WHAT IS FOREX?<br />The foreign exchange market (FOREX) is a worldwide decentralized over-the-counter financial market for the trading of currencies.<br />In simple words, it is a place where one currency is exchanged with another currency based on fluctuation rates.<br />
Codes for selected Currenciesrequired for quotes<br />USD – US Dollar EUR – Euro<br />GBP – British Pound IEP – Irish Pound <br />JPY – Japanese Yen CHF – Swiss Franc<br />CAD – Canadian Dollar AUD – Australian Dollar<br />SEK – Swedish Kroner MEP – Mexican Peso<br />DKK – Danish Kroner NZD – New Zealand $<br />INR – Indian Rupee SAR – Saudi Riyal<br />
CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET<br />2. Only market open 24 hours<br /> <br />- FX Market is a 24 hour market<br />- It starts when a calendar business day opens in Sydney, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore and then moves to Middle East to Europe to New York to the West Coast of United States where the calendar business comes to a close<br />- FX Market operates seven days a week (Middle East Markets function on Saturdays and Sundays)<br />- Effectively it is a 24 hour a day / seven days a week / 365 days a year Market!<br />
Currency appreciation/depreciation<br />Increase in foreign currency price<br />From Rs.46 to Rs.48/ USD<br />Foreign currency appreciation<br />Home currency depreciation<br />From USD 0.0217 to USD 0.0208/ Re<br />
Foreign exchange markets<br /><ul><li>Organisational setting within which individuals, governments and banks buy and sell foreign currencies.
Only a small fraction of daily transactions in foreign exchange involve trading of currency.
Most foreign exchange transactions involve transfer of bank deposits.</li></li></ul><li>Foreign Exchange Markets<br /> <br />Spot markets<br />Forward markets<br />Futures markets (In India, yet not permissible) <br />Options markets<br />Swaps markets<br />
Foreign exchange market<br />Foreign exchange market<br />Retail<br />wholesale<br />Bank and money changes<br />(currencies and bank note, cheques)<br />Interbank<br />(Bank account or deposits)<br />Central bank<br /> Direct<br />Indirect<br />(Through broker)<br /> Spot<br />Derivatives<br />(Future options etc.)<br /> Forward<br />
Interbank Foreign Exchange Trading<br />About 90% of foreign exchange trading is in the Interbank part of the market.<br />
Interbank Foreign Exchange Trading<br />Provides continuous information on the foreign exchange market—<br />Talking with traders at other banks.<br />Observing prices (exchange rates) being quoted.<br />
Foreign Exchange and Forward Contracts<br />What is a forward foreign exchange contract?<br />(An agreement to exchange one currency for another on some date in the future at a price set now [the forward exchange rate]).<br />
Participants of FE Market<br />The participants in the foreign exchange market are:-<br />Individuals<br />Firm<br />Banks<br />Governments<br />International Agencies<br />
How a Foreign Exchange Transaction is Conducted<br />
Balance of Payments<br />B of P – is a record of the value of all economic transactions between residents of a country<br />
Need and Importance of Foreign Exchange Markets <br />Foreign exchange markets represent by far the most important financial markets in the world. Their role is of paramount importance in the system of international payments. In order to play their role effectively, it is necessary that their operations/dealings be reliable. Reliability essentially is concerned with contractual obligations being honored. For instance, if two parties have entered into a forward sale or purchase of a currency, both of them should be willing to honors their side of contract by delivering or taking delivery of the currency, as the case may be.<br />Types of foreign exchange rates<br /><ul><li>Ready/cash- Settlement of funds on the same day (date of the deal).
Tom- Settlement of funds takes place on the next working day of the date of the deal.
Spot- Settlement of funds takes place on the second working day following the date of the deal.</li></li></ul><li>FOREX SYSTEM IN BANKING<br />FOREX<br />REMITTANCE<br />EXPORT<br />IMPORT<br />import<br />export<br />physical<br />non-physical<br />Outright sale basic<br />Consignment basic<br />Merchandise and software<br />