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Infinitives and gerunds


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Infinitives and gerunds for ESO-4

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Infinitives and gerunds

  1. 1. USE OF THE INFINITIVE AND GERUND BARE INFINITIVE (INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO) (go)  After modal verbs: o I must go now. o He shouldn’t speak so loud.  After some verbs (let, make, see, watch, hear, help, etc.) in the active: o Let me continue now. o I saw her steal the books. o Could you help me unload the tractor? INFINITIVE (to go / not to go)  After some verbs such as: decide, want, promise, hope, pretend, refuse, offer, agree, seem, appear, choose, expect, learn, plan, wish, allow, would like, etc. o I decided to buy another mobile phone. o She wants to finish her exams as soon as possible. o They didn’t promise to come with us. o He refused to leave the car in the street. o I offered to buy another computer for her. o I agreed to choose a present for him. o They seemed to be happy.  After some adjectives such as: easy, happy, sad, lucky, hard and nice. o It was hard to find her dog in the forest. o I’m happy to volunteer. o They were lucky to pass their exam. o It was nice to win so much money in the lottery. GERUND (going)  As the subject of a sentence when speaking in a general way about something: o Visiting London was a great experience. o Dancing is a way of exercising. o Smoking is dangerous for everyone.  After a preposition: o She is good at dancing tango. o I am looking forward to seeing you. o After having lunch we’ll play cards. o Before going to bed I always have a glass of hot chocolate.  As a direct object after some verbs, such as: finish, enjoy, avoid, miss, recommend, suggest, imagine, regret, keep, mind, etc.: o They decided to keep us waiting for over an hour. o We enjoy eating Mexican food. o My mother suggested travelling to Switzerland next summer. o I regret wasting so much time. o My mother doesn’t mind cooking on Sundays.  After some expressions: can’t stand, don’t mind, feel like, it’s no use, look forward to, etc. o He can’t stand waiting in a queue. o I don’t mind walking to school. o I feel like sleeping until noon. o It’s no use crying over spilt milk. o We are looking forward to hearing from you (in a letter). INFINITIVE OR GERUND KEEPING THE SAME MEANING  Some verbs have the same meaning whether followed by a gerund or an infinitive: like, love, hate, prefer, begin, start, continue, etc. o I like to dance. = I like dancing. o They continued studying after the match. = They continued to study after the match. INFINITIVE OR GERUND WITH A DIFFERENT MEANING  Other verbs have a different meaning if they are followed by a gerund or by an infinitive: o Remember:  remember + infinitive: remember something that will be done later:  I have to remember to lock the house.  remember + gerund: remember something that was done earlier:  I remember speaking to Susan on the day of the accident. o Forget:  forget + infinitive: not remember something that will be done later:  Don’t forget to phone your parents tonight.  forget + gerund: not remember something that was done earlier:  I’ll never forget studying at CPI Tino Grandío. o Stop:  stop + infinitive: stop so that you can do something:  I stopped to speak to my parents.  stop + gerund: end an action:  I stopped dancing because I was very tired.
  2. 2. Complete the following sentences with the verb in the right form: bare infinitive, infinitive or gerund: 1. Please, stop ________________ (ask) me questions! 2. I don’t enjoy ________________ (drive) very much. 3. Has it stopped ________________ (rain) yet? 4. It was a very sunny day but suddenly it began ________________ (rain). 5. I can’t stand ________________ (eat) Padrón peppers. They are too hot for me. 6. The teachers offered ________________ (let) us take a second test. 7. It was difficult ________________ (find out) the truth about the event. 8. Will you let us ________________ (go) with your team? 9. Rick is very stubborn. He keeps ________________ (make) the same mistake with all his girlfriends. 10. Do you mind ________________ (travel) at night? You might get a much cheaper flight. 11. We’ll go to bed after ________________ (wash) all the dishes that have been used. 12. Please, remember ________________ (lock) the door when you leave. 13. My sister can’t stand ________________ (wait) for trains. 14. I bought a new bicycle instead of ________________ (go) away on holiday. 15. The president doesn’t want ________________ (resign) this month. 16. They shouldn’t ________________ (be) so rude with us. 17. She was late so we decided ________________ (not / wait) for her. 18. Someone must have taken my green pen. I clearly remember ________________ (put) it on my desk. 19. ________________ (eat) so much fat is definitely bad for your health. 20. My father will never let me drive the car before ________________ (get) the driving licence. 21. Your friends helped us ________________ (mow) the lawn yesterday morning. 22. The lecturer refused ________________ (answer) any more questions that morning. 23. My cat loves ________________ (sleep) in the sun. 24. ________________ (read) books is my passion. 25. The exercise wasn’t difficult ________________ (do). 26. While we were on holidays my brother forgot ________________ (water) the plants so they died. 27. The baby learned ________________ (use) the dummy. 28. I can’t ________________ (spend) so much money on that. 29. The salesperson suggested ________________ (drive) the car around the city. 30. They stopped ________________ (phone) the emergency service because Julia was having a heart attack. 31. Are you good at ________________ (swim)? You might take part in the competition. 32. They always avoid ________________ (speak) to him when he is so angry. 33. It’s no use ________________ (ask) for help. Everyone is in a hurry this week. 34. My parents miss ________________ (have) a baby. They will have to wait until they become grandparents! 35. Would you like ________________ (have) chips or boiled potatoes with your fish? 36. This knife is only for ________________ (cut) cheese.