TIPS ON SCIENTIFIC WRITING & EDITING METHODOLOGIES

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TIPS ON ARTICLE WRITING & EDITING METHODOLOGIES AND SOME ANIMAL & VETERINARY SCIENCE RELATED JOURNALS

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TIPS ON SCIENTIFIC WRITING & EDITING METHODOLOGIES

  1. 1. Ranjan Kumar Mohanta
  2. 2.  Popular article Research article Short note/short communication Letters to editor Technical note/bulletin/report Case report Review article Abstract/ mini-abstract/ extended abstract Book review
  3. 3. POPULAR ARTICLESWith referencese.g. Livestock linePoultry lineIndian DairymanWithout referencese.g. Livestock InternationalDairy PlannerAgriculture Today etc.Simple, lucid and easy to understandDescribe finding of research that may not be of his/her ownIntended for general public or target groupsNo fixed structure of articleReferences not mandatoryMostly follow current scenario
  4. 4. RESEARCH ARTICLESOriginal research articles-result of a planned original work-emphasize all the aspects-in a particular structureShort communications/ short notes-findings in only some parameters-for rapid communication-important findings, i.e. resultsBrief, to the point and/or repeatable or replicableDescribe own research finding and may compare with othersIntended for scientific community or target groupsFixed structure of article, e.g. abstracts, introduction, materialsand methods, results, discussion, referencesAcknowledgement, conflict of interest, contribution of individualauthors
  5. 5. Usually contain:◦ A summary or “abstract”◦ Key words◦ Description of the research methodologies adopted results generated significance of the results◦ References citedResearch articles are not good places to find:◦ basic summaries◦ general introductions to a topicArticle:◦ The most recent, cutting edge research◦ Authoritative information about older research
  6. 6. Abstract◦ Clear picture of the article in a concise manner◦ About 200-250 words◦ Usually in one paragraph◦ Attractively represents all the informationExtended abstract◦ Abstract having subheadings and tables, graphs, figuresalso. About 600-800 wordsMini-abstract◦ Represents a clear picture of an extended abstract in aconcise manner.◦ 50-100 words.ABSTRACT
  7. 7.  Review (Invited/Unsolicited) Chronological- date/year-wise, as per the authors’ work Critical-with a theme which is concept based Online- Nature Reviews, CABI Published - Microbiological Reviews, Annual Reviews Format – fixed/ variable Covers Recent, innovative and contemporary issues Devoted to a particular topic (last 5 yrs -more) Provides comprehensive information Has author(s) interpretations based on original findings Has more impact in getting citationsREVIEW ARTICLE
  8. 8. Guidelines on authorshop, International committee of Medical Journal Editors,Reprinted by kind permission of the Editor of the British Medical Journal of Sept14, 1985. J Clin Pathol 39: 110, 1986
  9. 9.  Definition: “A conflict of interest is a set of circumstances thatcreates a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding aprimary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest.” Occurs when an individual or organization is involved inmultiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt themotivation for an act in the other.◦ i.e. Any undue funding grant or financial gain or promotion that may bias theresearch Primary interest: principal goals of the profession or activity e.g. Integrity of research Compliance to Ethical norms in research Rationale for animal/human experimentation Secondary interest: Financial gain and motives Desire for professional advancement Wish to do favors for family and friendsCONFLICT OF INTEREST
  10. 10.  Financial or personal relationshipthat inappropriately influence the actionsof an author, reviewer, or editor Also known as Dual commitments/competing interests/competing loyalties Authors should disclose their conflict of interest Financial relationships such as employment, consultancy,stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony Personal relationship Academic competition Intellectual passion Must be included in acknowledgmentCONFLICT OF INTEREST
  11. 11. Results of 176 studies on Environmental Hazards & HumanHealth Baker (2008)Objective Funding Harm No HarmImpact ofBisphenol Aon humanhealthIndustry 0(0%)13(100%)Independent(e.g. Govt.)152(86%)11(14%)CONFLICT OFINTERESTFINANCIAL PROFESSIONAL PERSONALPREJUDICE
  12. 12.  Latin word “plagiarius”: literally kidnapper “Wrongful appropriation," "close imitation," or"purloining and publication" of another authors"language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and therepresentation of them as ones own original work Use of a writers ideas or phraseology without giving duecredit Not a crime per se but is disapproved more on the groundsof moral offence, and cases of plagiarism can involve liabilityfor copyright infringement. By failing to include quotations orgive the appropriate citation Self-plagiarism
  13. 13. Impact Factor◦ Thomson ReutersEigenfactor Score◦ University of WashingtonPage Rank Algorithm◦ GoogleNAAS rating◦ National Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  14. 14.  A measure reflecting the average number ofcitations to recent articles published in science andsocial science journals Devised by Eugene Garfield:◦ founder of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), nowpart of Thomson Reuters Calculated after all the publications of previous yearhave been processed by the indexing agency 2011 impact factors are actually published in 2012
  15. 15.  IF of a journal is the avg. citations received per paperpublished in that journal during the two preceding yearse.g. if a journal has an IF 3 in 2011, then its papers published in2010 and 2009 received 3 citations each on avg. in 2011A = the no. of times articles published in 2009 and 2010 werecited by indexed journals during 2011.B = the total number of "citable items" published by thatjournal in 2009 and 2010.("Citable items" are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, ornotes; not editorials or letters-to-the-editor) 2011 impact factor = A/B
  16. 16.  Hirsch index or Hirsch number◦ Jorge E. Hirsch◦ Measures productivity & impact of published work of a scientistor scholare.g. A scientist has index h if h of his/her papers have atleast h citations eachi-10 index:Google citationsImmediacy Index :◦ average number of times published papers are citedduring year of publication
  17. 17. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)Objectives: to bring uniformity in the evaluation ofpublications Assessment of research achievements Avoids arbitrariness in assessmentCategory I: Where IF is available, 6.0 and 10.0Category II: Non IF journals, on the basis of a proforma Previously , scale of 4 was used till 2007 Now, a scale of 10 used: 1988 Journals (2012 list)
  18. 18. Rating Range JOURNALS NAAS Rating0-2 Indian Journal of Dairy & Biosciences 1.82-3 Indian Journal of Animal Health 2.93-4 Animal Science Reporter 3.0Indian Journal of Veterinary Research 3.64-5 Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 4.0Intas Polivet 4.1Indian Journal of Poultry Science 4.2Indian Journal of Small Ruminants 4.3Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 4.5Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 4.6Indian Journal of Dairy Science 4.85-6 Indian Journal of Agronomy 5.0Indian Veterinary Journal 6.0
  19. 19. IF IF(2011)NAASRatingJournal>0.00-0.02 0.002 6.1 Indian Journal of Animal Research>0.02-0.04 0.040 6.2 Indian Journal of Fisheries>0.10-0.20 0.122 6.6 Indian Journal of Animal Sciences>0.30-0.40 0.323 6.8 Animal Nutrition & Feed Technology>0.50-0.60 0.579 7.0 AJAS>0.80-0.90 0.857 7.3 Animal Science Journal>0.90-1.00 0.987 7.4 Archives of Animal Nutrition>1.00-1.50 1.115 7.5 Tropical Animal Health & Production>1.50-2.00 1.691 7.6 Animal Feed Science and Technology>2.00-2.50 2.096 7.7 Journal of Animal Science>3.00-3.50 3.013 7.9 British Journal of Nutrition>9.00-10.00 9.447 9.1 Annual Review of Nutrition>18.00 10 Cell, Lancet, Nature, Science etc.
  20. 20.  Good viewership Good NAAS & IF rating Citation possibility more Thorough reviewing and editing will improvearticle quality Better recognition and promotion aspect
  21. 21. Criteria: High impact factor Citations Strong base of reviewers and editors Scope and international authorship Broad viewership Accessibility Online submission & Internet availabilityMerits: Online first article Less time for processing Abstracting by major databases Minimum 3 yrs of publication In time publishing and quality
  22. 22.  Google Scholar Highwire Press Pubmed Central Directory of Open Access Journals (Lund University,Sweden) Scopus (Elsevier) Scirus (Elsevier) J-Gate (INFORMATICS) Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) JSTOR INFOMINE (University of California, USA)
  23. 23.  CeRA NKRC (CSIR-DST) UGC INFONET 2.0 (INFLIBNET) DeLCON DBT e-Library Consortium ERMED INDEST-AICTE FORSA
  24. 24.  Springer Science + BusinessMedia Elsevier Science:Science Direct CABI Cambridge University Press Indianjournals Nature Publishing Group Public Library of Science BioMed Central Oxford University Press Highwire Press CSIRO PUBLISHING Annual Reviews Taylor & Francis ARCC American Chemical Society Wiley-Blackwell
  25. 25.  National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) in 2003 The IARI Central Library houses the CeRA office.Objectives:• To develop the existing R & D information resource• To subscribe e-journals and create an e-access culture• To develop a Science Citation Index Facility forevaluation of scientific publications•To assess the impact of CeRA on the level of researchpublications Documentary delivery systems at IARI, NDRI, IVRI andCIFE Tremendous impact in improving the quality of researchand education
  26. 26.  CD-ROM is a new storage medium that canserve as a quick, economical source ofinformation for students, researchers, writers,and professionals in many fields.
  27. 27. Databases SubjectFood Sci. & Tech.Abstracts (FSTA)Basic food science, nutrition, biotechnology, toxicologypackaging and engineering.Medline CD Microbiology, delivery of health care, nutritionpharmacology and environmental health.AGRIS CD Agriculture including forestry, animal husbandry, theaquatic sciences and fisheries and human nutrition.Beast CD(Animal ProductionDatabase)All relevant records from the CAB Abstracts database,corresponding to selections from a number of abstractsjournal in the CABI rang.VET CD (Vet. Sci.Databases)All relevant veterinary sciences.Biological Abstracts(BA)Bibliographic references with abstracts derived fromlife science research journals.Biotechnology Abstr.(BioTchA)Genetic manipulation to biochemical engineering andfermentation.
  28. 28.  Windows based SilverPlatter Information RetrievalSystem◦ provides several search tools for retrieving informationstored in databases. A topic of interest◦ Show, print, and download those records◦ Save your search strategy for later use◦ Select Years◦ Search key word◦ Save◦ Modify search
  29. 29.  Search for the bibliographic records withina library’s collection Browse and search Keyword and phrase search Only keyword search; keywords can becombined with Boolean operators Searching of records through selectedkeys – author, title, ISBN, call number, etc. Some searches can be limited by date,collection, language, etc.
  30. 30.  Publishers website Google Scholar Broaden or narrowing Open in a new tab Exact match Best match Partial match Boolean operation Year/date specific Cross reference
  31. 31.  Those who have the most to say usually say it withthe fewest words What/who/why???? Selection of journal Selection of matter Plan your writing Choosing articles for discussion Read references (referee/journal selection) Instruction to authors Write in simple and clear, but lucid manner Keep words flowing
  32. 32.  A reader should never have to read a sentence twiceto understand its meaning Dont rely on the spell checker only Ask yourself◦ What I am trying to say?◦ What words will express it?◦ Could I put it more briefly? Use words carefully & precisely Active voice, better Print the draft, correct after reading it aloud, print Punctuations, awkward sentences, unnecessarywords, look of document Proofread
  33. 33.  Use of Spelling and Grammar Check Find and replace Use of show/hide icon Spacing Word limit Line number Author instruction Abbreviation of journals Keywords Avoid jargons
  34. 34. Important tips !! Add to favorites Save target as Always view MS-word pages as “ view page width” Open in a new tab Reference checking methodology
  35. 35. PROCESS OF PUBLICATIONCompletion of researchPreparation of manuscriptSubmission of manuscriptAssignment and reviewDecisionRevisionResubmissionRe-reviewAcceptancePublicationRejectionRejection
  36. 36. Home pageIndianjournals.comScience DirectSpringerTaylor and FrancisWiley-BlackwellCambridge University PressICAR websiteNOPR-CSIRPLoSNRC PressSAGE pressCSIRO
  37. 37.  In Practice Journal of Animal Science Journal of Nutrition Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesof the USA Veterinary Record
  38. 38. JOURNAL AVAILABLE FROMAgricultural Reviews 2005Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology 2005Applied Biological Research ALLBhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika ALLBIOINFOLET - A Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences ALLIndian Cow : The Scientific and Economic Journal 2005Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 2005Indian Journal of Animal Research 2005Indian Journal of Poultry Science 2005
  39. 39. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants (The) 2005Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology ALLIndian Journal of Veterinary Research (The) ALLINTAS POLIVET ALLJournal of Camel Practice and Research ALLJournal of Dairying Foods & Home Sciences ALLJournal of Research, SKUAST-J ALLJournal of Immunology and Immunopathology 2005Journal of Veterinary Parasitology ALLRange Management and Agroforestry ALLTrends in Biosciences ALLTheriogenology Insight - An International Journal ofReproduction in all AnimalsALL
  40. 40.  Analytical Biochemistry Animal Behaviour Animal Feed Science and Technology Animal Reproduction Science Applied Animal Behaviour Science Cell Clinical Biochemistry Current Opinion in Biotechnology Domestic Animal Endocrinology Fertility and Sterility Food and Chemical Toxicology Food Chemistry International Dairy Journal
  41. 41.  Journal of Experimental Animal Science The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology Life Sciences Livestock Science Research in Veterinary Science Small Ruminant Research Theriogenology Trends series in Biochemical Sciences, Food Science &Technology, Immunology Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology The Veterinary Journal Veterinary Microbiology
  42. 42.  Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry• Biochemistry• Cell and Developmental Biology• Genetics• Genomics and Human Genetics• Immunology• Medicine• Microbiology• Nutrition• Physiology• Public HealthANNUAL REVIEWS
  43. 43. ◦ Amino Acids◦ Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology◦ Archives of Microbiology◦ Biological Trace Element Research◦ Bimetals◦ Biotechnology Letters◦ Bulletin of Environmental Contamination &Toxicology◦ Climatic Change◦ Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
  44. 44. ◦ Current Microbiology◦ Dairy Science & Technology◦ Environmental Monitoring and Assessment◦ Folia Microbiologica◦ Food Security◦ Genes & Nutrition◦ Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry◦ Indian Journal of Microbiology◦ Journal of Biosciences◦ Journal of Comparative Physiology. Series A & B◦ Metabolomics◦ Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
  45. 45. ◦ Molecular Biology◦ Molecular Biology Reports◦ Molecular Biotechnology◦ Mycotoxin Research◦ Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology◦ Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins◦ Proceedings of the Zoological Society◦ Russian Agricultural Sciences◦ Science in China Series C: Life Sciences◦ Theory in Biosciences◦ Tropical Animal Health and Production◦ Veterinary Research Communications
  46. 46.  Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A: Animal Science Animal Biotechnology Annals of Science Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Archives of Animal Nutrition British Poultry Science Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition Ecology of Food and Nutrition Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A & B
  47. 47.  Food and Agricultural Immunology Food Biotechnology Food Reviews International Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Journal of Applied Animal Research Journal of Environmental Science and Health Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research New Zealand Journal of Zoology Nutrition and Cancer
  48. 48.  Australian Veterinary Journal Immunological Reviews Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics Journal of Food Science Journal of Food Safety Journal of Small Animal Practice Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Microbiology and Immunology Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Zoonoses and Public Health
  49. 49.  Animal Production Science Crop and Pasture Science Reproduction, Fertility and DevelopmentAMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMYJournal of Environmental QualityJournal of Natural Resources and LifeSciences Education
  50. 50.  Indian Journal of Agricultural Research Indian Journal of Animal Sciences Indian Journal of Veterinary Anatomy Indian Journal of Dairy Sciences Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Journal of Fisheries Technology Current Science Journal of Bioscience Resonance
  51. 51.  Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics Indian Journal of Biotechnology Indian Journal of Chemical Technology Indian Journal of Chemistry -Section A Indian Journal of Chemistry -Section B Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Journal of Intellectual Property Rights Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research
  52. 52.  Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews Series Parasitology Database Pig News and Information Poultry Abstracts Protozoological Abstracts Review of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Review of Medical and Veterinary Entomology Review of Medical and Veterinary Mycology Tropical Diseases Bulletin Veterinary Bulletin Veterinary Science Database
  53. 53.  CAB Abstracts Global Health AgBiotechNet Animal Science Database Nutrition and Food Sciences Database VetMed Resource Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases Animal Breeding Abstracts Animal Production Database Dairy Science Abstracts Index Veterinarius
  54. 54.  Advances in Animal Biosciences Agricultural Information Worldwide American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Animal Science Papers and Reports Annals Food Science and Technology Archives of Veterinary Science Asian Journal of Animal Sciences Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences BMC Veterinary Research Brazilian Journal of Animal Health and Production Brazilian Journal of Animal Science
  55. 55.  Buffalo Bulletin Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy Czech Journal of Animal Science E-planet Italian Journal of Animal Science Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances Journal of Research ANGRAU Livestock Research for Rural Development Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research Pakistan Veterinary Journal International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances
  56. 56.  International Journal of Poultry Science International Journal of Veterinary Research Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences South African Journal of Animal Science Tamilnadu Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Veterinary Research Veterinary World Veterinarski Arhiv
  57. 57.  Science Reporter Dream 2047 Agriculture Today Everymans Science Agrovet Buzz Livestock Line Poultry Line Dairy Planner Poultry Planner Livestock and Feed Trends
  58. 58. Please be generous in sharing your…… Knowledge ,Altruistic support &Creative Ideas

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