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Landscape of REDD+ Funding Disbursements in DRC and Updates on REDD+ projects

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Presented by Stibniati Atmadja (CIFOR-ICRAF), at "REDD+ finance and benefit-sharing in Democratic Republic of Congo: Opportunities and challenges", University of Kinshasa, DRC, on 17 Oct 2023

Landscape of REDD+ Funding Disbursements in DRC and Updates on REDD+ projects

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Landscape of REDD+ Funding
Disbursements in DRC
and Updates on REDD+ projects
Dr. Stibniati Atmadja, CIFOR-ICRAF
s.atmadja@cifor-icraf.org
17 October 2023
University of Kinshasa
Background
How has public and private funds
contributed to financing REDD+ in
DRC?
• 1st SciPol Dialogue (Dec 2022)
• Analyzing ODA until 2019
• How much funds were
committed?
• Who were the main donors
and channels?
• How does DRC compare to
other countries?
• General overview of REDD+
projects globally
Background
• Now: 2nd SciPol Dialogue (Oct
2023)
• Analyzing ODA until 2021
• How much funds were
committed vs. disbursed?
• How does DRC compare to
other countries?
• Are actors linked to
disbursement rate?
• General overview of REDD+
projects in DRC
• Ongoing and new projects
OECD-CRS data
tagged for REDD+
activities using
keywords
ID-RECCO database
updated using
Verra registry
Finance from where?
Public
Private
This presentation: Developed country contributions: ODA transfers (‘REDD+
Aid’) and Voluntary Carbon Markets/VCM (‘REDD+ Market)
There are others not included (e.g., domestic funds, regional funds)
Private
(since
2021)
REDD+ ODA Funding: Committed vs. Disbursed
Definition (OECD)
Commitme
nt
“commitment is a firm obligation,
expressed in writing and backed by the
necessary funds, undertaken by an official
donor to provide specified assistance to a
recipient country or a multilateral
organization”
Disbursem
ent
“the release of funds to or the purchase of
goods or services for a recipient; by
extension, the amount thus spent.
Disbursements record the actual
international transfer of financial
resources, or of goods or services valued
at the cost to the donor.”
Expectation:
• Commitments are Disbursed (100%
rate)
But
• Commitments often are not
disbursed (<100% rate)
Why? Some possibilities
• Donor conditions (procurement, co-
financing, aid-effectiveness),
• Recipient capacity (programming,
fund absorption),
• Both sides’ bureaucratic and
technical delays [1]
[1] Savvidou, G. "Quantifying international public finance
for climate change adaptation in Africa." Climate
Policy 21.8 (2021): 1020-1036. (link)
REDD+ ODA Funding: Committed vs. Disbursed – comparison across time
0%
50%
100%
150%
200%
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
Global
Commitment Disbursement % Disbursed
0%
50%
100%
150%
200%
0
10
20
30
40
50
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
RDC
Commitment Disbursement % Disbursed
Global REDD+ ODA: 98% disbursed
USD 9b committed, 8.3b disbursed
RDC REDD+ ODA: 71% disbursed
USD 139m committed, 97m disbursed
Ave. $11,4m/year committed,
$8,11m/year disbursed
Increased funding in 2020-2021 (Global + DRC)

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Landscape of REDD+ Funding Disbursements in DRC and Updates on REDD+ projects

  • 1. Landscape of REDD+ Funding Disbursements in DRC and Updates on REDD+ projects Dr. Stibniati Atmadja, CIFOR-ICRAF s.atmadja@cifor-icraf.org 17 October 2023 University of Kinshasa
  • 2. Background How has public and private funds contributed to financing REDD+ in DRC? • 1st SciPol Dialogue (Dec 2022) • Analyzing ODA until 2019 • How much funds were committed? • Who were the main donors and channels? • How does DRC compare to other countries? • General overview of REDD+ projects globally
  • 3. Background • Now: 2nd SciPol Dialogue (Oct 2023) • Analyzing ODA until 2021 • How much funds were committed vs. disbursed? • How does DRC compare to other countries? • Are actors linked to disbursement rate? • General overview of REDD+ projects in DRC • Ongoing and new projects OECD-CRS data tagged for REDD+ activities using keywords ID-RECCO database updated using Verra registry
  • 4. Finance from where? Public Private This presentation: Developed country contributions: ODA transfers (‘REDD+ Aid’) and Voluntary Carbon Markets/VCM (‘REDD+ Market) There are others not included (e.g., domestic funds, regional funds) Private (since 2021)
  • 5. REDD+ ODA Funding: Committed vs. Disbursed Definition (OECD) Commitme nt “commitment is a firm obligation, expressed in writing and backed by the necessary funds, undertaken by an official donor to provide specified assistance to a recipient country or a multilateral organization” Disbursem ent “the release of funds to or the purchase of goods or services for a recipient; by extension, the amount thus spent. Disbursements record the actual international transfer of financial resources, or of goods or services valued at the cost to the donor.” Expectation: • Commitments are Disbursed (100% rate) But • Commitments often are not disbursed (<100% rate) Why? Some possibilities • Donor conditions (procurement, co- financing, aid-effectiveness), • Recipient capacity (programming, fund absorption), • Both sides’ bureaucratic and technical delays [1] [1] Savvidou, G. "Quantifying international public finance for climate change adaptation in Africa." Climate Policy 21.8 (2021): 1020-1036. (link)
  • 6. REDD+ ODA Funding: Committed vs. Disbursed – comparison across time 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Global Commitment Disbursement % Disbursed 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 0 10 20 30 40 50 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 RDC Commitment Disbursement % Disbursed Global REDD+ ODA: 98% disbursed USD 9b committed, 8.3b disbursed RDC REDD+ ODA: 71% disbursed USD 139m committed, 97m disbursed Ave. $11,4m/year committed, $8,11m/year disbursed Increased funding in 2020-2021 (Global + DRC)
  • 7. REDD+ ODA Funding: Committed vs. Disbursed in DRC UK 0% Spain 0% Canada 1% France 3% USA 4% Korea 6% Belgium 9% Sweden 10% Norway 15% GEF 6% CIF 22% Arcus Foundation 0,0% Bezos Earth Fund 19% UNDP 5% REDD+ ODA Fund (Committed) 2010-2021, USD 139m UK 5% Spain 0% Canada 1% France 0% USA 3% Korea 0% Belgium 12% Sweden 14% Norway 16% GEF 0% CIF 15% Arcus Foundation 0,1% Bezos Earth Fund 27% UNDP 7% REDD+ ODA Fund (Disbursed) 2010-2021, USD 97m New major donor: Bezos Earth Fund 100% disbursed 9 donors = 95% commitments (Vs 4 donors by 2019)
  • 8. International NGO University, college, etc Donor country- based NGO UN Agencies/funds/ commissions Regional Development Bank Public sector institutions WB Group 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 % Disbursed USD Million (defl) Funding channels REDD+ Funds for DRC by Funding Channel 2010-2021 Commitment Disbursement % Dibursed 100% REDD+ ODA Funding: Funding channels • Channel = first implementing partner • Foreign CSOs have high disbursement rates (Small, nimble?) • ‘Large’ institutions (e.g., development banks, public sector institutions) = low disbursement rates (<=50%) • Largest channel: UN Agencies < DRC average disbursement rates (65%) • There is no local NGO?
  • 9. Summary 2010-2021 • ODA funding in DRC increased in size and diversity of donors • Ave. $11,4m/year committed, $8,11m/year disbursed • DRC: Lower disbursement rate compared to Global REDD+ funds • New major player: Bezos Earth Fund (Private Development Fund), 100% disbursement • Large portion of DRC REDD+ funds are channeled through foreign CSOs – high disbursement rates. • Lack of local CSOs as channel – why? • Large portion of committed REDD+ funds go through development banks – low (<50%) disbursement rates • Why?
  • 10. Quick Update on REDD+ Projects in DRC Evolution • 2014: 14 projects • 2020: 3 projects, certified VCS/CCB and CDM, trading credits on VCM • 2023: 4 additional in the VCS pipeline 2 huge projects Increase the area in projects from 491 thousand ha to 4,9 million (10x) Name Certification status Area (Ha) Est. Annual Emission Reductions Isangi REDD+ project Certified - VCS + CCB 187,571 324,534 The Mai N'dombe REDD+ Project Certified - VCS 299,640 5,671,613 Ibi-Bateke Certified - CDM 4,129 54,511 DRC REDD+ Carbon Credit Harvesting Project Under validation - VCS 1,346,360 27,604,998 Kokolopori Bonobo Peace Forest Grouped REDD ProjectUnder dev’t - VCS 421,000 1,047,213 Tshopo Lomami Grouped REDD Project Under validation - VCS 446,080 2,944,128 Sankuru Peace Forest Grouped REDD Project Under validation - VCS 2,190,831 7,390,562
  • 11. REDD+ Projects in DRC – Trading from VCM Name Est. Annual Emission Reductions Annual ave. traded in VCMa Ratio estimated vs. Traded Est. Traded (ratio 0,53) Isangi REDD+ project 324,534 173 953 1: 0.54 173 953 The Mai N'dombe REDD+ Project 5,671,613 2 985 330 1: 0.53 2 985 330 Ibi-Bateke 54,511 ND 28 690 DRC REDD+ Carbon Credit Harvesting Project 27,604,998 n/a 14 528 946 Kokolopori Bonobo Peace Forest Grouped REDD Project 1,047,213 n/a 551 165 Tshopo Lomami Grouped REDD Project 2,944,128 n/a 1 549 541 Sankuru Peace Forest Grouped REDD Project 7,390,562 n/a 3 889 769 2 projects trading currently • ave. 3,16 mtCO2e/yr • Assume $10/tCO2e = $31,6 million/year • 1 traded from 1,9 estimated ER • Projected: $230,7million/year aSource: https://registry.verra.org/app/search/VCS/VCUs
  • 12. Summary • The 2 REDD+ projects currently trading in the VCM generates an estimated $31,6 million/year • Compared with ODA: $8,11m/year disbursed • 4 projects in the pipeline, of which 2 are huge • Increases area in REDD+ project by 10x • Potentially increases funding from carbon credits to $ 230,7 million/year • Who benefits? Who provides oversight? • All new proponents are US/based • Community associations/local government not proponent
  • 13. Key message • Private funding is starting to take a prominent role in DRC’s REDD+ landscape • Via ODA and VCM • ODA disbursement is lower than global level • Local civil society is absent • Who benefits? Who provides oversight? • Role for stronger civil society and legal systems