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Story theory

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Story theory

  1. 1. Story Theory A Middle Range Theory Donna H Brown UNC Greensboro April 20, 2010
  2. 2. What theory should be… <ul><li>“ Enthusiastic discourse that that fits the description…a place where people work at the very edges of their abilities, constantly pushing each other’s thinking into new territory, giving names to things that have gone unnamed, dreaming of better ways, describing common ground and finding ways to realize shared dreams” </li></ul><ul><li>Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberg, & Tarule (1996). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>First published 1999 as “attentively embracing story;&quot; simplified to story theory </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Jane Smith, PhD, RN: Professor and Associate Dean, Graduate Academic Affairs, West Virginia University School of Nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia R. Liehr, PhD, RN: Professor and Associate Dean for Nursing Scholarship, Florida Atlantic University </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Story Theory? <ul><li>Ontology: “story is an inner human resource for making meaning” (Reed, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology: “middle range theory bonds research and practice in a method of knowledge development” (Reed, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Smith and Liehr share the belief that story-telling has healing potential; this theory development was driven by the desire to bind practice and research in nursing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Purpose <ul><li>Stories as a part of human experience </li></ul><ul><li>Stories bind people and time </li></ul><ul><li>Stories as expressions of who we are, where we have been and where we are going </li></ul><ul><li>Story theory = context for nurse-person health promoting process </li></ul><ul><li>Structure to guide nursing in practice and research by collecting stories about health situations that are important to the person </li></ul>
  6. 6. Storytelling in the Literature <ul><li>Foundations from Parse, Rogers, Reed, Peplau, Watson, Newman, Benner, Chinn, Kramer </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding culture, meaning of events in the lives of individuals, understanding the impact of emotions, ways of healing and repair, sharing in artistic form, rediscovery </li></ul><ul><li>Growing phenomenon; qualitative research </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assumptions <ul><li>People change as they are interacting in relationship with their world; this change is found in connected dimensions that are in constant motion </li></ul><ul><li>People live in their expanded present; this state is due to the transformation of past and future events into the here and now experience </li></ul><ul><li>People experience meaning through the “creative unfolding of human potential.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theoretical Concepts <ul><li>Intentional dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting with self-in-relation </li></ul><ul><li>Creating ease </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theoretical Model Creating Ease NURSE PERSON Intentional Dialogue Complicating health challenge Developing story-plot Movement toward resolving Smith, M.J., & Liehr, P.R. (2008). Middle Range Theory for Nursing, 2 nd ed . New York: Springer
  10. 10. Research and Story Theory <ul><li>Adolescents living with obesity and pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing sensitivity to Appalachian culture in APNs </li></ul><ul><li>BP changes when adding story-centered care to diet and exercise regimen of patients with stage 1 HTN </li></ul><ul><li>Energy resources for caregivers in oncology </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking and driving </li></ul>
  11. 11. Using Story Theory in Nursing Practice <ul><li>Setting aside life burdens </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing disagreement through behavioral messages </li></ul><ul><li>Theory for mutual timing </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the meaning of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Health care decision making from gathering stories </li></ul>
  12. 12. 7 Phases of Inquiry <ul><li>Gather the story about a health challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Compose restructured story </li></ul><ul><li>Connect challenge and current literature </li></ul><ul><li>Refine name of health challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Describe developing story plot </li></ul><ul><li>Identify energy/motion directed to resolving </li></ul><ul><li>Collect additional stories about this challenge </li></ul>
  13. 13. Possible Uses for My Research <ul><li>Narrow the age group to children OR adolescents (Story path has been used and worked well with adolescent groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce your story in the way you frame your topic in an introductory letter to participants </li></ul><ul><li>Calm, quiet environment and interviewer </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarize with additional articles on story theory to gain more insight with adolescent groups </li></ul>

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