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Macrolide antibiotics

Macrolides

1 of 40
MACROLIDE
ANTIBIOTICS
Introduction
Macrolide antibiotics are a class of antibiotics which contain a macrocyclic ring (lactone ring)
attached to deoxy sugars (usually cladinose and desosamine).
The lactone rings are usually 14-, 15-, or 16-membered. Macrolides belong to the polyketide
class of natural products.
Macrolide antibiotics
These antibiotics are bacteriostatic in nature and act by inhibiting the protein synthesis of
bacteria.
Macrolide antibiotics are usually obtained from certain actinomycetes genes such as
Streptomyces.
Erythromycin was the first macrolide antibiotic discovered (from the soil bacterium
Streptomyces erythraeus) and put in clinical use (1952).
Picromycin was discovered in 1950 (not clinically useful). In 1970s, various macrolide
antibiotics were discovered including those of acetylspiramycin, medecamycin, and
josamycin. In 1980s, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and azithromycin (in 1988) were
discovered. Tylosin was introduced in 1961, which was extensively used in veterinary
medicine.
Macrolide antibiotics

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Macrolide antibiotics