Foreign Exchange Market


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  • Foreign Exchange Market

    1. 1. Chapter The Foreign Exchange Market 9
    2. 2. Case: The Axis hedges the Euro <ul><li>In 1999 Axis Ltd, prices sales to European customers in Euros </li></ul><ul><li>Euro plunges against the dollar causing lost revenues </li></ul><ul><li>To hedge against adverse currency movements Axis enters into forward exchange contracts </li></ul>
    3. 3. The foreign exchange market <ul><li>Foreign exchange market : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A market for converting the currency of one country into the currency of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange rate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rate at which one currency is converted into another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign exchange risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The risk that arises from changes in exchange rates </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Functions of the foreign exchange market <ul><li>Two functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting currencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing risk </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Currency conversion <ul><ul><li>Companies receiving payment in foreign currencies need to convert these payments to their home currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies paying foreign businesses for goods or services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies investing spare cash for short terms in money market accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies taking advantage of changing exchange rates (Speculation) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Reducing risk <ul><li>Insuring against foreign exchange risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot exchange rate: rate of currency exchange on a particular day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward exchange rate: two parties agree to exchange currencies on a specific future date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency swap: simultaneous purchase and sale of a given amount of foreign exchange for two different value dates </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Foreign exchange quotations, June 18,2003
    8. 8. Foreign exchange trade growth $ billions
    9. 9. The foreign exchange market (FX) <ul><li>Global network of banks, brokers and foreign exchange dealers connected by electronic communications systems </li></ul><ul><li>London’s dominance is explained by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History (capital of the first major industrialized nation). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography (between Tokyo/Singapore and New York). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two major features of the foreign exchange market: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The market never sleeps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market is highly integrated </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Hierarchy of international financial centers Note: Size of dots (squares) indicates cities’ relative importance São Paulo Rio de Janiero Mexico City San Francisco New York Toronto Bombay Melbourne Sydney Tokyo Hong Kong Singapore Paris Zurich Frankfurt Amsterdam Vienna Madrid Hamburg Dusseldorf Rome Brussels Chicago London Basel
    11. 11. Economic theories of exchange rate determination <ul><li>Exchange rates are determined by the demand and supply of one currency relative to the demand and supply of another </li></ul><ul><li>Price and exchange rates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of One Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money supply and price inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interest rates and exchange rates </li></ul><ul><li>Investor psychology and “Bandwagon” effects </li></ul>
    12. 12. Law of one price <ul><ul><li>In competitive markets free of transportation costs and trade barriers, identical products sold in different countries must sell for the same price when their price is expressed in terms of the same currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: US/French exchange rate: $1 = .78Eur A jacket selling for $50 in New York should retail for 39.24Eur in Paris (50x.78). </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Purchasing power parity <ul><ul><li>By comparing the prices of identical products in different currencies, it should be possible to determine the ‘real’ or PPP exchange rate - if markets were efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In relatively efficient markets (few impediments to trade and investment) then a ‘basket of goods’ should be roughly equivalent in each country </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>United States $2.49 2.49 - - - - - - - - - </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina Peso 2.50 0.78 1.00 3.13 -68 </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil Real 3.60 1.55 1.45 2.34 -38 </li></ul><ul><li>Canada C $ 3.33 2.12 1.34 1.57 - 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Euro 2.67 2.37 0.93 0.89 - 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong HK $11.20 1.40 4.50 7.80 - 42 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan ¥ 262 2.01 105 130 - 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Russia Ruble 39.00 1.25 15.7 31.2 - 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland Sw Fr 6.30 3.81 2.53 1.66 53 </li></ul>Price in Local Currency Implied PPP of the Dollar Actual Exchange Rate 17/04/01 Local Currency % Over(+) or Under(-) Valuation Against Dollar Price in Dollars Big Mac Prices The Big Mac Index: PPP, April 2002 Table 9.2
    15. 15. Money supply and inflation <ul><li>PPP theory predicts that changes in relative prices will result in a change in exchange rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A country with high inflation should expect its currency to depreciate against the currency of a country with a lower inflation rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation occurs when the money supply increases faster than output increases </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Interest rates and exchange rates <ul><li>Theory says that interest rates reflect expectations about future exchange rates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisher Effect (I = r + l). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Fisher Effect: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For any two countries, the spot exchange rate should change in an equal amount but in the opposite direction to the difference in nominal interest rates between the two countries. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Investor psychology and bandwagon effects <ul><li>Evidence suggests that neither PPP nor the International Fisher Effect are good at explaining short term movements in exchange rates </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation may be investor psychology and the bandwagon effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies suggest they play a major role in short term movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to predict </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Exchange rate forecasting <ul><li>Efficient market school: Prices reflect all available public information </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient market school: Prices do not reflect all available information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use fundamental (economic theory) or technical (price/volume data) analysis to predict the exchange rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis suggest that professional forecasters are no better than forward exchange rates in predicting future spot rates </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Approaches to forecasting <ul><li>Fundamental analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draws on economic theory to construct sophisticated econometric models for predicting exchange rate movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses price and volume data to determine trends </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Currency convertibility <ul><li>Political decision. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many countries have some kind of restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governments limit convertibility to preserve foreign exchange reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service international debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase imports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government afraid of capital flight </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Counter trade <ul><ul><li>Barter-like agreements where goods/services are traded for goods/services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps firms avoid convertibility issue </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Managerial implications <ul><li>Exchange rates influence the profitability of trade and investment deals </li></ul><ul><li>International businesses must understand the forces that determine exchange rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward exchange rate not an unbiased predictor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation effects foreign exchange markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International businesses need to take the proper precautions before trading or investing in a country </li></ul></ul>