How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Create a Greener Campus<br />Jerry Sheehan, California Institut...
Climate Change and ICT<br />Climate Change 101<br />The Role of ICT in Anthropomorphic Climate Change<br />Climate Regulat...
Presentation Overview<br />Enablers and Innovation<br />Government assists<br />CANARIE<br />Canada California Strategic I...
Climate Change & ICT<br />
Warming is Over 100 Times Faster TodayThan During the Last Ice Age!<br />SOURCE:  http://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/program_histo...
Temperature Has Increased 1F in Last Century<br />Source:  Pew Center on Global Climate Change, The Causes of Global Clima...
The Planet is Already Committed to a Dangerous Level of Warming<br />Temperature Threshold Range that Initiates the Climat...
Global Climate Disruption Early Signs:Arctic Summer Ice is Rapidly Decreasing<br />“The Arctic Ocean will be effectively i...
The Carbon Footprint of ICT <br />SOURCE:  Smart2020 Report & The US Addendum, The Climate Group, 2008<br />
Climate Regulation & ICT<br />
GHG Regulation in British Columbia<br />Bill 44-2007 was introduced in 2007 and enacted into law in 2008.  The law is know...
SOURCE:  http://climateaction.ubc.ca/category/emission-sources<br />SOURCE:  UBC Climate Action Plan, GHG 2006 Inventory<b...
The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32)<br /><ul><li>Executive Order S-3-05 signed from Governor Schwar...
2010 GHG emissions set to 2000 levels.
2020 GHG emissions set to 1990 levels.
2050 GHG emissions set to 80% of 1990 levels.
AB 32 Overview (Signed Into Law 2006)
Identify statewide GHG emissions for 1990 to serve as emissions limit to be achieved by 2020.
427 million metric tons of CO2e goal, roughly 30% reduction.
Mandatory reporting and verification of GHG emissions by major emitters on or before Jan 1, 2008.
If you emit over 25,000 metric tons of CO2e reporting is required.
Identify and adopt regulations for discrete early actions enforceable by or before January 2010.
Ensure early voluntary reductions receive appropriate credit in AB32 implementation.
Convene Environmental Justice Advisory Committee to advise in development of scoping plan and implementation of AB32.
Appoint an Economic and Technology Advancement Advisory Committee</li></ul>SOURCE:  2009 Climate Adaptation Strategy Draft...
UC Response to AB32<br />The University of California (UC)  Climate Actions<br /><ul><li>UC is a founding signatory to the...
University of California System Wide Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets
By 2014 reduce GHG emissions to 2000 levels.
By 2020 reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels.
All UC campuses have joined the California Climate Action Registry.
Verified GHG reporting for all campuses.
Most campuses have created and begun implementation of climate action plans.</li></ul>SOURCE:  2008 ACUPCC Signatories-605...
42% of States Have Existing GHG Reduction Targets<br />SOURCE:  Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Climate101-State Acti...
Federal Climate Legislation in the United States<br />October 2009<br />The EPA Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule (M...
Carbon Regulation:Does Air Transportation Show ICT’s Future?<br />
Calit2:  A Living Laboratory for ICT Enabled Carbon Reduction<br />
Calit2 GreenLight:  An NSF MRI<br />
<ul><li>Research
Specialized Co-Processing in Generalized Execution Environment (Rajesh Gupta)
Conserving Resources Through Virtualization (AminVahdat)
Power and Thermal Management (TajanaRosing)
Virtual and Augmented Reality (FalkoKuester, Jurgen Schulze, Tom DeFanti, BhaskarRao)
Service Oriented Architecture (Ingolf Krueger, PavelPevzner, Matt Arrott)
Capturing, Storing, Analyzing, and Sharing Energy Consumption Data (Jim Hollan)
CineGrid Exchange, Storage for 4K Video (Tom DeFanti, Larry Smarr, Jeanne Ferrante)	</li></ul>GreenLight Research Team and...
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Internet2: How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Create a Greener Campus

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The attached slides are from a presentation made at the annual Internet2 Conference which was held this year in San Antonio, Texas. The slides were developed/co-presented by Jerry Sheehan (Calit2) and Rod Wilson (Nortel)

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Internet2: How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Create a Greener Campus

  1. 1. How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Create a Greener Campus<br />Jerry Sheehan, California Institute for Telecommunications & Information Technology (jerry@ucsd.edu)<br />Rod Wilson, Nortel Networks (rgwilson@nortel.com)<br />Internet 2, Fall Member Meeting<br />October 6, 2009 8:45-10:00<br />
  2. 2. Climate Change and ICT<br />Climate Change 101<br />The Role of ICT in Anthropomorphic Climate Change<br />Climate Regulation and ICT <br />The Case of British Columbia: A Carbon Neutral Reality<br />The Case of California: A Carbon Constrained Future<br />The Case of Aviation: A Potential ICT Future?<br />Calit2: A Testbed for ICT Enabled Carbon Reduction<br />NSF Major Research Instrumentation Project GreenLight<br />Flexible Work and Telepresence<br />Smarter Buildings<br />Smarter Transportation<br />International Partnerships<br />Presentation Overview<br />
  3. 3. Presentation Overview<br />Enablers and Innovation<br />Government assists<br />CANARIE<br />Canada California Strategic Innovation Initiative (CCSIP)<br />Green ICT & next generation Data Centers<br />Power<br />Bandwidth<br />Control<br />Finding maximum Bandwidth agility and flexibility<br />Re thinking the Virtual Machine Turntable<br />
  4. 4. Climate Change & ICT<br />
  5. 5. Warming is Over 100 Times Faster TodayThan During the Last Ice Age!<br />SOURCE: http://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/program_history/keeling_curve_lessons.html<br />SOURCE: Monnin, et al., Science v. 291 pp. 112-114, Jan. 5, 2001.<br />CO2 Has Risen From 335 to 385ppm (50ppm) in 30 years or <br />1.6 ppm per Year<br />CO2 Rose From 185 to 265ppm (80ppm) in 6000 years or 1.33 ppm per Century<br />
  6. 6. Temperature Has Increased 1F in Last Century<br />Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, The Causes of Global Climate Change, Science Brief 1, August 2008<br />
  7. 7. The Planet is Already Committed to a Dangerous Level of Warming<br />Temperature Threshold Range that Initiates the Climate-Tipping<br />Earth Has Only Realized 1/3 of theCommitted Warming -<br />Future Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Move Peak to the Right<br />Additional Warming over 1750 Level<br />SOURCE: V. Ramanathan and Y. Feng, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD September 23, 2008<br />www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0803838105<br />
  8. 8. Global Climate Disruption Early Signs:Arctic Summer Ice is Rapidly Decreasing<br />“The Arctic Ocean will be effectively ice free sometime between 2020 and 2040, although it is possible it could happen as early as 2013.”<br />--Walt Meier, Research Scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Centre at the University of Colorado <br />SOURCE: http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-10213891-54.html<br />
  9. 9. The Carbon Footprint of ICT <br />SOURCE: Smart2020 Report & The US Addendum, The Climate Group, 2008<br />
  10. 10. Climate Regulation & ICT<br />
  11. 11. GHG Regulation in British Columbia<br />Bill 44-2007 was introduced in 2007 and enacted into law in 2008. The law is known as the Greenhouse Gas Reductions Target Act.<br />The Act establishes greenhouse gas emission target levels for the Province.<br />2020 BC GHG will be 33% less than 2007.<br />2050 BC GHG will be 80% less than 2007.<br />Bill mandates that by 2010 each public sector organization must be carbon neutral.<br />If a public sector organization can not achieve carbon neutrality then they are required to purchase offsets.<br />Offsets must be purchased from the Pacific Carbon Trust. <br />The cost for public sector organizations is $24 per ton of CO2e.<br />SOURCE: “Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 2007”, Ministry of Environment, Victoria, British Columbia, July 2009<br />
  12. 12. SOURCE: http://climateaction.ubc.ca/category/emission-sources<br />SOURCE: UBC Climate Action Plan, GHG 2006 Inventory<br />SOURCE: UBC Sustainability Office, August 2009<br />The Cost of Regulation: The University of British Columbia<br />
  13. 13. The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32)<br /><ul><li>Executive Order S-3-05 signed from Governor Schwarzenegger sets GHG targets.
  14. 14. 2010 GHG emissions set to 2000 levels.
  15. 15. 2020 GHG emissions set to 1990 levels.
  16. 16. 2050 GHG emissions set to 80% of 1990 levels.
  17. 17. AB 32 Overview (Signed Into Law 2006)
  18. 18. Identify statewide GHG emissions for 1990 to serve as emissions limit to be achieved by 2020.
  19. 19. 427 million metric tons of CO2e goal, roughly 30% reduction.
  20. 20. Mandatory reporting and verification of GHG emissions by major emitters on or before Jan 1, 2008.
  21. 21. If you emit over 25,000 metric tons of CO2e reporting is required.
  22. 22. Identify and adopt regulations for discrete early actions enforceable by or before January 2010.
  23. 23. Ensure early voluntary reductions receive appropriate credit in AB32 implementation.
  24. 24. Convene Environmental Justice Advisory Committee to advise in development of scoping plan and implementation of AB32.
  25. 25. Appoint an Economic and Technology Advancement Advisory Committee</li></ul>SOURCE: 2009 Climate Adaptation Strategy Draft, p15, 2009<br />
  26. 26. UC Response to AB32<br />The University of California (UC) Climate Actions<br /><ul><li>UC is a founding signatory to the American College and University President’s Climate Commitment.
  27. 27. University of California System Wide Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets
  28. 28. By 2014 reduce GHG emissions to 2000 levels.
  29. 29. By 2020 reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels.
  30. 30. All UC campuses have joined the California Climate Action Registry.
  31. 31. Verified GHG reporting for all campuses.
  32. 32. Most campuses have created and begun implementation of climate action plans.</li></ul>SOURCE: 2008 ACUPCC Signatories-605<br />
  33. 33. 42% of States Have Existing GHG Reduction Targets<br />SOURCE: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Climate101-State Actions, January 2009<br />State GHG Targets2009<br />
  34. 34. Federal Climate Legislation in the United States<br />October 2009<br />The EPA Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule (March 2009) in response to Public Law 110-161 (08 Appropriations)<br />“EPA has proposed a rule that requires mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from larges sources in the United States….In general, EPA proposes that supplier of fossil fuels or industrial greenhouse gases, manufactures of vehicles and engines, and facilities that emit 25,000 metric tons or more per year of GHG emissions submit annual reports to the EPA”<br />Waxman-Markey H.R. 2454 passes the House in July 2009 by a vote of 219 Ayes, 212 Nays, 3 Present<br />Wide ranging energy and sustainability bill but we are most interested in the carbon cap provisions and timeline.<br />If you emit above your “cap” you are required to purchase offsets. Offsets would be about $11-$15 per ton in 2012 and roughly double in price by 2025.<br />Kerry-Boxer Clean Energy Jobs & American Power Act<br />More aggressive CO2 reduction targets then Waxman-Markey (20% by 2020 over 2005, 80% by 2050).<br />Clean transportation is emphasized as part of CO2 reduction strategy.<br />Cap and Trade becomes “Pollution Reduction & Investment”.<br />EPA lead agency for regulation of any CO2 emitting entity over 25,000 tons.<br />NYT, 9.30: Best guess is as of September 30 there are about 45 yes votes for the legislation.<br />
  35. 35. Carbon Regulation:Does Air Transportation Show ICT’s Future?<br />
  36. 36. Calit2: A Living Laboratory for ICT Enabled Carbon Reduction<br />
  37. 37. Calit2 GreenLight: An NSF MRI<br />
  38. 38. <ul><li>Research
  39. 39. Specialized Co-Processing in Generalized Execution Environment (Rajesh Gupta)
  40. 40. Conserving Resources Through Virtualization (AminVahdat)
  41. 41. Power and Thermal Management (TajanaRosing)
  42. 42. Virtual and Augmented Reality (FalkoKuester, Jurgen Schulze, Tom DeFanti, BhaskarRao)
  43. 43. Service Oriented Architecture (Ingolf Krueger, PavelPevzner, Matt Arrott)
  44. 44. Capturing, Storing, Analyzing, and Sharing Energy Consumption Data (Jim Hollan)
  45. 45. CineGrid Exchange, Storage for 4K Video (Tom DeFanti, Larry Smarr, Jeanne Ferrante) </li></ul>GreenLight Research Team and Foci<br /><ul><li>Applications
  46. 46. Ocean Observatory Environment (Matt Arrott)
  47. 47. Pathway Assembly and Bioinformatics (Trey Idekar)
  48. 48. Computational Service for Metagenomics (Paul Gilna, Kayo Arrao, Phil Papadopoulous)
  49. 49. CineGrid Exchange, Storage for 4K Video (Tom DeFanti, Larry Smarr, Jeanne Ferrante) </li></li></ul><li>Internals Convey HC-1<br />User Success: Better Science and Less Environmental Impact<br /><ul><li>Computational Center for Mass Spectrometry at UCSD has High Performance Computing Challenges
  50. 50. Developed compute intensive software (InsPecT/MS-Alignment for their work) for analysis of protein’s post translational modifications (PTMs).
  51. 51. This is their most compute intensive code.
  52. 52. Convey Computer Has New Computer Architecture
  53. 53. Combination of multi-core and frame programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
  54. 54. Main innovation of HC1 is reconfigurable computing resources in memory coherent manner to mainstream processing.
  55. 55. Environmental and Scientific Benefit
  56. 56. One rack for HC-1 replaces eight racks of traditional HPC servers.
  57. 57. Current benchmarks for fastest “blind search” is months. HC-1 benchmark is 1-2 days.
  58. 58. -Roughly 300% improvement in speed.</li></li></ul><li>GreenLight Provides a Environment for Innovative “Greener” Products to be Tested<br />Quadrics Was Designed to Use <br />20% and 80% Less Power per Port Than Other Products in the 10 GigE Market <br />SOURCE: www.calit2.net/newsroom/article.php?id=1482<br />
  59. 59. Smarter Buildings Mean Better MeteringCalit2@UCSD Case Study<br />SOURCE: Smart2020, US Addendum, The Climate Working Group,2008 <br />SOURCE: http://buildingdashboard.com/clients/ucsandiego/<br />
  60. 60. Smarter BuildingsWhat Can We Learn About Mixed Use Buildings<br />500 Occupants, 750 Computers<br />Detailed Instrumentation to Measure Macro and Micro-Scale Power Use <br />39 Sensor Pods, 156 Radios, 70 Circuits<br />Subsystems: Air Conditioning & Lighting<br />Conclusions:<br />Peak Load is Twice Base Load<br />70% of Base Load is PCs and Servers<br />90% of That Could Be Avoided!<br />SOURCE: Rajesh Gupta, CSE, Calit2<br />
  61. 61. Travel Substitution @ Calit2Daily Use<br />Daily Telepresence: Flexible Work, Virtualized Assistant, using Skype<br />SOURCE: Smart2020, US Addendum, The Climate Working Group,2008 <br />Weekly Virtual Meetings of Director’s Office Using Polycomm Desktop<br />
  62. 62. Travel SubstitutionThe Cisco Telepresence Case Study<br />Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play and Learn<br /><ul><li>533 Cisco TelePresence major cities globally
  63. 63. US/Canada: 108 CTS 3000, 109 CTS 1000, 6 CTS 3200, 90 CTS 500, 3 CTS1300
  64. 64. APAC: 29 CTS 3000, 34 CTS 1000, 14 CTS 500, 3 CTS 3200, 1 CTS1300
  65. 65. Japan: 7 CTS 3000, 2 CTS 1000, 1 CTS 500, 1 CTS 3200, 1 CTS1300
  66. 66. Europe: 31 CTS 3000, 35 CTS 1000, 5 CTS3200, 27CTS500, 2 CTS1300
  67. 67. Emerging: 14 CTS 3000, 3 CTS1000, 1 CTS3200, 7 CTS 500</li></ul>163 Major Cities in 45 countries<br /><ul><li>355K TelePresence meetings scheduled to date. (Weekly average utilization in the past30 days is 21,522 meetings)
  68. 68. 473K hours (average meeting is 1.25 hrs)
  69. 69. 27K+ meetings with customers to discuss Cisco Technology over TelePresence
  70. 70. 68K+ meetings avoidedtravel
  71. 71. Conservative estimate of cost savings and productivity improvement</li></ul>~$296M to date<br /><ul><li>Metric tons of emissions saved:: 149,018
  72. 72. Equal to >25,000+ cars off the road</li></ul>Calit2 Will Have CTS 1000s at UCSD and UCI<br /><ul><li>30K Multipoint mtgs
  73. 73. Average 3,919 in past 30</li></ul>days<br /><ul><li>Overall average utilization</li></ul>49%<br />Updated Aug 2,2009….145 weeks after launch<br />
  74. 74. Travel Substitution: Auditorium to Auditorium (A2A) Collaboration using LifeSize HD<br />September 8, 2009<br />SOURCE: Photo by Erik Jepsen, UC San Diego<br />
  75. 75. The Future of TelepresenceUsing Digital Cinema 4k Streams<br />Keio University <br />President Anzai<br />UCSD <br />Chancellor Fox<br />Streaming 4k <br />with JPEG 2000 Compression <br />½ Gbit/sec<br />4k = 4000x2000 Pixels = 4xHD <br />100 Times the Resolution of YouTube!<br />CINEGRID: Lays Technical Basis for Global Digital Cinema<br />Sony <br />NTT <br />SGI<br />Calit2@UCSD Auditorium<br />
  76. 76. Using ICT For Smarter TransportationThe Calit2 Traffic System<br />SOURCE: Smart2020, US Addendum, The Climate Working Group,2008 <br />SOURCE: http://traffic.calit2.net<br />
  77. 77. How Your Network Can Help Reduce Your Carbon Footprint <br />Bits and optical bandwidth are virtually carbon free<br />Optical networks (as opposed to electronic routed networks) have much smaller carbon footprint<br />Significant reduced CO2 impacts are possible through use of cyber-infrastructure tools like virtualization, clouds, SOA, grids, Web 2.0, etc. <br />Research needed in new “zero carbon” computer and network architectures needed to connect remote computers, databases and instruments will be essential <br />New zero carbon applications and “gCommerce” <br />Complete computational Virtualization and migration enabler for “follow the sun” and other green energy sources.<br />
  78. 78. Your Carbon Inventory<br /> ISO 14062 analysis <br />life cycle operation 5 years coal<br />Optical Switch 4 tons 20 tons<br />Router 16 tons 500 tons<br />Optical Amplifiers 2 tons 40 tons <br />Computer server 12 tons 40 tons<br />Ethernet switch 8 tons 20 tons<br />PC 20 tons 5 tons<br />Travel to install and repair - 100 tons<br />Virtualized network can save 50% of your carbon emissions!<br />You must take action to achieve reductions<br />
  79. 79. Enablers and Innovations<br />Zero Carbon ICT<br />Purchasing green power locally is expensive with significant transmission line losses<br />Demand for green power within cities expected to grow dramatically<br />ICT facilities DON’T NEED TO BE LOCATED IN CITIES<br />-Cooling also a major problem in cities<br />But most renewable energy sites are very remote and impractical to connect to electrical grid.<br /> Can be easily reached by an optical network<br /> Provide independence from electrical utility and high costs in wheeling power<br /> Savings in transmission line losses (up to 15%) alone, plus carbon offsets can pay for moving ICT facilities to renewable energy site<br />ICT is only industry ideally suited to relocate to renewable energy sites<br /> Also ideal for business continuity in event of climate catastrophe<br />
  80. 80. CANARIE Leadership<br />The result of this initiative will provide a significant Green ICT enablement model and data. Results will help quantify and demonstrate workable solutions.<br />Canada’s advanced research network and research organization<br />June 1st Call for million $ Green ICT grant proposals<br />Demonstrate technical feasibility and usability of relocating computers and other cyber infrastructure to zero-carbon data centres that are connected by optical networks, and powered solely by renewable energy sources such as the sun or the wind, and <br />Create business case for providing carbon offsets (and/or equivalent services) to university researchers and IT personnel who reduce their carbon footprint by relocating computers and instrumentation to zero-carbon data centres<br />23 proposals submitted<br />Final decisions not yet publicly announced<br />
  81. 81. Canada California Strategic Innovation Partnership<br />5 areas of research: Carbon capture; Green It; Infectious Disease; Next Gen Media; sustainable bio-fuels<br />MOU : California, Canada campuses combat greenhouse gas emissions with green IT<br />University of British Columbia is first University signatory to the MOU<br />
  82. 82. Green IT MoU<br />Initial Signatories: UCSD, UBC, PROMPT<br />To share best practices in reducing GHG emissions and baseline emission data for cyber-infrastructure and networks as per ISO 14064, <br />To explore carbon reduction strategies by new network and distributed computing architectures such as PROMPT G-NGI, OptiPuter and CineGrid.<br /> <br />To work with R&E network to explore relocation of resources to renewable energy sites, virtualization, etc.<br /> <br />To explore the potential for a “virtual” carbon trading systems<br />To explore the creation of a multi-sector pilot of a generalized ICT carbon trading system including stakeholders from government, industry, and universities.<br />To collaborate with each other and with government agencies and departments and other organizations<br />
  83. 83. Current Data Center Challenges<br />Cooling and electrical costs can represent up to 44% of a data centers total cost of ownership<br />The Uptime Institute estimates , the three-year cost of powering and cooling servers is currently one-and-a-half times the cost of purchasing server hardware<br />With the growing demand for cheaper and ever-more-powerful high-performance computer clusters, the problem is not just paying for the computers, but determining whether institutions have the budget to pay for power and cooling<br />Current Campus power is at a premium if available at all to light new initiatives<br />Some institutions can’t deploy more servers because extra space and electricity isn’t available at any price. <br />Many utilities, especially those in crowded urban areas, are telling customers that power feeds are at capacity and they simply have no more power to sell. BC Hydro currently has to import power to meet its demands<br />source: Dan Gillard<br />BCnet 04/09<br />
  84. 84. British Columbia BCnet Leadership<br />The Concept<br />Use cyber infrastructure to combat global warming by reducing computing infrastructure’s carbon footprint<br />Find efficient ways to share computing facilities that are close to sources of green power by utilizing BCNET’s advanced network infrastructure within the Province<br />Make it possible for BC’s Universities to reduce their carbon footprint by relocating their existing ICT infrastructure to “greener facilities” <br />Build a zero carbon data centre and use the BCNET/CANARIE ROADM network to connect users to it<br />
  85. 85. ROAM Network as Enabler<br />Bandwidth when required<br />…where required<br />100GBPS Ready<br />SOURCE: Eric Bernier, CTO<br />CANARIE<br />
  86. 86. Long Haul High Speed Optical Systems<br /><ul><li> 100Gb/s circuit configuration: reporting distance of 1267 km
  87. 87. Performance of 100Gb/s over a 50GHz grid
  88. 88. 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s on a network carrying 5 x 10 Gb/s live traffic
  89. 89. 100Gb/s and 10Gb/s on adjacent channels on a 50GHz grid and on a 100GHz grid
  90. 90. 3 x 40Gb/s and 1 x 100Gb/s and 1x 10Gb/s in a group of 8 wavelengths on a 50GHz grid</li></li></ul><li>BC’s Green Data Centre MUST be in Proximity to a Clean Source of Power<br />Zero Carbon Data Center<br />source: Dan Gillard<br />BCnet 04/09<br />
  91. 91. Power: Locating BC’s Green Data Centre<br />Where: MUST be in the BC Interior<br />Greenest?<br />Greener?<br />Green?<br />source: Dan Gillard<br />BCnet 04/09<br />
  92. 92. Other Power Innovations<br />But what do you do when the sun don’t shine and the wind don’t blow?<br />Solar Powered Data Centers<br /><ul><li>Current Examples include
  93. 93. Green House Data, Cheyenne WO
  94. 94. AISO wind powered data farm
  95. 95. Iceland and Lithuania National strategies</li></li></ul><li>Emerging “Follow the Sun” Technologies<br />The ability to migrate entire virtual machines to alternate data centres exists.<br />Over HS networks the latency is tiny and transfer is invisible to the user. <br />Happens instantly without user knowledge, action or intervention<br />Nortel’s research labs developed and conceived the “Virtual Machine Turntable in 2006 and through collaboration with R&E networks in the US, Canada, Netherlands, and South Korea proved viability.<br />
  96. 96. The SC06 VMT Demonstrator<br />SC|2006<br />KREOnet<br />Korea<br />Internal/External<br />Sensor Webs<br />DRAC<br />Controlled<br />Lightpaths<br />DataCenter<br /> @Tampa<br />Amsterdam<br /> Netherlight<br />Nortel’s<br />Sensor Services<br />Platform<br />Computation at the Right Place & Time!<br />We migrate live Virtual Machines, unbeknownst to applications and clients, for data affinity, business continuity / disaster recovery, load balancing, or power management <br />
  97. 97. Concluding Thoughts<br />Green ICT needs to Move Beyond “Data Centers” to Showing the Full Range of Challenges and Opportunities.<br />We need to remember that “It’s about the carbon, dummy.”<br />Academic CIOs need to begin to think strategically about how to use ICT to enable carbon minimized computing and education. <br />What does it do to our networking needs?<br />Who skills do we need to have that we don’t currently have?<br />

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