IAO-Intel: An Ontology of Information Artifacts in the Intelligence Domain


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We describe on-going work on IAO-Intel, an information artifact ontology developed as part of a suite of ontologies designed to support the needs of intelligence community. IAO-Intel provides a controlled, structured vocabulary for the consistent formulation of metadata about documents, images, emails and other carriers of information. It will provide a resource for uniform explication of the terms used in multiple existing military dictionaries, thesauri and metadata registries, thereby enhancing the degree to
which the content formulated with their aid will be available to computational reasoning.

Presented at the 2013 STIDS (Semantic Technology for Intelligence, Defense and Security) conference: http://stids.c4i.gmu.edu/

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IAO-Intel: An Ontology of Information Artifacts in the Intelligence Domain

  1. 1. IAO-Intel An Ontology of Information Artifacts in the Intelligence Domain Barry Smith Tatiana Malyuta Ron Rudnicki CUNY, NY, USA Data Tactics, McLean, V A CUBRC, Buffalo NY, USA University at Buffalo NY, USA William Mandrick David Salmen Data Tactics McLean, VA, USA Data Tactics McLean, VA, USA Peter Morosoff Danielle K. Duff James Schoening Kesny Parent E-Maps, Inc. Washington, DC, USA I2WD Aberdeen, MD, USA I2WD Aberdeen, MD, USA I2WD Aberdeen, MD, USA 1
  2. 2. Military Doctrine and Standardization of Terminology 3rd Century BC Standardized beacon signals used by Chinese military along Great Wall 1792 Drill manual for the units of the Continental Army to respond uniformly to commands during the Revolutionary War 1943 General James Gavin’s Training Memorandum on the Employment of Airborne Forces 2
  3. 3. General James Gavin, On to Berlin: Battles of an Airborne Commander 1943-1946 for success of the D-Day invasion ‘one of our most critical needs was to standardize the operating practices of our forces. … even simple terminology had to be agreed upon. … British flew in what they called “bomber stream” formations, We preferred troop-carrier group formations of 36 planes that flew in a V ... We referred to landing area as the “jump area,” the British called it “drop zone,” …’ 3
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  6. 6. Current state • DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Joint Publication 1-02) • New military dictionaries and terminology artifacts continue to be developed • Dominant ethos: Library Science (all terminologies are equal), Lexicography (logical consistency of definitions is not important) 6
  7. 7. Goals of Doctrinal Documents • Advance consistency in communications • Facilitate consistent interpretation of commands • Compile lessons learned (outcomes assess-ment) • Provide controlled vocabularies for official reporting Nowadays • Enhance discoverability and analysis of data 7
  8. 8. Problems of Doctrinal Documents • Little aid to computation • Developed independently in divergent and nonprincipled ways • Low possibility of aggregation causing failures of data integration initiatives • New approaches needed that can enable computational discovery, retrieval, integration and processing of data 8
  9. 9. Two kinds of data 1. Data about entities in the world (topics, subject-matters) standard ontologies 2. Data about the information artifacts in which these entities are represented (= metadata) Information Artifact Ontology and extensions, including IAO-Intel 9
  10. 10. Information artifact • (roughly) an entity created through some deliberate act or acts by one or more human beings, and which endures through time, potentially in multiple (for example digital or printed) copies Examples: a diagram on a sheet of paper, a video file, a map on a computer monitor, an article in a newspaper, a message on a network, the output of some querying process in a computer memory 10
  11. 11. IAO • IAO-Intel – to provide common resources for the consistent description of information artifacts of relevance to the intelligence community in a way that will allow discovery, integration and analysis – compare Dublin Core (brought to you by Library Science) http://stids.c4i.gmu.edu/presentations/tutorial2013 .php 11
  12. 12. What IAO is for • IAO is not designed to replace existing doctrinal or other standards • lots of documents exist conforming to lots of different standards • purpose of IAO is to allow generation of the needed metadata in a uniform, non-redundant and algorithmically processable fashion 12
  13. 13. Sample terms in IAO Report Summary Diagram Overlay Assessment Estimate List Order Matrix Template 13
  14. 14. Strategy of Building IAO-Intel IAO IAO-Intel (examples) Report Summary Intelligence Report (FM 6-99.2, 126) Electronic Warfare Mission Summary (FM 699.2) Diagram Network Analysis Diagram (from JP 2-01.3) Overlay Combined Information Overlay (JP 2-01.3) Assessment Assessment of Impact of Damage (FM 6-99.2) Estimate Adversary Course of Action Estimate List List of High-Value Targets (JP 2-01.3, II 61) Order Airspace Control Order (FM 6-99.2, 17) Matrix Target Value Matrix (JP 2-01.3, II-63) Template Ground and Air Adversary Template (JP 2-01.3) 14
  15. 15. IAO-Intel The IAO-Intel terms on the top are defined by using terms from the ontologies on the bottom with the help of relations such as is-about, createdby, derives-from and so forth 15
  16. 16. Attributes of Information Artifacts • Examples – – – – – – Purpose Life-cycle Stage (draft, finished version, revision) Language, Format Provenance Source (person, organization) • These are generic attributes, common to all areas • IAO will contain a Low-Level Ontology module for each dimension 16
  17. 17. Generic Purpose Attributes – Descriptive purpose: scientific paper, newspaper article, after-action report – Prescriptive purpose: legal code, license, statement of rules of engagement – Directive purpose (of specifying a plan or method for achieving something): instruction, manual, protocol – Designative purpose: a registry of members of an organization, a phone book, a database linking proper names of persons with their social security numbers 17
  18. 18. Attributes Specific to Intelligence IAs Role in the Intelligence Process (JP 3-0, III-11) Priority Intelligence Requirement (PIR) Commander’s Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) Essential Element of Information (EEI) Essential Element of Friendly Information (EEFI) Confidence Level (JP 2.0, Appendix A) Highly Likely Unlikely Likely Highly Unlikely Even Chance Discipline (JP 2.0, I-5) Intelligence Legal Signal Ideology Human Religion Rumor intelligence Propaganda Web intelligence Intelligence Excellence (JP 2.0, II-6) Anticipatory Complete Timely Relevant Accurate Objective Usable Available 18
  19. 19. Use of IAO-Intel – Example: Digitalizing an MCOO • IA #1 - Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay (MCOO) - a joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment product used to portray the militarily significant aspects of the operational environment, such as obstacles restricting military movement, key geography, and military objectives. 19
  20. 20. Digitalizing an MCOO • Annotations to the attributes of IA#1 – ICE: MCOO – IBE: Acetate Sheet – uses-symbology MIL-STD-2525C – authored-by person #4644 • Annotations relating to the aboutness of IA#1 – – – – Avenue of Approach Strategic Defense Belt Amphibious Operations Objective 20
  21. 21. Computational Support for Process Planning 21
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  23. 23. Use of IAO-Intel – Example 2 Digitalizing U.S. Army Report and Message Formats (FM 6-99.2) Standard templates for – Intelligence Report [INTREP] – Intelligence Summary [INTSUM] – Logistics Situation Report [LOGSITREP] – Operations Summary [OPSUM] – Patrol Report [PATROLREP] – Reconnaissance Exploitation Report [RECCEXREP] – SAEDA Report [SAEDAREP] defined in free text 23
  24. 24. Digitalizing FM 6-99.2 • formulate FM 6-99.2 definitions computationally • enable computational cross-reference FM 699.2 documents with comparable sets of documents prepared by other commands. • use results for computer-aided aggregation of the represented data, cross-checking for mismatches, identifying suspect sources, and so forth. 24
  25. 25. DoD Instruction 8320.02, August 5, 2013 Sharing Data, Information, and Information Technology (IT) Services in the Department of Defense • requires that ‘all salient metadata be discoverable, searchable, and retrievable’ through use of the DSE • Even if all authoritative sources are registered at DSE, it does not achieve its goal because – Heterogeneous definitions and descriptions – No benefits of inferencing and of rapid introduction and definition of new terms • IAO will go some way to solving these problems through semantic tagging 25
  26. 26. top level mid-level (generic hub) Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) Information Artifact Ontology(IAO) IAO-Science domain level (spokes populating IAO- IAOdownwards) Biology Physics IAO-Intel IAOIntelNavy IAOIntelArmy IAO-Computing IAOIntelFBI IAOSoftware EMOEmail Ontology Each module built by downward population from its parent 26
  27. 27. BFO Continuant IAO Independent Continuant Material Entity Information Bearing Entity Specifically Dependent Continuant Quality depends_on Information Quality Entity Generically Dependent Continuant Information Content Entity concretized_by 27
  28. 28. Independent Continuant Material Entity Information Bearing Entity this hard drive, that book Specifically Dependent Continuant Quality depends_on Information Quality Entity this excitation pattern, that pattern of piles of ink Generically Dependent Continuant Information Content Entity concretized_by universals this pdf file, that Target Value Matrix instances 28
  29. 29. IAO and BFO BFO: Independent Continuant Information Bearing Entity (IBE) BFO: Generically Dependent Continuant Information Content Entity (ICE) Information Structure Entity (ISE) BFO: Specifically Dependent Continuant Information Quality Entity (Pattern) (IQE) 29
  30. 30. Example of IAO-Intel Organization Information Artifact IBE MS Word file (.doc, Hard drive (magnetized .docx) sector) Hard drive (magnetized KML file sector) Hard drive (magnetized JPEG file (.jpg) sector) Hard drive (magnetized Email file sector) A specific government USMTF Message file network Paper document; (may Passport include photographs, RFID tags) Title Deed Official paper document Report Varies Overlay Sheet ( e.g. Map Overlay Acetate sheet Sheet) ISE ICE MS Word format Varies KML Map overlay JPEG format Image Internet Message Format Message (e.g., RFC 5322 compliant) USMTF Format ID formats, security marking formats … Message Name, Personal data, Passport number, Visas … Varies Varies Varies Varies MIL-STD-2525 Symbols; Map overlay FM 101-1-5 Operational Terms and Graphics 30
  31. 31. DSGS-A Ontologies • US Army’s Distributed Common Ground System (DCGSA) Standard Cloud (DSC) initiative as part of a strategy for the horizontal integration of many different types of warfighter intelligence data DSGS-A Ontologies providing a common framework for • Explica-tion of general terms used in source intelligence artifacts and in data models, terminologies and doctrinal publications which provide typo-logies of intelligencerelated IAs to semantically enhance data in a way that enables computational integration and reasoning • Annotation of the instance-level information captured by such IAs to aid retrieval of information about specific persons, groups, events, documents, images, and so forth 31
  32. 32. Acknowledgements Thanks are due also to Mathias Brochhausen, Werner Ceusters, Mélanie Courtot, Janna Hastings, James Malone, Bjoern Peters, Jonathan Rees, and Alan Ruttenberg for their work on IAO. 32