Biomedical Engineering Tutorial Spring 2010


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A brief tutorial explaining how to find information in biomedical engineering

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Biomedical Engineering Tutorial Spring 2010

  2. 2. The Scientific Method <ul><li>The scientific method is the process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate representation of the world.  There are various thought processes that are used when the scientific method is employed.  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information Retrieval <ul><li>We are flooded with scientific and technical information.  Scientists, engineers and students must be able to find information at all levels from a multitude of information resources available to them. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Similarities between the Scientific Method and Information Retrieval <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Know the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Require new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Propose an experiment to find new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and interpret the results </li></ul><ul><li>Revise the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the final outcome of the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Information Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Know the scope of and contents of databases in his/her field of endeavor </li></ul><ul><li>Require new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Devise an initial search strategy using relevant terminology in subject databases </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the initial answer set </li></ul><ul><li>Revise the strategy based on findings from the initial answer set </li></ul><ul><li>Explore alternative search options </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the final answer set </li></ul><ul><li>Find the relevant documents </li></ul><ul><li>Use the information found </li></ul>
  5. 5. Formats of the Scientific and Technical Literature <ul><li>Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Conference Proceeding </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Review Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Research Level Book (monograph) </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Data Compilation </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is a Journal? <ul><li>A journal is a publication issued periodically that reports original research. Manuscripts submitted by researchers are scrutinized by an editor and a referee before they are accepted for publication.  This is known as the peer review process . The articles are very detailed and include detailed experimental procedures.  It is aimed at a very specialized audience of researchers in the field. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some Journals in Biomedical Engineering <ul><li>Biomaterials </li></ul><ul><li>Biosensors and Bioelectronics Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Cell and Tissue Banking </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conference Proceedings <ul><li>Scientists and engineers regularly attend conferences to report recent research findings to their colleagues.  Most conferences are organized by professional societies such at the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES) and the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB) Conferences may be held annually, bi-annually, or irregularly.   Some are one-time events.   A conference proceeding is the permanent record of the papers presented at a conference.  They are held as books or as CD-ROMs in a library. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example of Conference Proceedings <ul><li>Main Author:    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Regional                       conference Title:             Proceeding of the First Regional Conference, IEEE                       Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society and 14th                       Conference of the Biomedical Engineering Society of                       India : an international meet, February 15-18, 1995, New                     Delhi. Subject(s):        Biomedical engineering--Congresses. Location:          Stacks (lower level) Call number:       R856.A2 I346 1995 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Review Journal <ul><li>A Review Journal is a condensed version of a research journal.  It summarizes research in a field over a short period of time.  The articles omit the detailed experimental procedures but do provide lengthy bibliographies with references to the original research. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Review Journals <ul><li>Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering (available in print at NJIT) Call Number: R856.A1 C5 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Magazines <ul><li>A magazine is a publication issued periodically that has scientific and technical articles that are translated into a language suitable for a more general audience.  Magazine articles are usually written by a journalist rather than the scientist who has done the research.  Some magazines are orientated toward the business aspects of biomedical engineering while others are technical </li></ul>
  13. 13. Magazines <ul><li>Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine </li></ul>
  14. 14. Monographs <ul><li>A monograph is librarians' jargon for a book that is only published once.  Books are obviously written at levels ranging from elementary  to graduate school level.  Recent research done over a longer period of time is reported in monographs.  Now, the information is available to a much wider audience.  There are hundreds of monographs written for the disciplines related to biomedical engineering. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Handbooks and Encyclopedias <ul><li>Handbooks provide find formulae, definitions and or often used as a starting point when researching an unfamiliar field.  Encyclopedias (single or multi-volume) introduce researchers to specialize fields of study.   Many are now available in electronic formats. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Handbooks <ul><li>Title:             The biomedical engineering handbook / editor-in-chief,                       Joseph D. Bronzino. Subject(s):        Biomedical engineering--Handbooks, manuals, etc.               Publisher:         Boca Raton : CRC Press : IEEE Press, c2000. Location:          Ready Reference (behind the Ref Desk) Call number:       R856.15 .B56 2000 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Encyclopedias <ul><li>Title:             Standard handbook of biomedical engineering and design /                       Myer Kutz, editor in chief. Subject(s):        Biomedical engineering--Handbooks, manuals, etc.                          Medical instruments and apparatus--Design and construction                       --Handbooks, manuals, etc. Publisher:         New York : McGraw-Hill, c2003. Description:       1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 25 cm. Series:            McGraw-Hill standard handbooks Location:          Stacks (lower level) Call number:       R856.15 .S73 2003 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Flow of Scientific Information <ul><li>Scientists and engineers conceive ideas and perform experiments in the laboratory.  They want to make the results of their research public.  They will write a manuscript documenting their research results and submit to the editor of an appropriate journal for publication. The editor will refer the manuscript to an authority in the field who will review it and accept or deny it for publication. They may also present their findings at a professional conference. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Flow of Scientific Information <ul><li>The published information flows from the top of the chart (on the next slide) to the bottom.  Students needing information must start their research at the bottom of the chart.  Tertiary literature such as handbooks, encyclopedias, and textbooks must be consulted first.  If the desired information is not found there, the researcher must try to find information in reviews, journals and conference proceedings.  Such publications are indexed in subject specific databases. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Flow of Scientific Information
  21. 21. Types of Databases <ul><li>Bibliographic - includes the elements needed to identify the document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal, Year, Volume, Issue Number, Pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract - a one paragraph summary of the article to help the researcher decide if it is relevant to the research question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full-Text - includes the entire article in electronic format </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric (Data Compilation) - includes only specific data elements such as thermodynamic or spectral data </li></ul>
  22. 22. Database Formats <ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very cumbersome and difficult to use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online (1970s to the present) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay as you go.  Cost is based on amount of information retreived </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM (1980s to the present) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only so much information can fit on one disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web (1990s to the present) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for remote access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet access using special software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scifinder Scholar (Chemical Abstracts 1907 to the present) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Limitations of Databases <ul><li>Subject coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Dates of Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Publication (i.e. journals only, patents only) </li></ul><ul><li>Not all databases provide full-text of the retrieved documents </li></ul>
  24. 24. Databases for Biomedical Engineers <ul><li>Site for NJIT Databases </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE/IEE Electronic Library </li></ul><ul><li>Scopus </li></ul><ul><li>Medline (PubMed) </li></ul><ul><li>Scifinder Scholar (Chemical Abstracts) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Scopus <ul><li>Scopus is a multidisciplinary navigational tool that contains records going back to the mid 1960s, offering newly-linked citations across the widest body of scientific abstracts available in one place.  Biomedical engineering is one of the many subjects covered in Scopus </li></ul>
  26. 26. IEEE/IEE Electronic Library <ul><li>A database of IEEE transactions, journals, magazines and conference proceedings published since 1988 plus select content back to 1950, and all current IEEE Standards.  Includes links to the full-text of the original documents </li></ul><ul><li>A single source to almost a third of the world's current electrical engineering and computer science literature.  Over 1 million references are included. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the database is related to biomedical engineering </li></ul>
  27. 27. Medline <ul><li>MEDLINE is the NLM's (National Library of Medicine) premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. It does cover some aspects of biomedical engineering.  MEDLINE contains bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,800 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries. The database contains over 12 million citations dating back to the mid-1960's. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Scifinder Scholar <ul><li>Electronic Version of Chemical Abstracts (1907 to the present) </li></ul><ul><li>It contains many links to full-text articles </li></ul><ul><li>Searchable by chemical substance, reaction, research topic, author or affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Its coverage of biomedical engineering is limited to &quot;chemical aspects&quot; such as biomaterials.  It would not cover topics such as rehabilitation, biomechanics, and instrumentation. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a web and client software version </li></ul>
  29. 29. Scifinder Scholar <ul><li>When searching for substances, it is suggested that the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number be used.  This is a &quot;social security number&quot; for chemical substances.  Many print and electronic sources use registry numbers to avoid ambiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>Only one person at NJIT may search Scifinder Scholar at a time.  Please minimize time you are using it by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating your answer set while you are off line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the database during off-peak hours.  It is available almost 24 hours a day/7 days a week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waiting at least 10 minutes before attempting to login again. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A tutorial is available http:// </li></ul>
  30. 30. Boolean Logic <ul><li>Boolean logic takes its name from British mathematician George Boole who wrote about a system of logic designed to produce better search results by formulating precise queries.  The Boolean Operators are: </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>The Boolean AND narrows your search by retrieving only documents that contain every one of the keywords that you enter.  The more terms you enter, the narrower your search becomes.      EXAMPLE: biomechanics AND knee      EXAMPLE: biomechanics AND knee AND elbow </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>The Boolean OR expands your search by returning documents in which either or both keywords appear.  The more keywords you enter, the more documents you retrieve.    EXAMPLE: knee OR elbow    EXAMPLE: knee OR elbow OR shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>NOT </li></ul><ul><li>The Boolean NOT limits your search by returning only the first keyword but not the second, even if the first word appears in that document, too    EXAMPLE knee NOT shoulder    EXAMPLE elbow NOT knee </li></ul><ul><li>To do an effective search you must choose the most relevant database(s) and the appropriate Boolean Logic </li></ul>
  31. 31. Availability of Journals <ul><li>Once you do a search, you must locate the articles that you retrieved from the search that you think are relevant.  They may be available: </li></ul><ul><li>Print only </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Only </li></ul><ul><li>Print and Electronic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates of electronic availability vary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not available at NJIT - order through interlibrary loan </li></ul>
  32. 32. Devising Optimal Search Strategies <ul><li>Choose the proper database(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of the scope and limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use all relevant search terms and appropriate Boolean logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of concepts not words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Devise a search strategy for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand strategy if too few are found </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustive search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cut down if too many citations are retrieved </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Evaluating References <ul><li>Look at the abstract to judge if the paper is relevant to your topic </li></ul><ul><li>If so, is the paper available from the NJIT Library? </li></ul><ul><li>All papers from the IEEE Electronic Library are available in pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Follow links in Scopus or Medline to check for availabilty </li></ul>
  34. 34. Citing Your Sources and Managing References <ul><li>Please See: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. For Further Help <ul><li>Contact Bruce Slutsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Van Houten Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>973-642-4950 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference desk at 973-596-3210 </li></ul></ul>