Bibliometrics

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  • Introduction to Informetrics: quantitative methods in library, documentation and information science / by Leo Egghe and Ronlad Rousseau.- New York: Elsvier, 1990.Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  • Bibliometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics: opening new vistas of Information Science / by AshwiriTiwari.-Jaipur: RBSA Publishers, 2006.
  •  Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics / Nicola De Bellis.- Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2009.
  •  Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics / Nicola De Bellis.- Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2009.
  •  Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics / Nicola De Bellis.- Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2009.
  •  Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics / Nicola De Bellis.- Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2009.
  • http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics
  • http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics
  • http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics
  • http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics
  • http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics
  • http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics
  • http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics
  • Bibliometrics

    1. 1. BIBLIOMETRICSPrepared bySyed Aamir Abbas&Muhammad ShakeelMPhil StudentsSemester-I (2012-14)Minhaj University, Lahore.
    2. 2. Introduction:Before the term “Bibliometrics” was proposed by Alan pritchard(1969), the term “statistical bibliography” wasin some use.According to Alan Pritchard (1969), it wasHulme (1923) who initiated the term “statistical bibliography”.Genesis of Bibliometrics
    3. 3. Bibliometric TechniquesThere are different kinds of bibliometric techniques.1. Citation analysis2. Citation Indexing3. Self Citation and Co-authorship4. Publication Counts5. Direct Citatinos6. Bibliographic Coupling7. Co-Citation Coupling
    4. 4. 1.Citation analysisThe nature of this embedding is specified by the use of foot-notes and / or referencelists. Citation analysis is that area of bibliometrics which deals with the study ofthese relationships.Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many differentlinks can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarlyworks, between journals, between fields, or even between countries.
    5. 5. 2. Citation IndexingA citation index keeps track of which articles in scientific journals cite with otherarticles. In Academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publicationintended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.
    6. 6. 3. References and CitationsDistinguish between the notationsReference&CitationIf paper A contains a bibliographic note using and describing paper B, than Acontains a reference to B and B has a citation from A.Hence, reference is a backward looking concept, while citation is a forward lookingone.
    7. 7. 4. Self-citation and Co-authorshipA citation index keeps track of which articles in scientific journals cite with otherarticles. In academic publishing, a scientific journal is usually by reporting new SelfPublication Counts1. Direct Citatinos2. Bibliographic Coupling3. Co-Citation Coupling
    8. 8. 5. Publication countsThe simplest technique of bibliometrics is counting the total number of publicationof a scientist or a group of them having publications.6. Direct CitationThe direct citation count is the easiest technique to determine the number of citationsreceived by a given document or set of documents over a period of time from aparticular set of citing documents over a period of time from a particular set of citingdocuments, where from citation data for analysis was taken.
    9. 9. 7. Bibliographic CouplingThe term “bibliographic coupling” was coined by M. M. Kessler, he defined a unityof coupling between two papers as an item of reference used by these two papers.The two papers are then said to be bibliographic coupled.7. Co-citation CouplingCo-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between twodocuments. Two documents are said to be co-cited when they both appear in thereference list of a third document.
    10. 10. Difference betweenBibliographic Coupling and Co-citation CouplingBibliographic coupling focuses on Co-citation focuses on references whichgroups of papers which cite a source document. Frequentl ycome in pair.Bibliographic is said to be retrospective Co-citation is called “prospectivecoupling coupling
    11. 11. Foundations of Bibliometrics1- The Empirical Foundations of Bibliometrics: The Science CitationIndex2- The Philosophical Foundations of Bibliometrics: Bernal,Merton, Price, Garfield, and Small3- The Mathematical Foundations of Bibliometrics.
    12. 12. Foundations of Bibliometrics1- The Empirical Foundations of Bibliometrics:The Science Citation Index.The Science Citation Index (SCI), conceived by Eugene Garfield, thefounder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) in Philadelphia.Measuring, in terms of citation frequencies, the cognitive impact ofindividual documents, journals, and authors (the bibliographic citationas a tool for research quality control).Indexes are a basic component of manual or computerized informationretrieval, because in most systems the user queries do not matchdirectly the collection of documents, but rather an index previouslyprepared by manual or automatic operations.
    13. 13. Foundations of Bibliometrics2- The Philosophical Foundations of Bibliometrics: Bernal,Merton, Price, Garfield, and SmallBernal, a professor of physics at the Birkbeck College of London since1937, is a leading figure in the history of science in every possible sense:as an actor, given his pioneering contributions to X-ray crystallographyand molecular biology, and as a director teaching historians of scienceshow to study and write about science in its social context.Merton, a professor of sociology at Columbia University, divulged a small setof norms supposedly placed at the core of the universal ethos ofscience, that is, the complex of prescriptions, prohibitions, and valuesgoverning the prevalent (nondeviant) behavior of scientists at all times andeverywhere.
    14. 14. Foundations of Bibliometrics2- The Philosophical Foundations of Bibliometrics: Bernal,Merton, Price, Garfield, and SmallEUGENE GARFIELDGarfield’s 1955 article “Citation Indexes for Science” was a turning point inthe way information scientists conceptualized the role of bibliographiccitations in the knowledge production process.Henry Small 1970s,A member of the research team at ISI, further developed Garfield’s insightsinto the ability of citations to mimic the transfer and uptake of ideas typicalof more codified forms of language.He advocated the basic cognitive function of bibliographic citations on theground that, apart from individual reasons to cite, each referenceincorporates an idea or concept accounting for the citer’s resolution toinvoke it in a specific context.
    15. 15. Bibliometric Laws– Seek to describe the working of science bymathematical means. Generally that a few entitiesaccount for the many citations.• Bradford’s Law of Scattering• Lotka’s Law• Zipf’s Law
    16. 16. Bradford’s Law of Scattering– How literature in a subject in distributed in journals.• “If scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivityof articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus ofperiodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several othergroups of zones containing the same number of articles as thenucleus.”– 9 journals had 429 articles, the next 59 had 499, the last 258 had404.– Bradford discovered this regularity of calculating thenumber of titles in each of the three groups: 9titles, 9x5 titles, 9x5x5 titles.– Can be influenced by sample size, area of specialization andjournal policies.
    17. 17. Brookes on Bradford’s Formula– “The index terms assigned to documents alsofollow a Bradford distribution because thoseterms most frequently assigned become less andless specific and therefore increasingly ineffectivein retrieval.”
    18. 18. Bradford’s Formula Itself– Bradford’s Formula makes it possible to estimatehow many of the most productive sources wouldyield any specified fraction p of the total numberof items. The formula is:• R(n) = N log n/s (1 <_ n <_ N)– where R(n) = cumulative total of items contributed by thesources of rank 1 to n.– N = total number of contributing sources– s = a constant characteristic of the literature– then– R(N) = N log N/s– is the total number of items contributed by N sources.
    19. 19. More Bradford’s Law– Citations originally counted year by year can beexpressed as the geometric sequence:– R, Ra, Ra2, Ra3, Ra4, ..., Rat-1• where R = presumed number of citations during thefirst year, some of which do not immediately emerge inpublication. But as a<1, the sum of the sequenceconverges to the finite limit R/(1-a).
    20. 20. Lotka’s Law– An inverse square law that for every 100 authorscontributing on article, 25 will contribute 2, 11 willcontribute 3 and 6 will contribute 4.– formula is- 1:n2.– Voos found 1:n3.5 for Info Science (1974).– What are other similar analysis tasks you coulduse Lotka’s law for?– Are users, browsers, bloggers like authors?
    21. 21. Zipf’s Law• The distribution which applied to wordfrequency in a text states that the nth rankingword will appear k/n times, where k is aconstant for that text.– It is easier to choose and use familiar words, thereforeprobabilities of occurrence of familiar words is higher. rf=Crank, frequency,– This can be applied by counting all of the words in a document(minus some words in a stop list - common words(the, therefore...)) with the most frequent occurrencesrepresenting the subject matter of the document. Could alsouse relative frequency (more often than expected) instead ofabsolute frequency.
    22. 22. Wyllys on Zipf’s Law– Surprisingly constrained relationship betweenrank and frequency in natural language.– Zipf said the fundamental reason for humanbehavior : the striving to minimize effort.– Mandelbrot - further refinement of Zipf’s law:(r+m)Bf=c where r is the rank of a word, f is itsfrequency, m, B and c are constants dependent onthe corpus. m has the greatest effect when r issmall.
    23. 23. Uses of Bibliometric StudiesHistorically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationshipsamongst academic journal citations.The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis inorder to establish relationships between authors or their work.
    24. 24. i) Measuring the scattering of articleson a subject in various periodicals(Bradford).ii) Measuring the productivity of anauthor based on the number ofpublished articles. (Lotka).iii) Ranking of words in a text basedon frequency of occurrence of words.iv) Productivity count of literature.v) To identify the peers, social changeand the core journal, etc.vi) Indexing and Thesaurus;vii) Research;viii) Formulating search strategies in caseof automated system;ix) Comparative assessment of thesecondary services;x) Bibliographic control;xi) Preparation of retrospectivebibliographic andxii) Library Management.Uses of Bibliometric StudiesThe Bibliometric studies are used in
    25. 25. Refernece Introduction to Informetrics: quantitative methods in library, documentation andinformation science / by Leo Egghe and Ronlad Rousseau.- New York: Elsvier, 1990. Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics /Nicola De Bellis.- Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2009. http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics

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