what you measure. The characteristics of good measurement are:  Relevant  Adequate to detect process changes  Valid and consistent from time to time  Easy Accuracy of Measurements Measurement will be used to make decisions ,a six sigma company places a high degree of emphasis on taking accurate measurements.  It is important to define the measurement as clearly as possible. `
78. 78. Conduct the measurement To verify that the current process met the customer requirements that had been identified in the definition phase.  By comparing customer requirement and customer process.  After Knowing the customer statisfication average then understanding the factors caused the variation `
79. 79. Understanding Variation The object of six sigma is to reduce variation so that the process is consistently close to its goal. Here’s an example how it works  A company’s statistics to see if they is consistency `
80. 80. statistics to see if they is consistency `
81. 81. Statistics to see if there is consistency mean(average)=15.6 median (middle number)=15 days standard deviation=5.8 If the standard deviation is >2 then there is a large variation and little correlation in the data. Identifying abnormal data and removing it will ensure that a better sample may be taken. `
82. 82. By plotting the graph we can identify the abnormal data and removing it will ensure that a better sample may be taken.  After the team completes its measurements Although if they have some theories about the causes of variation.  They were not yet ready to analyze their finding .Instead, they prepare to calculate the sigma level of the current process. `
83. 83. Calculate Current Sigma Level Six Sigma Level measurement of defects • • • • • Defect: A failure to meet the specification . Unit: The Smallest measurement of output. Defect per unit(DPU) :The total number of defects in a sample divided by the total number of units in the sample. Defective: A unit with one or more defects. Unlike defects, Which are measured at various points in the process Opportunity: The chance to create a defect in a single unit. `
84. 84. DPMO(Defects per Million Opportunities): This metric, which is key to determining Sigma level • • • Defects Per Million Opportunities or DPMO can be then converted to sigma values using Yield to Sigma Conversion Table. According to the conversion table 6 Sigma = 3.4 DPMO `
85. 85. Here’s an example of DPMO to Sigma conversion Table `
86. 86. Determine Process Capability Process Capability is calculating process capability is to compare the process’s normal variation against the customers specification limits.  This is referred as a comparison of the “voice of the process” with the “voice of the customer” `
87. 87. i Capability Indices Six Sigma organization use two indices , Cp and Cpk The formulas Where USL=Upper Specification limit LSL=Lower Specification limit =Standard deviation =mean of the process •Cp reflects the ability to produce consistent results •Cpk indicates whether or not those results meet the goal. `
88. 88. Benchmark Leaders  The objectives of benchmarking are to: `
89. 89. Measurement Phase `
90. 90. CHAPTER 7 The Analysis phase `
91. 91. Table of contents 1. Analysis Phase 2. Determine what caused the variation • Noise Variations 1. Brainstorm ideas for process improvements • Control-Impact Matrix 1. Determine which improvements have the greatest impact on customer requirement 2. Develop Proposed process map 3. Assess Risk Associated with revised process `
92. 92. Analysis Phase The objective of analysis phase is to analyze the data that was collected in the previous phase, determine the root cause of the problems,and propose solutions to them. The steps followed in this phase are  Determine what caused the variation.  Brainstorm ideas for process improvements.  Determine which improvements would have the greatest impact on meeting customer requirements.  Develop a proposed process map.  Assess the risks associated with the revised process. `
93. 93. Determine what caused the variation  Identifying the cause of variation  Thorough understanding of the current process and being able to design new processes.  Common causes are the ones the six sigma team can try and eliminate.  To know difference between common causes and special causes, so that only common ones are addressed.  The difference can identified by plotting run charts such as the I & MR( moving range values) Example of I and MR run charts ` The points above the USL are the special causes which should be dealt with.
94. 94. Noise Variables Some variables are characterized as noise. Noise variables are typically divided into three groups:  Positional: variation from machine to machine or operator to operator.  Sequential: Variation from piece to piece or process step to process step.  Temporal: Variation from hour to hour, shift to shift, day to day. After further investigation into cause of variation If the team was unable to find any one cause for variation. They analyze the process map to determine which steps were not valueadded .Those might be the reasons for the delays. `
95. 95. Brainstorm Ideas for Process Improvement  Brainstorming helps define and display major causes, sub causes and root causes that influence a process.  Visualize the potential relationship between causes which may be creating problems or defects. `
96. 96. Control-Impact Matrix: A visual tool that helps in separating the vital few from trivial many. `
97. 97. Determine which Improvements Have the Greatest Impact on Customer Requirement.  Satisfying customers was of paramount importance.  The team has to sought to determine which improvements would benefit customers the most.  The team’s initial step was to list the customer requirements and the proposed improvements.  Then rank each improvement according to the degree to which it would satisfy each requirement.  After rating all the requirements ,the team has add them to the customers importance rankings.  By comparing the total values ,team members could see the relative effects that their proposed changes would have on the customers. `
98. 98. Develop Proposed Process Map  Next step is to develop Revised process maps.  Process Map Analysis:  Visually highlights hang off points/ working relationships between people, processes and organization.  Helps identify rework loops and non value add steps. A model of a process map `
99. 99. Assess Risks Associated with Revised Process. Assessing the risks associated with the revised process. To perform the risk analysis, a tool called Failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is used. The objectives of an FMEA are:  Identify ways in which a process might fail to meet customer requirements(the failure mode).  Determine which potential failures would have the greatest effect on the customer.  Evaluate current controls that are designed to prevent the failure.  Develop a corrective action plan to prevent the failure and document its results. `
100. 100.     FMEA provides an importance ranking for each potential failure mode. This is called the risk priority number(RPN). The higher the RPN’s, the more serious the impact of the failure. Items with high RPNs normally have corrective action plans developed to mitigate the risks. `
101. 101. FMEA MODEL WORKSHEET `
102. 102. Analysis Phase •Team members knew what had caused variation .They identified possible process changes and had weighted those against customer requirements to select the ones that would have the greatest impact on customers. •They have assessed and mitigated risks. `
103. 103. CHAPTER 7 The Improvement Phase `
104. 104. Table of contents 1. The Improvement Phase 2. Identify Improvement breakthroughs 3. Selecting high gain alternatives • • Impact Assessment Approval Checklist 1. Implementing Improvements. `
105. 105. The Improvement Phase This is the phase where all the work you have done so far in your project can come together and start to show some success. All the data mining and analysis that has been done will give you the right improvements to make to your processes. Tasks performed in the Improvement Phase are:  Gain approval for the proposed changes.  Finalize the implementation plan.  Implement the approved changes. `
106. 106. Identify Improvement Breakthroughs  In the first stage of Improve it is important to include the people who are involved in performing the process.  Apply idea-generating tools and techniques to identify potential solutions that eliminate root causes.  A variety of techniques are used to brainstorm potential solutions to counter the root causes identified in Analyze phase.  After identifying the potential solution its important to select solutions to implement. `
107. 107. Selecting High Gain Alternatives The team should develop an impact assessment document which should include both positive and negative that the proposed process improvements will have.  Develop criteria to evaluate candidate improvement solutions.  Think systematically and holistically.  Prioritize and evaluate the candidate solutions against the solution evaluation criteria.  Conduct a feasibility assessment for the highest value solutions.  Develop preliminary solution timelines and cost-benefit analysis to aid in recommendation presentation and future implementation planning. `
108. 108. Impact assessments charts `
109. 109. Approval checklist • After a impact assessment chart then a approval checklist is designed to ensure that all necessary approvals are documented on a single form Real World Example:Aprroval checklist `
110. 110. Implementing Improvements • • • • Planning the implementation is largely a matter of basic project management. The team needs to plan the budget and time line of the implementation, determine roles and responsibilities, and assign and track tasks. Tools for planning include Gantt charts, planning grids and flowcharts. A deployment flowchart can be created for the implementation process itself, as well as for the new process that will be followed as a result of the improvements being implemented. `
111. 111. CHAPTER # 7 The Control Phase `
112. 112. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Control Phase Quality Control Standardization Control methods and alternatives Responding when defects occurs Conclusion • Case Study `
113. 113. The control Phase  Control phase is to ensure that the gains obtained during Improve are maintained long after the project has ended.  To that end, it is necessary to standardize and document procedures, make sure all employees are trained and communicate the project’s results.  The project team needs to create a plan for ongoing monitoring of the process and for reacting to any problems that arise. `
114. 114. The four objectives of control are:     Quality control Standardization Control methods and alternatives Responding when defects occur `
115. 115. Quality control  The ultimate purpose in control is overall assurance that a high standard of quality is met. The customer's expectations depend on this, so control is inherently associated with quality.  Since the purpose to Six Sigma is to improve overall process by reducing defects, quality control is the essential method for keeping the whole process on track `
116. 116. Standardization • • One feature of smooth processing is to enable processes to go as smoothly as possible. This usually means standardization. We need to devise a control feature to processes so that the majority of work is managed in a standardized manner. `
117. 117. Control methods and alternatives • • The development of a new process of any change to an existing process requires the development of procedures to control work flow. When a process cannot be managed in the normal manner, we need to come up with alternatives short of forcing compliance to the standardized method. `
118. 118. Responding when defects occur • • • The final step in a control process is knowing how to respond once a defect is discovered. The weak links in the procedure, where defects are most likely to occur, can and should be monitored carefully so that defects can be spotted and fixed before the process continues. In the best designed systems, defects can be reduced to near zero, so that we may actually believe that Six Sigma can be attained. `
119. 119. Conclusion: The project team determines how to technically control the newly improved process and creates a response plan to ensure the new process maintains the improved sigma performance. Closing Out the Project • established the customer requirement (CTQ) • measured the process against that requirement • clarified the problem that had to be addressed • confirmed one or more root causes of that problem • identified one or more solutions to counter the root causes • demonstrated that the solutions implemented result in substantial improvement in the CTQ metrics • rolled out the new process • standardized and documented the new process • created a plan for monitoring the process and responding to performance problems `
120. 120. Case study1:US ARMY benefits more than \$2 billons by using Six Sigma. `
121. 121. Pros and cons `
122. 122. Advantages       Emphasis on achieving attainable goals Implementing projects that will produce results Effective use of scientific techniques and precise tools Infuses upper management with passion and dedication Integrated concepts benefiting employees and customers Using information that has real world meaning `
123. 123. Disadvantages  Projects which are directed are selected by organizations subjectively rather than objectively, which means that goals may be mistakenly thought of as attainable and favorable when in fact they may eventually be a waste of resources and time `
124. 124. Salaries for Six Sigma Professionals `
125. 125. Real World Example:Typical Gain From Design for Six Sigma Projects (weblink: http://www.isixsigma.com/press-releases/300k-typical-gain-design-six-sigma-projects/) `
126. 126. SOME OF DFSS CLIENTS Commercial Electronics South Korea based company-wide implementation of DFSS, including South Korea, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Spain, United Kingdom and United States. `
127. 127. Satellite Manufacturer Implemented Design for Six Sigma `
128. 128. Design For Six Sigma Chapter 10 Introduction to DFSS `
129. 129. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The need for DFSS What is DFSS Difference between Six Sigma and DFSS Different DFSS methodologies Phases of DFSS `
130. 130. The need for DFSS • • • Six Sigma has limitations, and after a few years of dramatic quality improvements, companies may find themselves faced with decreasing returns on their quality improvement efforts. The problem is not Six sigma itself but the fact that effort is being expended to perfect flawed processes and products. Design for Six Sigma takes a different approach and helps companies build in quality from the beginning. `
131. 131. What is DFSS? • • • DFSS stands for Design For Six Sigma - an approach to designing or re-designing a new product or service for a commercial market, with a measurably high process-sigma for performance from day one. The intension of DFSS is to bring such new products to market with a process performance of around 4.5 sigma or better, for every customer requirement. This implies an ability to understand the customer needs and to design and implement the new offering with a reliability of delivery before launch rather than after. `
132. 132. Difference between Six sigma and DFSS • It is important to note that two strategies are neither mutually exclusive nor dependent on each. Element Six sigma DFSS Focus Existing process New process Goal Reduce Variation Reduce variation and optimize performance Time required to implement improvements shorter longer Potential financial results lower Higher Payback period lower Higher Best suited for Maximizing current process Developing new products Major Effect is on Cp(Reducing Variation) Cpk(centering within customer requirements) One word Description Reactive ` predictive
133. 133. Different DFSS Methodologies  Several roadmaps have been proposed.  They are very similar to each other. The underlying tools are the same `
134. 134. Phases of DFSS  Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) can be accomplished using any one of many methodologies. IDDOV is one popular methodology for designing products and services to meet six sigma standards.  IDDOV is a four-phase process that consists of  ID:Identify the opportunity and define the requirements.  D:develop the concepts  O:Optimize the design  V:Verify the design `
135. 135. Design For Six Sigma Chapter 11 The Identification of Opportunities Phase `
136. 136. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Identification of opportunities phase Crucial Steps Voice of the customer Identify CTQ’s Derive product Requirement-Quality Function deployment(QFD) `
137. 137. The Identification of Opportunities Phase  This is where a customer need is identified. A team is established to listen to the customer and convert their needs and expectations into product specifications.  Technical expectations are identified and figured into the plan.  Then the plan is put into writing with the roles and responsibilities of each team member and the milestones are clearly defined.  This includes detailed timelines, graphs, and other visual tools to help keep the project on target. `
138. 138. The Crucial Steps of identify phase are:         Define the problem Form a team Establish a project charter Develop a project plan Identify the customers, Suppliers and stakeholders Identify Customer Needs - Voice of the Customer (VOC) Process Identify CTQ’s. Derive Product Requirements - Quality Function Deployment (QFD) `
139. 139. Voice of the Customer     Identify customer Requirements Identify customer both internal and external Go to “Gemba” Identify Basic, Performance and excitement. Gemba: The “Real Place” where customers are, and observe first-hand their situation, their problems, their opportunities. `
140. 140. • • • To obtain customer needs, the team should concentrate on surveys and focus on group meeting. Prior to creating the customer surveys and conducting the focus groups the team should develop a SIPOC(Supplier, Input, Process, Output and Customer). SIPOC Chart: This chart, which can be considered an extension of the list of suppliers and customers and its goals to create a basic understanding of the process and the factors that impact it. TEMPLATE OF SIPOC CHART `
141. 141. • • After creating the SIPOC chart ,now team can perform focus meeting and the surveys. The outcomes of the focus meeting can be represented in matrix form as shown below `
142. 142. • • After completion of the focus meeting with internal customers as well external ones and the survey results. The team has to transcribe requirements from those documents onto SIPOC i.e Expanded SIPOC. `
143. 143.  The unspoken requirements could be most important.  Even after the survey and focus meeting there might be several categories of requirements.  The kano model is to categorize the requirements that had received and to brainstorm the unspoken ones. `
144. 144. Identify CTQ’s • Identifying which requirements are critical to quality. `
145. 145. Derive Product Requirements - Quality Function Deployment (QFD)  QFD: A quality function deployment matrix is a cause-and-effect matrix. Reasons for using a QFD matrix  Consistency:QFD provides a consistent way of recording key information about a project.  Objectivity:QFD removes subjectivity from the analysis of the relationship between needs and features. `
146. 146. House of Quality Interrelationships Customer requirement priorities Technical requirements Voice of the customer Relationship matrix Technical requirement ` priorities Competitive evaluation
147. 147. QFD Example Correlation: Strong positive Positive Negative Strong negative X X No road noise AB Water resistance Accoust. Trans. Window Energy needed to open door XAB 3 A XB 3 2 X A 10 Reduce energy level to 7.5 ft/lb Importance weighting Target values Technical evaluation (5 is best) 5 X AB 5 4 3 2 1 B A X 6 BA X 6 9 B A X B X A ` 2 3 Maintain current level Doesn’t leak in rain X = Us A = Comp. A B = Comp. B (5 is best) 1 2 3 4 5 Maintain current level Easy to open Competitive evaluation X Reduce energy to 7.5 ft/lb. Stays open on a hill * 7 Reduce force to 9 lb. Easy to close Check force on level ground oC us t. Door seal resistance Engineering Characteristics X X Maintain current level Customer Requirements ce t Energy needed to close door Im po rta n X X BXA BA X Relationships: Strong = 9 Medium = 3 Small = 1 B
148. 148. QFD Levels technical requirements component characteristics ` process operations quality plan
149. 149.  The end result is a collection of data that allows you to identify in order of importance the critical to customer requirements.  These are then used to flow down through the design and manufacturing process to identify all the critical performance items. `
150. 150. Design For Six Sigma Chapter 12 The Definition of the Initial Design Phase `
151. 151. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. The Design phase Crucial Steps Identify Potential designs Evaluate the potential designs using pugh concepts selection techniques. 5. Identify potential failure nodes of the feasible design 6. Axiomatic design `
152. 152. The Design Phase  The Design phase, the product’s design is laid out.  This includes formulating a concept, identifying potential risks associated with either the project, and a plan is created to either avoid potential risks or to deal with them as they arise.  A plan is developed to procure raw materials and for the manufacturing process. `
153. 153. The Crucial Steps of Design Phase are:  Identify Potential designs  Evaluate those potential designs using pugh concepts selection techniques.  Identify potential failure modes of the feasible design .  Axiomatic Design `
154. 154. Identify Potential designs  This step is to determine what competition exists and how well that competition satisfies the customers requirement.  There are two approaches to identify competition designs.  Purchasing every product that could be competitor  Benchmark the other industry leaders. `
155. 155.  Evaluation of competitors products is done by using the following checklist.  Function: How well the product fulfills its primary purpose.  Feactures:The presence and performance of secondary functionality.  Conformance: The degree to which product specifications have met.  Reliability: Performance measured over time.  Serviceability: The ability to repair the product quickly, inexpensively, and effectively.  Aesthetics: Overall sensual experience.  Perception: Reputation of both the product and the company. `
156. 156. • A QFD chart is created for competitive product assessment `
157. 157. Evaluate the potential designs using pugh concepts selection techniques  To evaluate multiple choices, including developing a matrix of solutions and requirements and assigning weighting factors to each intersection as done for competitive products.  Pugh uses a simpler scale to indicate whether each solution is better, worst, or the same as the baseline.  Typically, the scale is plus, minus, and zero, although some companies replace the zero with an “s” for “same”.  Others use color coding, with red being worse, green better, and white neutral. `
158. 158.  Pugh selection matrix  Applicable to a variety of situations  Customer requirement driven  Excellent tool to aid decision making  Provides good documentation `
159. 159. Identify potential failure modes of the feasible design • • Before starting this step the team must complete, the first draft of QFD. This means identifying the “how's”, determining the relationship between those “how's” and the customer requirements the “what's”. `
160. 160.  The Next step is to create a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis(FMEA)  FMEA is a method of planning for perfection is to identify everything that could go wrong with a process, and then ensure that their design prevents those failures. `
161. 161. • The actions that were identified as part of the FMEA. Once the team entered the product feactures into the matrix,the next step was to access the degree to which each of the features would impact customer satisfaction. `
162. 162. Axiomatic Design • • • Axiomatic Design: Helps Design teams evaluate the “goodness” of designs. Decomposes customer requirements into “domains”:customer, Functional, Physical, process. `
163. 163. This can be done by using TRIZ Matrix `
164. 164. Design For Six Sigma Chapter 13 The Development of Concept Phase `
165. 165. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Development of concept phase Define the proposed product and process Identify possible causes of variation in the process Model the design Identify potential risks and mitigation of risks and mitigation plans Develop quality measures for the process `
166. 166. The Development of Concept Phase  The objective of this phase is to determine whether the proposed design is capable of satisfying the customers CTQs’.  The process a team should be followed included five steps:  Define the proposed product and process.  Identify possible causes of variation in the process.  Model the design.  Identify potential risks and mitigation plans.  Develop quality measures for the process. `
167. 167. Define the proposed product and process  In this step the project’s objectives are communicated among the team with the help High-level process map(with inputs included).  With the PMAP it will be helpful to explain the process, identifying the variables that could impact the desired output; that is, the satisfaction of the customers’ CTQs. `
168. 168. Identify Possible causes of variation in the process  There are Six easily recognized types of variation, often referred to as Six Ms Element Explanation Man This is the human element, the differences that occur when more than one person operates a equipment. Machine Variances among different pieces of the same type. Material Raw materials or ingredients are included in this category. Method More than one way to perform a process affect variation Measurement Because of measurement equipment flawed or different observers. Mother Nature ` Environmental factors
169. 169. Model the Design  Checking whether the product meets the customers requirement and it would cost effective to produce it.  DOE (design of experiments) is used to determine CTQs and their influence on the technical requirements (transfer functions)  The objective of DOE is to vary multiple parameters at the same time, determining the optimum combination. `
170. 170. Identify Potential Risks and Mitigation Risks and Mitigation Plans  The process should be mistake-proof .  To do that, the team need to identify potential risks and develop mitigation plans for those risks.  Assess risks of key areas: technology, cost, schedule, market, etc.  Use formal tools: FMEA, etc.  Quantify risks: probability of failure and impact of failure  Formulate responsive projects to reduce high risks. `
171. 171. Develop Quality Measures for the Process • • • • The final step in concept development is the creation of quality measurements for the new process. The measurement of the process is included in Scorecard. Scorecard is color-coded . All unfavorable actuals are shown in red, while favorable ones are shown in green. `
172. 172. Design For Six Sigma Chapter 14 The Optimization Phase `
173. 173. Table of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. The optimization phase Robust Design Parameter design Tolerance design `
174. 174. The Optimization Phase  The Optimize phase first assesses the process to ensure that all the critical design parameters are being met.  Then the process is designed for performance, reliability, and is errorproofed as well. Cost analysis is done to avoid excess spending, especially for the start up costs, which can quickly go over budget if not constantly monitored. `
175. 175. Robust design  Optimization begins with what is commonly referred to as robust design.  Robert design has its objective creating products or processes that exhibit the same behavior regardless of the operator, environment , or passage of time.  The re are two major steps in designing for robustness  Parameter design  Tolerance design `
176. 176. A Robust Design Experiment Layout y 12 y 22 y 32 2 …………… …………… 3 y 1n y 2n y 3n …………… 3 ……….... ……….... ……….... ……….... ……….... n 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 y 11 y 21 y 31 ……….... …………… 1 1 1 1 …………… 1 2 3 …………… …………… 1 2 3 …………… 1 1 1 m 1 2 3 Control Factors i 1 2 3 ……….... …………… j Noise Factors 1 y m1 y m2 ……….... y mn ` Performance Measures 2 y1 , s1 , SNR 1 y 2 , s 2 , SNR 2 2 y m , s 2 , SNR m m
177. 177. Parameter design  The first goal of parameter design is to obtain facts so that decisions can be based on them.  In case of parameter design, those facts include:  The identification of all the variables (parameters) involved in a process .  Obtaining an understanding of the variables effect on each other. `
178. 178.  This is a continuation of the exploration of the transfer function in the process.  A transfer function is the official term for the Y=f(x1,x2,….) equation.  The objective of this first step is to understand all the X values in the equation and to quantify their relative importance.  The goal is to identify and focus on the factors that will have the greatest effect on the output. `
179. 179. Tolerance Design  The objective of tolerance design is to adjust parameters to provide the maximum quality possible at the minimum cost.  Tolerance design is all about balancing cost against performance and quality.  Looking at all the input standard deviation of the system.  Determines which have the largest impact on the output variations.  Focus on controlling those with the largest impact. `
180. 180. Tolerance Design Traditional View Taguchi’s View loss no loss loss nominal tolerance loss loss `
181. 181. Design For Six Sigma Chapter 15 The Verification Phase `