Mental Functioning Ontology        and the ICF          Barry Smith        October 1, 2012
Basic Formal Ontology                                   BFO:Entity                                                        ...
Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)                                           BFO:Entity           ...
Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO)                                           BFO:Entity           ...
Functions vs. Functionings                    Continuants vs. Occurrents                                              BFO:...
Aboutness (‘Intentionality’)                                              BFO:Entity                                      ...
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)                              7
Linguistic Functioning Ontology                   (1. Speech and hearing)                                                 ...
Linguistic Functioning Ontology                  (2. Reading and writing)                                                B...
Linguistic Functioning Ontology                     (the whole thing)                                                BFO:E...
How to build MF±LanguageFirst idea:Along what dimensions human beingscan depart from normal (‘canonical’)mental and lingui...
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/                 from WHO | World Health Organization                   ...
For ICD mental function is a subtype of           body function  ICD definition of ‘Body functions’:  Body functions are t...
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/                                                 14
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/                                                 15
Definition of ‘Mental Functions’Definitions: This chapter is about thefunctions of the brain: both globalmental functions,...
17
18
Quality ≠ Function                     19
20
21
Dreaming?       22
http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/F44.8                                                           ...
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/                                                 24
http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/                                                 25
26
Ontological traffic rule:always use singular nouns   27
28
29
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)                              30
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)                              31
Definitions: Specific mental functionsof focusing on an external stimulus orinternal experience for the requiredperiod of ...
33
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)                  endocrine       brainin                    gland                        ...
35
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)                              36
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)                   olfactory       brainin                    system                      ...
38
Mental Functioning Ontology (MF)                   olfactory       brainin                    system                      ...
Again, confusion of function and quality                                           40
41
Integrative language functionsDefinitions: Mental functions that organize semanticand symbolic meaning, grammatical struct...
WHO ICF ProPerforms an amazingly difficult task of unifyingpublic data across the planet (Versions in 5different languages...
http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/icf/   44
WHO ICF ConUse of ‘other’ and other features make it is notfuture proof (will not evolve gracefully withadvances in neuros...
Strategy for MF Ontology• Ensure that the ontology is developed in  conformity with basic biology ontologies such  as the ...
Examples from  MF-Emotion Ontologyhttp://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/49078/                                      ...
‘emotion process’        48
‘physiological response to emotion’need link to a physiology ontology     49
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Mental functioning ontology and the International Classification of Functions and Disabilities

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  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning related anatomical structure: an anatomical structure in which there inheres the disposition to be the agent of a mental processBehaviour inducing state: a bodily quality inhering in a mental functioning related anatomical structure which leads to behaviour of some sortAffective representation: a cognitive representation sustained by an organism about its own emotionsCognitive representation: a representation which specifically depends on an anatomical structure in the cognitive system of an organismMental process: a bodily process which brings into being, sustains or modifies a cognitive representation or a behaviour inducing state
  • Mental functioning ontology and the International Classification of Functions and Disabilities

    1. 1. Mental Functioning Ontology and the ICF Barry Smith October 1, 2012
    2. 2. Basic Formal Ontology BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:OccurrentBFO:Independent BFO:Dependent Continuant BFO:Process Continuant BFO:Disposition 2
    3. 3. Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO) BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:Occurrent MFO BFO:Independent BFO:Dependent BFO:Process Continuant Continuant Bodily Process Organism BFO:Disposition Cognitive Representation BFO:Quality Mental Functioning Mental Process Related Anatomical Structure Behaviour inducing state Affective Representation 3
    4. 4. Basic Formal Ontologyand Mental Functioning Ontology (MFO) BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:Occurrent MFO BFO:Independent BFO:Dependent BFO:Process Continuant Continuant Bodily Process Organism BFO:Disposition Cognitive Representation BFO:Quality Mental Functioning Mental Process Related Anatomical Structure Behaviour inducing state Affective Representation 4
    5. 5. Functions vs. Functionings Continuants vs. Occurrents BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:Occurrent MFO BFO:Independent BFO:Dependent BFO:Process Continuant Continuant Bodily ProcessOrganism BFO:Disposition Cognitive Representation BFO:Quality Mental Process Mental Function Mental Functioning 5
    6. 6. Aboutness (‘Intentionality’) BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:Occurrent MFO BFO:Independent BFO:Dependent BFO:Process Continuant Continuant Bodily ProcessOrganism BFO:Disposition BFO:Quality Cognitive Representation Mental Process Mental Function Mental Functioningdoes all mental functioning involve cognitiverepresentation (aboutness)?what is aboutness? 6
    7. 7. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF) 7
    8. 8. Linguistic Functioning Ontology (1. Speech and hearing) BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:Occurrent MFO BFO:Independent BFO:Dependent BFO:Process Continuant Continuant Bodily Process BFO:Disposition Cognitive Representation BFO:Quality Linguistic competence Speech Behaviour inducing state processSpeech competence of a Speech- Hearing population mediated (registering) 8 = a [spoken] language cognitive process Speech competence of an individual representation 8
    9. 9. Linguistic Functioning Ontology (2. Reading and writing) BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:Occurrent MFO BFO:Independent BFO:Dependent BFO:Process Continuant Continuant Bodily Process BFO:Disposition Cognitive Representation BFO:Quality Linguistic competence Writing Behaviour inducing state process Written linguistic Written- Reading competence of a language- (registering) 9 population Written linguistic mediated process= a [written] language competence of an cognitive individual representation 9
    10. 10. Linguistic Functioning Ontology (the whole thing) BFO:Entity BFO BFO:Continuant BFO:Occurrent MFO BFO:Independent BFO:Dependent BFO:Process Continuant Continuant Bodily Process BFO:Disposition Cognitive Representation BFO:Quality Linguistic competence Speaking Behaviour Writing inducing stateLinguistic competence Language- Reading of a population mediated 10 = a language Linguistic competence cognitive of an individual representation 10
    11. 11. How to build MF±LanguageFirst idea:Along what dimensions human beingscan depart from normal (‘canonical’)mental and linguistic functioning? 11
    12. 12. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/ from WHO | World Health Organization 12
    13. 13. For ICD mental function is a subtype of body function ICD definition of ‘Body functions’: Body functions are the physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions). Impairments are problems in body function or structure as a significant deviation or loss. 13
    14. 14. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/ 14
    15. 15. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/ 15
    16. 16. Definition of ‘Mental Functions’Definitions: This chapter is about thefunctions of the brain: both globalmental functions, such asconsciousness, energy and drive, andspecific mental functions, such asmemory, language and calculationmental functions. 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. 18
    19. 19. Quality ≠ Function 19
    20. 20. 20
    21. 21. 21
    22. 22. Dreaming? 22
    23. 23. http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/F44.8 23
    24. 24. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/ 24
    25. 25. http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/45578/ 25
    26. 26. 26
    27. 27. Ontological traffic rule:always use singular nouns 27
    28. 28. 28
    29. 29. 29
    30. 30. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF) 30
    31. 31. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF) 31
    32. 32. Definitions: Specific mental functionsof focusing on an external stimulus orinternal experience for the requiredperiod of time. 32
    33. 33. 33
    34. 34. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF) endocrine brainin gland 34
    35. 35. 35
    36. 36. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF) 36
    37. 37. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF) olfactory brainin system 37
    38. 38. 38
    39. 39. Mental Functioning Ontology (MF) olfactory brainin system 39
    40. 40. Again, confusion of function and quality 40
    41. 41. 41
    42. 42. Integrative language functionsDefinitions: Mental functions that organize semanticand symbolic meaning, grammatical structure andideas for the production of messages in spoken,written or other forms of language. 42
    43. 43. WHO ICF ProPerforms an amazingly difficult task of unifyingpublic data across the planet (Versions in 5different languages, plus Youth Version)Serves billing task in US http://apps.who.int/classifications/icfbrowser/ 43
    44. 44. http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/icf/ 44
    45. 45. WHO ICF ConUse of ‘other’ and other features make it is notfuture proof (will not evolve gracefully withadvances in neurosciencePoor or absent definitions will meaninconsistent annotation of dataLack of logical definitions would mean poorsupport for computational reasoning with datathat is annotated 45
    46. 46. Strategy for MF Ontology• Ensure that the ontology is developed in conformity with basic biology ontologies such as the Gene Ontology• Provide human-readable definitions for each term to ensure consistent annotation• Provide logical definitions to support reasoning with data 46
    47. 47. Examples from MF-Emotion Ontologyhttp://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/49078/ 47
    48. 48. ‘emotion process’ 48
    49. 49. ‘physiological response to emotion’need link to a physiology ontology 49

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