The name of her book in which the theory appeared was Theory Development in Nursing.Martha Rogers’ theory (Unitary Human Beings) was the main basis for Newman’s theory.
Consciousness is defined in the theory as the informational capacity of the system (human beings) or the system’s ability to interact with the environment. Newman asserts that an understanding of her definition of consciousness is essential to understanding the theory. Consciousness includes not only cognitive and affective awareness but also the “interconnectedness” of the entire living system, which includes physiochemical maintenance and growth processes as well as the immune system. In Newman’s theory, health is an expansion of consciousness that is defined as the informational capacity of the system as is seen as the ability of the person to interact with the environment. (Alligood, 460)
Theory, research, and practice are seen as one inseparable process. The theory and methodology have provided a basis for research/practice in a variety of clinical setting with diverse client populations for exploring and understanding the experience of illness to individuals and families. (Alligood, 458)
HEC promotes nursing knowledge and the application of that knowledge to improve the lives of people globally.
Health as Expanding Consciousness has been used over and over to parallel nursing theory and qualitative research.
Some examples of research topics where HEC was the chosen nursing theory.
3 examples of the use of HEC in clinical practice.
Balty, brown, mix, morey theories into practice - nur 4344
Theories and ResearchTravis Balty, Amanda Brown, Chuck Mix, Jocelyn Morey Southwest Baptist University
• Explore nursing Theory/Theorist• Understand purpose of chosen research article• Understand clinical applications of nursing theory• Develop ways to include theory into own practice
Citation:Hayes, M., & Jones, D. (2007). Health as expanding consciousness: pattern recognition and incarcerated mothers, a transforming experience. Journal Of Forensic Nursing, 3(2), 61-66.Working Link:http://eagle.sbuniv.edu:2152/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=02c427f6-6031-4c87-98db-cb235bafed88%40sessionmgr11&vid=4&hid=115
• In-depth look into Margaret Newman’s theory, Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC)• The application of theory to incarcerated Mother’s awaiting release• Application of Reflection when movement-time-space are restricted to promote organization of life patterns, new directions and move them to new place in life (Hayes & Jones, 2007).
• Use of HEC to provide a framework to guide practice (Hayes & Jones, 2007)• This would allow for new insights about the life patterns of incarcerated individuals
• HEC is grounded in three basic assumptions: 1. Health 2. Expanding Consciousness 3. Movement-space-time
• Health is Unitary pattern of the whole, including disease (Hayes & Jones, 2007).• Health comes from the Old English word “Hale”, meaning “wholeness”(Nordqvist, 2009).• Health includes mental, emotional, psychosocial, relationships, and physical
• Expanding consciousness is seen as the evolving pattern of person-environment interaction (Hayes & Jones, 2007).• Prison provided a stable/unchanging environment to foster the partnership between nurse/client and provide a ground for honesty and forthrightness
• Movement-Space-Time are embedded patterns of evolving consciousness (Hayes & Jones, 2007)• When movement-space-time are restricted it provides time for recognition of life patterns, choices, and reorganization to new life choices
• Health as Expanding Consciousness• It was written by Margaret Newman.• The first published version appeared in 1979. (Alligood, 457)• Her view points came from: • Theorist Martha Rogers • Caring for her mother who had ALS
• A theory is: • Statements that describe , explain, or predict relationships among concepts. (Alligood, 520)• Her theory: • Describes a relationship between time, space, and movement. • Explains that having a disease doesn’t make you unhealthy
• Person • Whole, or “unitary”, no parts • Identified by patterns of consciousness• Health • Health and illness are one in the same• Environment • A “universe of open systems” Nursing Theories, 2011
• Newman developed pattern identification• Sharing patterns with a person is nursing practice.• Nurses are viewed as therapeutic partners. • They join with the patient in search for patterns.• Reveals/recognizes patterns in peoples lives.
• Help people find meaning in their life• Everyone is part of a universal process• Develop relationships/connect with others and the world• Health is an expansion of consciousness (Nursing Theories, 2011)
• “Pattern recognition provided a way to approach understanding” (Hayes & Jones, 2007)• It allowed nurses to be therapeutic• Writers gained insight from the incarcerated mothers. • The mothers also gained insight into their situation.• It helped lead the mothers to better choices.
• Dynamics of theory give researchers a guideline• Helps inmates to develop different relationships• Helps writers understand the criminal experience• Provides a great opportunity for changed lives • Optimal time is at start of incarceration.
• “HEC promotes the integration of nursing knowledge across theory, research, and practice that fosters the evolving of new knowledge to advance the science, and the application of the knowledge by nurses to improve the lives of people globally” (Jones, 2006).
• HEC has been used in multiple qualitative research articles to address patterns and decisions by patients and their outcome on the patients expanding consciousness.• HEC provides many parallels in the areas of purpose, timing, process, and health outcomes (Brown, 2011).
• Families with a child with special needs (Falkenstern, Gueldner, & Newman, 2009)• Incarcerated mothers (Hayes & Jones, 2007)• Understanding spousal caregivers experiences (MacLeod, 2011)• Hmong American women living with diabetes (Yang, Xiong, Vang, & Dexheimer, 2009)• Life patterns of women transitioning through menopause (Musker, 2008)
• In children, HEC can be started at an early age. By including children in health care discussions, they can start to understand their health as a whole. Early awareness allows children to expand their consciousness of person-environment interaction. Movement-space-time patterns are imbedded earlier and assists in recognition of life patterns later in life.
• Newly diagnosed diabetic patients Assist patient in understanding health as a whole including illness Expanding consciousness through recognition of new patterns such as checking blood sugars daily and monitoring diet Use exercise and dietary changes to establish more health conscious choices.
• New patients Initial complete physical exams with labs to determine health pattern. Review questionnaires, lab results, and physical exam to expand consciousness and determine evolving patterns. New diagnoses and illness can be use as opportunity to re- evaluate life patterns.
Alligood, M. R. (2010) Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application (4th ed.). Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.Falkenstern, S., Gueldner, S., & Newman, M. (2009). Health as expanding consciousness with families with a child with special healthcare needs. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(3), 267-279. doi:10.1177/0894318409337015Hayes, M., & Jones, D. (2007). Health as expanding consciousness: pattern recognition and incarcerated mothers, a transforming experience. Journal Of Forensic Nursing, 3(2), 61-66.Jones, Dorothy A. (2006). Newman’s health as expanding consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(4), 330-332.Nordqvist, C. (2009, May 21). What is health? What does good health mean?. In Medical News Today. Retrieved October 25, 2012, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150999.phpMacLeod, C. E. (2011). Understanding Experiences of Spousal Caregivers with Health as Expanding Consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24(3), 245-255. doi:10.1177/0894318411409420Musker, K. (2008). Life patterns of women transitioning through menopause: a Newman research study. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21(4), 330-342.Nursing Theories. 2011. Health as expanding consciousness. Retrieved October 24 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Newman_Health_As_Expanding_Consciousness.htmlYang, A., Xiong, D., Vang, E., & Pharris, M. (2009). Hmong American women living with diabetes. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship, 41(2), 139-148. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01265.x