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Digital Infrastructure in a Carbon-Constrained World


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Invited Presentation to the
Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP)
National Academy of Sciences
Title: Digital Infrastructure in a Carbon-Constrained World
Irvine, CA

Published in: Technology
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Digital Infrastructure in a Carbon-Constrained World

  1. 1. Digital Infrastructure in a Carbon-Constrained World Invited Presentation to the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) National Academy of Sciences Irvine, CA February 26, 2009 Dr. Larry Smarr Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology Harry E. Gruber Professor, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD
  2. 2. The Planet is Already Committed to a Dangerous Level of Warming Temperature Threshold Range that Initiates the Climate-Tipping V. Ramanathan and Y. Feng, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD September 23, 2008 www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0803838105 Additional Warming over 1750 Level 90% of the Additional 1.6 Degree Warming Will Occur in the 21 st Century
  3. 3. Atmospheric Aerosols Cool Climate— Cleaning Air Pollution will Accelerate Warming! NASA satellite image Ramananthan & Feng www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0803838105 Outside Beijing 11/9/2008
  4. 4. The IPCC Recommends a 25-40% Reduction Below 1990 Levels by 2020 <ul><li>On September 27, 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger signed California the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly Bill 32 (AB32) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Reduction of GHG by 2020 to 1990 Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15% Reduction from 2008 Levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 Tons of CO 2 -equiv. for Every Person in California </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The European Union Requires Reduction of GHG by 2020 to 20% Below 1990 Levels (12/12/2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Australia has Pledged to Cut by 2020 its GHG Emissions 5% from 2000 Levels via the World's Broadest Cap &Trade Scheme (12/15/08) [~5% Below 1990 Levels] </li></ul><ul><li>Neither the U.S. or Canada has an Official Target Yet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Elect Obama Has Endorsed the AB32 2020 Goal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ICT is a Critical Element in Achieving Countries Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets
  6. 6. ICT is a Key Sector in the Fight Against Climate Change Applications of ICT could enable emissions reductions of 7.8 Gt CO 2 e in 2020, or 15% of business as usual emissions. But it must keep its own growing footprint in check and overcome a number of hurdles if it expects to deliver on this potential.
  7. 7. ICT Industry is Already Acting to Reduce Carbon Footprint
  8. 8. Electricity Usage by U.S. Data Centers: Emission Reductions are Underway Source: Silicon Valley Leadership Group Report July 29, 2008
  9. 9. The GreenLight Project: Instrumenting the Energy Cost of Computational Science <ul><li>Focus on 5 Communities with At-Scale Computing Needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metagenomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean Observing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioinformatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure, Monitor, & Web Publish Real-Time Sensor Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via Service-oriented Architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow Researchers Anywhere To Study Computing Energy Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Middleware that Automates Optimal Choice of Compute/RAM Power Strategies for Desired Greenness </li></ul><ul><li>Partnering With Minority-Serving Institutions Cyberinfrastructure Empowerment Coalition </li></ul>Source: Tom DeFanti, Calit2; GreenLight PI
  10. 10. UCSD is Installing Zero Carbon Emission Solar and Fuel Cell DC Electricity Generators San Diego’s Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant Produces Waste Methane UCSD 2.8 Megawatt Fuel Cell Power Plant Uses Methane 2 Megawatts of Solar Power Cells Being Installed Available Late 2009 Makes Carbon Neutral Data Center Possible!
  11. 11. Consolidating Dispersed Faculty Clusters Over the Fiber Connected UCSD Campus Research CI UCSD Storage OptIPortal Research Cluster Digital Collections Lifecycle Management PetaScale Data Analysis Facility HPC System Cluster Condo UC Grid Pilot Research Instrument N x 10Gbe DNA Arrays, Mass Spec., Microscopes, Genome Sequencers Source: Phil Papadopoulos, SDSC/Calit2 UCSD Triton Components
  12. 12. Application of ICT Can Lead to a 5-Fold Greater Decrease in GHGs Than its Own Carbon Footprint <ul><li>Major Opportunities for the United States* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Electrical Grids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Transportation Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Smart 2020 United States Report Addendum </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>While the sector plans to significantly step up the energy efficiency of its products and services, ICT’s largest influence will be by enabling energy efficiencies in other sectors, an opportunity that could deliver carbon savings five times larger than the total emissions from the entire ICT sector in 2020. --Smart 2020 Report
  13. 13. Calit2--A Systems Approach to the Future of the Internet and its Transformation of Our Society Calit2 Has Assembled a Complex Social Network of Over 350 UC San Diego & UC Irvine Faculty From Two Dozen Departments Working in Multidisciplinary Teams With Staff, Students, Industry, and the Community Integrating Technology Consumers and Producers Into “Living Laboratories”
  14. 14. Two Calit2 Buildings Provide Laboratories for “Living in the Future” <ul><li>“ Convergence” Laboratory Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotech, BioMEMS, Chips, Radio, Photonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Reality, Digital Cinema, HDTV, Gaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 1000 Researchers in Two Buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked via Dedicated Optical Networks </li></ul></ul>UC Irvine Instrumented Smart Buildings
  15. 15. Smart Electrical Grids: Interpenetrating the Internet and the Power Grid “ That means updating the way we get our electricity by starting to build a new smart grid that will save us money; protect our power sources from blackout or attack; and deliver clean, alternative forms of energy to every corner of our nation.” ---President-Elect Obama Source: ComputerWorld Government 1/9/09 University Campuses as “Living Labs of the Green Future”
  16. 16. Making Cars Cleaner Requires Software Engineering-- Calit2 Established the Automotive Software Workshop Source: Ingolf Krueger, Calit2 <ul><li>Over 10 Million Lines of Code in Your Car! </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsors: Calit2, NSF, EU, DFG </li></ul><ul><li>50:50 Participation Industry/Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Next Instance Planned For 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Participants Include: </li></ul>90 % of all Auto Innovations are Now Software-Driven
  17. 17. Reducing Traffic Congestion: Calit2 California Peer-to -Peer Wireless Traffic Report <ul><li>Citizen to Citizen Accident Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Real-Time Freeway Speeds </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leave Now” Paging Services </li></ul>San Diego (866) 500 0977 LA & OC (888) 9 CALIT2 Bay Area (888) 4 CALIT2 Source: Ganz Chockalingam, Calit2 20,000+ Users > 1000 Calls Per Day
  18. 18. The Commercial Market for High Resolution Teleconference Systems in Rapidly Expanding Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play and Learn Source: Cisco-Updated January 5, 2009 Uses QoS Over Shared Internet ~ 15 mbps <ul><li>320 Cisco TelePresence major cities globally </li></ul><ul><li>US/Canada: 101 CTS 3000, 79 CTS 1000, 3 CTS 3200, 13 CTS 500 </li></ul><ul><li>APAC: 24 CTS 3000, 20 CTS 1000, 3 CTS 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan: 5 CTS 3000, 2 CTS 1000, 1 CTS 500,1 CTS3200 </li></ul><ul><li>Europe : 30 CTS 3000, 19 CTS 1000, 1 CTS3200, 5 CTS500 </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging: 13 CTS 3000, 1CTS1000 </li></ul><ul><li>216K TelePresence meetings scheduled to date. </li></ul><ul><li>48% Average Utilization </li></ul><ul><li>279K hours (average meeting is 1.25 hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>22K+ meetings with customers to discuss Cisco Technology over TelePresence </li></ul><ul><li>31K+ meetings avoided travel </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative estimate of cost savings: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~$278M to date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cubic meters of emissions saved: 90 million </li></ul><ul><li>Equal to >15,500+ cars off the road </li></ul>
  19. 19. Using High Definition to Link the Calit2 Buildings: Living Greener June 2, 2008 LifeSize System
  20. 20. HD Talk to Australia’s Monash University from Calit2: Reducing International Travel July 31, 2008
  21. 21. The OptIPuter Creates an OptIPlanet Collaboratory: Enabling Data-Intensive e-Research “ OptIPlanet: The OptIPuter Global Collaboratory” – Special Section of Future Generations Computer Systems, Volume 25, Issue 2, February 2009 Calit2 (UCSD, UCI), SDSC, and UIC Leads—Larry Smarr PI Univ. Partners: NCSA, USC, SDSU, NW, TA&M, UvA, SARA, KISTI, AIST Industry: IBM, Sun, Telcordia, Chiaro, Calient, Glimmerglass, Lucent Over 50 OptIPortals Worldwide
  22. 22. Source: Maxine Brown, OptIPuter Project Manager Green Initiative: Can Optical Fiber Replace Airline Travel for Continuing Collaborations?
  23. 23. Just in Time OptIPlanet Collaboratory: Live Session Between NASA Ames and Calit2@UCSD Source: Falko Kuester, Calit2; Michael Sims, NASA View from NASA Ames Lunar Science Institute Mountain View, CA Virtual Handshake HD compressed 6:1 From Start to This Image in Less Than 2 Weeks! Visit Yesterday by JPL’s Firouz Naderi Feb 19, 2009
  24. 24. Room-to-Room Telepresence on a Global Scale Covise, Phil Weber, Jurgen Schulze, Calit2 CGLX, Kai-Uwe Doerr , Calit2 January 15, 2008 No Calit2 Person Physically Flew to Australia to Bring This Up! January 15, 2007 Melbourne, Australia Calit2@San Diego
  25. 25. Coupling AARNet - CENIC/PW - CANARIE Optical Nets: An Australian-U.S.-Canada Green ICT Testbed Exploring “Zero Carbon” Data Centers and Telepresence Collaboration
  26. 26. International Symposia on Green ICT [email_address]
  27. 27. “ It Will Be the Biggest Single Peacetime Project Humankind Will Have Ever Undertaken”