Six Key Principles for Teaching English Learners,
will help guide LEAs as they work to develop
standard-aligned instruction for ELs.
“These principles are applicable to any type of
instruction regardless of grade, proficiency level,
or program type. Finally, no single principle
should be considered more important than any
other. All principles should be incorporated into
the planning and delivery of every lesson or unit
of instruction.” However, in this presentation we
will focus on two of the principles.
Instruction moves ELs forward by taking into
account their English proficiency level(s) and
prior schooling experiences.
ELs within a single classroom can be
heterogeneous in terms of home language(s)
proficiency, proficiency in English, literacy
levels in English and student’s home
language(s), previous experiences in schools,
and time in the U.S.
Teachers must be attentive to these
differences and design instruction
How do we take
into account home
Oral Language (Listening & Speaking)
LAS Links Español A - CTB/McGraw-Hill
Sistema de evaluación de la lectura – Heinemann
Spanish writing sample collected and scored with
Informal Home Language Interview & other
district made assessments
How can we use
levels to inform
(WIDA Speaking Levels)
S1: So we should do disappearing act, the
paragraph that says “Disappearing Act” and
we should write dissolve.
S2: Yes. And too we should try, um limestone.
S1: Mm, hmm. And the next one we could do
S2: And so we would know the place it…
they’re in… is called forest.
S2: And another one we could write is
S1: I think we should do the summary.
S2: Mmm, hmm. Um, do you want to do it?
S1: Um. I don’t know.
S2: Okay. Um.. In China, in..in the place they
are in is called Stone Forest and there’s a rock
called limestone and rocks got weathered and
(Both students write summaries)
S2: Um..next, the paragraph is called “On the
Teacher moves: Student moves:
Teacher as facilitator in
Students grouped with
language like partners
Gradual release model
I DO/WE DO/YOU DO
Exercising all four
domains (L, S, R & W)
Monitoring their own
pace of learning
Standards-aligned instruction for ELs is
rigorous, grade-level appropriate, and
provides deliberate and appropriate scaffolds.
Such shifts require that teachers provide
students with opportunities to describe their
reasoning, share explanations, make
conjectures, justify conclusions, argue from
evidence, and negotiate meaning from
Students with developing levels of English
proficiency will require instruction that
carefully supports their understanding and
use of emerging language as they participate
in these activities.
Instruction that is rigorous and standards-
aligned reflects the key shifts in the CCSS,
NGSS and WIDA.
How can we
in the classroom?
Fairbairn, Shelley, and Jones-Vo, Stephaney. 2010. Differentiating
Instruction and Assessment for English Language Learners.
Philadelphia, PA: Caslon, Inc.
T: We were talking about how the window
changed at the beginning of the story.
S1: It was in a dream.
T: You’re right. We talked about how it
changed from…the city-to the river-back to
the city. It looks like he is falling asleep.
S1: It was a dream because it says the title is
“A River Dream.”
S2: He is dreaming. (00:30)
Teacher moves: Student moves:
Creating an environment
of comprehensible input
(short phrases and
change of partners)
Exercising L, S, R & W
Pointing to text evidence
Students using copies of
the text and organizers
with language scaffolds
About This Book:
A little boy takes a
fantasy trip up the
river by his house
to fly-fish with his
Grade level Equivalent: 3.8
Lexile® Measure: 490L
Guided Reading: M
A RIVER DREAM
BY: ALLEN SAY
Sample of student reading grade level text
during the close reading process
Watch it the first time to record literal observations
Watch it again to document supporting evidence.
Great resource for finding short videos
Share some of your thoughts and ideas about
using short videos for close reading.
“Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a
text of sufficient complexity directly and
examining meaning thoroughly and methodically,
encouraging students to read and reread
deliberately. Directing student attention on the
text itself empowers students to understand the
central ideas and key supporting details. It also
enables students to reflect on the meanings of
individual words and sentences; the order in
which sentences unfold; and the development of
ideas over the course of the text, which
ultimately leads students to arrive at an
understanding of the text as a whole.”(PARCC,
2011, p. 7)
The goal of Close Reading is to teach readers
how to read and reread with a purpose.
As time goes on, and students become more
familiar with the close reading strategy they will
begin to read and reread independently. Thus,
mastering the strategy and having a deeper
understanding of the content of the text they are
Providing a structure, or ritual, allows students to
quickly acquire the habits of close reading that
lead to independence.
• Providing a structure, or ritual, promotes the
development of habits
• Habits can lead to independence in students’
Lehman, Christopher, and Kate Roberts. 2014 Falling In Love
With Close Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
1. Read through lenses.
• What will you pay attention to while reading ?
• What details do you notice?
2. Use lenses to find patterns.
• Look at the details that you have collected.
• What patterns do you notice?
3. Use patterns to develop new ideas and deeper
understandings about the text.
• Look at patterns in light of what you have already
read. What new understandings do you have?
Close reading instruction:
• involves clear language
• is highly engaging
• is responsive to student needs
• must transfer to students’ own reading
Close reading is not:
• requiring students to read a complex piece of text
again and again until they understand it (Fisher &
Frey, 2012, p.8)
Lehman, Christopher, and Kate Roberts. 2014. Falling In Love With Close Reading.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Doug Part 1
Doug Part 2
What are your ideas, thoughts, questions, wonderings
about close reading?
I can get the gist and
determine the main
idea in a newspaper
article about the
Read the entire text, without stopping to get
Read and circle important and unfamiliar
words. Write the GIST for each section or
paragraph in the margin.
Read and record important details.
A text worth reading
Related to a unit of study
Complex enough to push