Water sampling, testing, and statistical application The workshop given to us by Dr. Arce was about water quality and its importance.Water quality is measured in many different ways, such as turbidity. The more opaque it is themore likely it is to find microorganisms residing in the waters. Other ways to determine thepurity of a body of water is by measuring the levels of Phosphorus, Nitrate, and chloroformsfound in them. These substances make their way into these waters through fertilizers, largeplantations, and feces residue. These particles are toxic and harmful to humans, as well as wildlife, and can cause severe changes in ecosystems, drastically altering, and possibly damaging,them. During this workshop we learned to detect nitrate in water using the colorimetertechnique. Propanol, diethyl, and several buffers were added to the water sample and it wasthen placed in the colorimeter. The device would then read the absorbance and the amount oflight emitted, depending on the levels of absorbance we would be able to detect the presenceof nitrate. All sample showed a very low absorbance, which was very odd and unlikely for mostsamples. During Dr. Arce’s presentation he also mentioned how forests had great part inmaintaining clean waters. These-and other- techniques can be utilized in order to assert thisstatement. These techniques can also be applied in order to study the differences PRASAwaters and non-PRASA waters. Non-PRASA waters are those that are not filtered and processedby the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, but instead by other local agencies (andoccasionally the communities). Since these waters do not undertake the regular federalapproved purification processes, these techniques could help determine these waters safe.