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5 g nr (new radio)overview

Complete 5G NR Overview with EN-DC Connectivity

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5G-NR (New
Radio)Overview
Introduction about 5G- NR
• 5G stands for Fifth Generation Wireless technology used for voice and data calls.
• It is cellular wireless technology like GSM (2G), CDMA (3G) and LTE/LTE-advanced (4G).
• It is defined in 3GPP NR specifications under various sections like 4G (LTE).
• It operates in various licensed and unlicensed bands e.g., below 1 GHz, below 6 GHz and above 6 GHz.
• The initial 5G NR specifications are published in dec. 2017.
• There are two modes supported by 5G NR (New Radio) viz. Non-standalone and standalone. Non-standalone
deployment relies on existing 4G LTE network whereas standalone works independent gNB.
• 5G should support 20 Gbps in the downlink and 10 Gbps in the uplink as claimed by 5G network operators.
• eMBB, mMTC and URLLC are different use cases supported in 5G NR technology.
5G-NR-Use Cases (eMBB, mMTC and
URLLC
5G-eMBB
Following features are supported by 5G eMBB use case.
• eMBB stands for Enhanced Mobile Broadband.
• Peak data rate : 10 to 20 Gbps.
• 100Mbps whenever needed.
• 10000 times more traffic
• Supports macro and small cells.
• Supports high mobility of about 500 Kmph.
• It helps in network energy savings by 100 times.
5G mMTC
Following features are supported by 5G mMTC use case.
• mMTC stands for massive Machine Type Communications.
• It supports high density of devices (about 2 x 105 in 106/Km2).
• It supports long range.
• It supports low data rate ( about 1 to 100 Kbps).
• It leverages benefits of ultra low cost of M2M.
• It offers 10 years battery life.
• It provides asynchronous access.
5G URLLC
Following features are supported by 5G URLLC use case.
• URLLC stands for Ultra Reliability and Low Latency Communications.
• It provides ultra responsive connections.
• It offers less than 1 ms air interface latency.
• It offers 5 ms end to end latency between UE (i.e., mobile) and 5G eNB (i.e., base station).
• It is ultra-reliable and available 99.9999% of the time.
• It provides low to medium data rates (about 50 kbps to 10 Mbps).
• It offers high speed mobility.

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5 g nr (new radio)overview

  • 2. Introduction about 5G- NR • 5G stands for Fifth Generation Wireless technology used for voice and data calls. • It is cellular wireless technology like GSM (2G), CDMA (3G) and LTE/LTE-advanced (4G). • It is defined in 3GPP NR specifications under various sections like 4G (LTE). • It operates in various licensed and unlicensed bands e.g., below 1 GHz, below 6 GHz and above 6 GHz. • The initial 5G NR specifications are published in dec. 2017. • There are two modes supported by 5G NR (New Radio) viz. Non-standalone and standalone. Non-standalone deployment relies on existing 4G LTE network whereas standalone works independent gNB. • 5G should support 20 Gbps in the downlink and 10 Gbps in the uplink as claimed by 5G network operators. • eMBB, mMTC and URLLC are different use cases supported in 5G NR technology.
  • 3. 5G-NR-Use Cases (eMBB, mMTC and URLLC
  • 4. 5G-eMBB Following features are supported by 5G eMBB use case. • eMBB stands for Enhanced Mobile Broadband. • Peak data rate : 10 to 20 Gbps. • 100Mbps whenever needed. • 10000 times more traffic • Supports macro and small cells. • Supports high mobility of about 500 Kmph. • It helps in network energy savings by 100 times.
  • 5. 5G mMTC Following features are supported by 5G mMTC use case. • mMTC stands for massive Machine Type Communications. • It supports high density of devices (about 2 x 105 in 106/Km2). • It supports long range. • It supports low data rate ( about 1 to 100 Kbps). • It leverages benefits of ultra low cost of M2M. • It offers 10 years battery life. • It provides asynchronous access.
  • 6. 5G URLLC Following features are supported by 5G URLLC use case. • URLLC stands for Ultra Reliability and Low Latency Communications. • It provides ultra responsive connections. • It offers less than 1 ms air interface latency. • It offers 5 ms end to end latency between UE (i.e., mobile) and 5G eNB (i.e., base station). • It is ultra-reliable and available 99.9999% of the time. • It provides low to medium data rates (about 50 kbps to 10 Mbps). • It offers high speed mobility.
  • 7. 5G NR and 4G LTE Comparison A Short comparison of 5G and 4G technologies is given is table below. Technology Data Rates Latency Mobility Support Spectrum Efficiency Users Density Energy Efficiency 5G (NR) Avg 100 Mb/s Peak 20 Gb/s ~ 1 ms > 500 Km/h x3 Better DL- 30 bits/Hz UL- 15bits/Hz 1000K/square Km x100 Better 4G (LTE) Avg 25 Mb/s Peak 300 Mb/s ~10- 50 ms Upto 350 Km/h DL – 6 bits/Hz UL- 4 Bits/Hz ~ 2K / square Km Moderate
  • 8. 5G New Radio and 4G LTE Parameter Level Comparison Parameter 4G Long Term Evolution 5G New Radio Full Name Long Term Evolution New Radio 3GPP Release Release 8 – Release 14 (LTE, LTE-A, LTE-Pro) Release 15 onward Frequency Range < 6GHz Upto 52.6 GHz Services Voice, MBB, IoT Voice, eMBB, Low Latency Application, Massive IoT Waveform •DL: CP -OFDM •UL: DFT -S-OFDM •DL: CP-OFDM; •UL: CP-OFDM, DFT-S-OFDM Max Carrier Bandwidth 20 MHz •Below >6 GHz: 100 MHz; •Above6 GHz: 400 MHz Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) 15 KHz 15 KHz, 30 KHz, 60 KHz, 120 KHz, 240KHz Cylic Prefix (CP) Normal CP; Extended CP •Normal CP for all SCSs; •Extended CP for 60KHzs SCS only Max Number of Subcarriers Per Carrier 1200 3300 Radio Frame Length 10 ms 10 ms Slot Size 2/7/14 OFDM symbols 1-14 OFDM symbols (including both slot & mini-slot)
  • 9. 5G NR band Description NR Bands Classification Apart from FR (frequency range) NR bands can be classified into three into categories. •Frequency Division Duplex Bands (FDD) •Time Division Duplex Bands (TDD) •Supplementary Bands (SUL) : Downlink Supplement Bands & Uplink Supplement Bands NR has introduced a new notation for band which starts with “n” e.g. Band 20 is noted as n20 where in LTE it was termed as B20. Supplementary Downlink ( SDL ) and Supplementary Uplink ( SUL ) are modes that allow only downlink or uplink in those bands. SDL and SUL are meant to provide additional capacity to the Existing bands. Frequency Range Designation Corresponding Frequency Range FR1 410 MHz – 7125 MHz FR2 24250 MHz – 52600 MHz
  • 10. 5G NR Frequency Bands NR FR1 Band Band Alias Bandwidth Duplex Mode n1 2100 60 MHz FDD n2 1900 PCS 60 MHz FDD n3 1800 75 MHz FDD n5 850 25 MHz FDD n7 2600 70 MHz FDD n8 900 35 MHz FDD n20 800 30 MHz FDD n28 700 APT 45 MHz FDD n66 AWS-3 70/90 MHz FDD n70 AWS-4 15/25 MHz FDD n71 600 35 MHz FDD n74 L-Band 43 MHz FDD n77 TD 3700 900 MHz TDD n78 TD 3500 500 MHz TDD n79 TD 4500 600 MHz TDD n38 TD 2600 50 MHz TDD n41 TD 2500 194 MHz TDD n50 TD 1500+ 85 MHz TDD n51 TD 1500- 5 MHz TDD NR FR2 Band Band Alias Bandwidt h Duplex Mode n257 28 GHz 3000 MHz TDD n258 26 GHz 3250 MHz TDD n260 39 GHz 3000 MHz TDD Supplementary bands in 5G NR FR1 Band Band Alias Bandwid th Duplex Mode n75 DL 1500+ 85 MHz SDL n76 DL 1500- 5 MHz SDL n81 UL 900 35 MHz SUL n82 UL 800 30 MHz SUL n83 UL 700 45 MHz SUL n84 UL 2100 60 MHz SUL
  • 12. 5G Architecture (Non-Standalone) Non-standalone E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity (EN-DC). UE is connected to NR and LTE simultaneously. One eNB can be connected to many gNB and vice versa 
  • 13. Non-Standalone Base Station Architectures using the 4G Core Network (Options 3,3a and 3X) Non-Standalone option-3a
  • 15. •In both cases, the 4G Node B provides control plane connectivity towards the Core Network and acts as the Master Node (MN). • The 5G gNodeB has control plane connectivity across the X2 interface and acts as the Secondary Node (SN). •Option 3 -All user plane data tunnel through eNodeB . PDCP in eNodeB dynamically splits the downlink data between the eNode B and gNodeB. •In Option 3a- user plane connectivity between the S-GW and gNode B is provided .Here also eNodeB will remain the master node depending upon EPS type eNodeB may divide the work like Speech type data may be directed towards eNodeB and EPS transferring data may be directed towards gNodeB.
  • 17. •3x has developed to overcome the issues of with Options 3 and 3a. •In this case, the user plane paths are between the eNode B, gNode B and S-GW. •The eNode B remains the Master Node and able to control the selection of the downlink data path from the S-GW, i.e., the eNode B can provide the MME with the IP address of the gNode B for some EPS Bearers, while it can provide the MME with its own IP address for other EPS Bearers. •If coverage from the gNode becomes weak then the gNode B can dynamically forward data across the X2 interface towards the eNode B
  • 18. Standalone •Standalone the core is 5G. •Master node will be of gNB
  • 19. 5G CORE NETWORK Architecture
  • 20. 5G Network Functions User Equipment (UE)Radio Access Network  (UPF) User plane Function  (DN) Data network  (AUSF) Authentication Server Function (AMF) Core Access and Mobility Management Function (SMF) Session Management Function (NSSF) Network Slice Selection Function (NEF) Network Exposure Function (NRF) NF Repository Function (PCF) Policy Control function (UDM) Unified Data Management (AF) Application Function S-GW and P-GW have been divided into session management function (SMF) and user plane function (UPF)
  • 21. Functions : (AUSF) :Subscriber authentication, during registration or re-registration with 5G, is managed by the Authentication Server Function. (AMF) :NAS signaling termination and security, Access Authentication, Support of Network Slicing. Support of intra-system and inter-system mobility, Mobility management control (subscription and policies).  (SMF) : UE IP address allocation and management; Session Management, Selection and control of UP function, Control part of policy enforcement and QoS. (UPF) :Anchor point for Intra-/Inter-RAT mobility, Packet routing & forwarding, External PDU session point of interconnect to Data Network, DL packet buffering and DL data notification triggering.
  • 22. 5G-NR-RRC STATES Radio Resource Control (RRC) states for NR There are Three RRC states in NR RRC IDLE RRC CONNECTED RRC INACTIVE Note :UE in RRC IDLE cannot move to RRC INACTIVE
  • 24. RRC IDLE To complete cell selection and cell reselection ,the SI is necessary. UE read SI from BCCH. SI also provides the information related to complete the Random Access and RRC Connection Setup procedures. The UE performing mobility triggered Registration Area updates to ensure that the UE is always reachable by the AMF(knows where to forward the paging message). UE monitors the PDCCH (DCI) Format 1 0 using the P-RNTI defined by the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) pattern. 5G-S-TMSI is used to address UE within Paging message. 5G-S-TMSI is allocated by AMF. To improve security 5G doesn’t support IMSI based paging. UE is unable to transfer application data while in RRC Idle.
  • 25. RRC Connected Transfer of both application data and signaling between the UE and network is done in connected mode. Application data transferred by using DRB and signaling can be transferred using SRB. CRNTI is provided by Base station to address UE during RACH. AMF maintains NG signaling connection with Base Station. UPF maintains GTP-U tunnels with Base Station. UE monitors Control Channels for Resource Allocations. The UE reports Channel State information (CSI).It includes CQI,RI,PMI,LI,CRI (CSI-RS Resource Indicator) and SSBRI (SS/PBCH Block Resource Indicator).
  • 26. RRC INACTIVE RRC context and CORE network connection is kept in both the UE and the gNB. Transition to connected state for data transfer is fast. RRC inactive make the device in sleep like an idle state, but the mobility is handled through cell reselection without involvement of network. Its acts like mix combo of IDLE and Connected state.
  • 27. 5G-NR SRB (Signaling Radio Bearers) 5G-NR SRB (Signaling Radio Bearers) SRB (Signaling Radio Bearer) For carrying signaling message the type of bearer that required is known as SRB (Signaling Radio Bearer). The SRBs are radio bearers that are used for the transmission of RRC and NAS messages. There are four different type of SRB in NR as per TS38.331.
  • 28. 5G-NR SRB (Signaling Radio Bearers) SRB0: This SRB is for RRC messages using the Common Control Channel (CCCH) logical channel. SRB1: This SRB is for RRC messages (which may include a piggybacked NAS message) as well as for NAS messages prior to the establishment of SRB2, all using DCCH logical channel. SRB2: This SRB is for NAS messages, all using DCCH logical channel. SRB2 has a lower priority than SRB1 and is always configured by the network after security activation. SRB3: This SRB is for specific RRC messages when UE is in EN-DC, all using DCCH logical channel. SRB 3: SRB3 can be setup at the request of the SG Secondary Node. SRB3 is used for signaling procedures which are time sensitive with respect to the gNode B, e.g., mobility procedures. SRB3 supports a limited number of signaling messages, i.e., RRC Reconfiguration, RRC Reconfiguration Complete and Measurement Report messages.
  • 30. 5G-NR Radio Network Temporary Identifier (RNTI) UE and Network Identifiers NR UE uses temporary identifiers to communicate gNB. RNTI is 16-bit identifier, and its value depends on type of RNTI. Many RNTI of LTE and NR are same. Below are the identifiers as per 38.321 for NR :
  • 31. 5G-NR Radio Network Temporary Identifier (RNTI) C-RNTI: Cell RNTI A unique UE identification used as an identifier of the RRC connection and for scheduling purposes. The gNB assigns different C-RNTI values to different UEs. CRNTI is used by gNB to differentiate uplink transmissions (e.g., PUSCH, PUCCH) of a UE from others. SI-RNTI: System Information RNTI is used for broadcasting System information.SI-RNTI is of 16-bit length. Broadcast of SI uses BCCH-DL-SCH-PDSCH. P-RNTI: Paging RNTI is used by UE reception of paging. It is not allocated to any UE explicitly. It is of 16-bit in length. Paging message is carried by PCCH-PCH-PDSCH. RA-RNTI: RA-RNTI is used for Random Access procedure .gNB’s MAC generates Random Access Response (RAR) as a response to the Random-Access Preamble transmitted by the UE.RA-RNTI can be addressed to multiple UEs, i.e., multiple UEs might decode PDCCH scrambled by the same. TC-RNTI: This RNTI is also used in Random access procedure. gNB’s MAC generates Random Access Response (RAR) as a response to the Random-Access Preamble transmitted by the UE. MAC RAR contains Temporary C-RNTI. During contention based random access procedure, the UE stores received Temp C- RNTI (received in RAR) and uses it during random access procedure. The UE shall discard the Temporary C-RNTI value received in RAR during non-contention based random access procedure. The UE shall use Temp C-RNTI for scrambling of msg3. TPC RNTI : This TPC RNTI is knows as Transmit Power Control RNTI. This RNTI is basically used for uplink power control purpose.
  • 32. Radio network temporary identifiers (RNTIs) in NR and their usage
  • 33. 5G NR-(MIB/SIB) System information System Information (SI) is consisting of 2 parts- MIB (Master Information Block) SIBs (System Information Block) In NR there are two version of SIBs . One being transmitted periodically same as LTE Other one is transmitted on demand, whenever UE requested.
  • 34. 5G NR-(MIB/SIB) MIB (Master Information Block) MIB transmission will always be on BCH transport channel and PBCH physical channel. Periodicity of MIB will be 80 ms. MIB includes the parameters which are required to acquire SIB1 from cell. The PBCH is transmitted as part of SS/PBCH Block. The actual payload of the MIB occupies 23 bits but an additional 1 bit is required to indicate the BCCH message type. Thus, the MIB requires a total of 24 bits.
  • 35. MIB (Master Information Block) Content System Frame Number: It provides the 6 Most Significant Bits (MSB) of the current System Frame Number (SFN).  Sub Carrier Spacing Common: defines the subcarrier spacing to be used for the reception of SIB I, other broadcast System Information, paging messages and the MSG2 /MSG4 transmitted during initial access. ssb-Subcarrier Offset: defines the 4 Least Significant Bits of the subcarrier offset.  DMRS-TypeA-Position: It specifies the first symbol used by the Demodulation Reference Signal (DMRS) when using ‘Mapping Type A’. This information element is applicable to the DMRS for both the PDSCH and PUSCH.  Cell-Barred : A UE is not permitted to complete cell selection nor cell reselection onto a cell which is barred so this column is to indicate about cell barred or not. IntraFreqReselection : This is applicable when the current cell is lo be treated as barred. a value of ‘allowed’ indicates that the UE is permitted to reselect another cell on the same frequency.
  • 36. Overall MIB / SIB transmission
  • 37. System Information Block Type 1 (SIB1) SIB1is transmitted on the DL-SCH. Periodicity of SIB1is 160 ms and repetitive transmission done during 160 ms. Periodic broadcast basis or only on-demand basis of other SIBs is indicated by SIB1.
  • 38. SIB1 Contents cellSelectionInfo :–It includes the q-RxLevMin, q-RxLevMinOffset, q-RxLevMinSUL, q-QualMin, q-QualMinOffset.  CellAccessRelatedInfo :- It includes cell access information for the serving cell . plmn-IdentityListandcellReservedForOtherUse In PLMN-IdentityInfo it will be having plmn-IdentityList,TAC,RAN-AreaCode(ranac), cellIdentity.  ConnEstFailureControl :It is used to configure parameters for connection establishment failure control.  SI-SchedulingInfo : Its is needed for acquisition of SI messages. It contains schedulingInfoList((maximum 32) , si- WindowLength, si-RequestConfig, si-RequestConfigSUL, systemIn.formationAreaID.  servingCellConfigCommon : ServingCellConfigCommon is used to configure cell specific parameters of a UE’s serving cell in SIB1.
  • 39. •ims-EmergencySupport:It indicates about the supportability of IMS emergency bearer services. • eCallOverIMS-Support : Indicates whether the cell supports emergency call over IMS services. •UE-TimersAndConstants: This contains timers' info in all UE states. •uac-BarringInfo : cell barring based upon Unified Access Barring (UAC).
  • 40. SIB2 Contents Cell re-selection information common for intra-frequency, inter-frequency and/ or inter-RAT SIB3 Contents Intra frequency cell re-selection information e.g. PCI, q-Offset, q-RxLev, q-Qual, Black cell list. SIB4 Contents Inter frequency cell re-selection information e.g. NR-ARFCN. SIB5 Contents Inter system cell re-selection toward LTE e.g. EARFCN. SIB6 Contents Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System primary notifications. SIB7 Contents Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System secondary notifications. SIB8 Contents Commercial Mobile Alert services (CMAS) notification. SIB9 Contents Timing information for UTC, GPS and local time.
  • 41. 5G-NR RACH (Random Access Procedure) RA Procedure is of two different types. Contention based RA Procedure Contention Free RA Procedure Contention based RA Procedure In CBRA, the UE randomly selects an RA preamble from a pool of preambles shared with other UEs in the cell. If multiple UEs select/transmit same preamble (Msg1), all those UEs decode same Msg2 content and transmit Msg3 on the same UL time/frequency resources. In the next step (Msg4), the network resolves the contention.
  • 42. Contention Free RA Procedure In CFRA, the UE uses a dedicated preamble provided by the network specifically to this UE via RRC signaling or PDCCH order. The RA procedure is initiated by:  A PDCCH order from the gNB. The UE’s MAC entity itself. RRC
  • 43. Event which trigger in Random Access (RA) procedure: Initial access (CBRA). RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure (CBRA). SR failure (CBRA). DL and UL data arrival during RRC_CONNECTED when UL synchronization status is Out-of-Sync (CBRA or CFRA). During Handover (CBRA or CFRA). Transition from RRC_INACTIVE (CBRA) Request for On-demand System Information (CBRA or CFRA). Beam failure recovery (CBRA or CFRA).