HPE is widely regarded as a strongly bounded, well maintained, strongly identified teaching area (Macdonald & Glover, 1997). It is taught in primary school by specialists who strongly identify (and defend) their area, and generalists who may not identify strongly with HPE at all.
SOSE is a modern attempt to break down barriers between formerly well maintained and defined areas of knowledge, bringing together people from different knowledge areas…but is now redefined and classified under the National Curriculum for History & Geography.
And, what will happen to Environmental Education, Peace Studies etc which currently have curriculum space in SOSE?
The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education & Recreation (ACHPER) is the peak organisation representing the discipline and teachers of HPE in Australia. They state:
Belonging in the National Curriculum is predicated on alignment with current National policy goals (e.g. Melbourne Declaration 2008, ACARA general capabilities) and benefit to Australian society (Emmel & Penney, 2010).
Fundamental to understanding ourselves and others…the study of the past. It provides knowledge, understanding and appreciation of previous events, people, practices and ideas. It orders them, renders them intelligible and discerns patterns of continuity and change.
Provides the means whereby individual and collective identities are formed and sustained.
A way to enrich the present and illuminate the future.
A distinctive and indispensable form of understanding practiced across many generations. Human civilisation is marked by a preservation of the past in oral memory, documents, artefacts, monuments and traditions.
History is a discipline with its own methods and procedures. It deepens our understanding of humanity, creativity, purposes and values. History draws on and contributes to other bodies of knowledge.
Geography is the investigation and understanding of the environmental and human characteristics of the places that make up our world. It is described as the ‘why of where’. Geography answers our questions about why places are like they are, and how they are connected to other places. It explains how and why they are changing, and how and why their characteristics vary from place to place.
Geographical understanding is the ability to see the relationships between items of knowledge; to construct explanatory frameworks and models to illustrate these relationships, and to weave them into an integrated whole. It is also the ability to use geographical knowledge to solve new problems by thinking and acting flexibly with what one knows. A geography curriculum that develops understanding emphasises explanation, helps students to relate new knowledge to existing knowledge, and provides opportunities for them to apply their understanding to questions and problems that they have not previously encountered.
The geographical concepts that are used to organise and understand information are a component of Geographical K&U, but when used to guide analysis they can also be a part of Geographical inquiry (i.e. a skill).
Basil Bernstein (1924 – 2000) Sociologist and curriculum theorist – a theory of pedagogic practice:
“ Classification” – ‘the degree of boundary maintenance between contents’ (Bernstein, 1973, p.205), which is concerned with the insulation of boundaries between curricula (areas of knowledge and subjects).
Strongly classified (C+) Well maintained boundaries between subjects Traditional society & knowledge structures Weakly classified (C-) Weak boundaries between subjects Modern society Non-traditional subjects
Refers to “the location of control over the rules of communication” and while classification regulates the voice of a category, framing regulates the form of its legitimate message (Bernstein, 1990, p. 100).
The degree of teacher & student control over curriculum decision-making.
Strong (F+) limited control ----- Weak (F-) more control
Knowledge Production, Recontextualisation & Reproduction Production of discourse Reproduction of discourse Recontextualisation of discourse International Field University research, policy, Disciplinary knowledge Recontextualising field Govt agencies, curriculum Committees, syllabi Secondary Field School curricula, HPE & SOSE Programs, assessment Primary field Students, parents, communities
Teachers (secondary field) rely on the recontextualised pedagogic versions of the international field (or govt/state demands) which are articulated into curriculum (materials, resources, approaches, assessment).
Knowing what and who is in each field helps you cope with change, cope with controversy, and realise the expectations placed upon you in the (re)production of your own curriculum materials.
E.g.. The History Wars, “black arm-band” view of history, dance in HPE curriculum
Making sense of the “Fields” International field/ the “State” (Govt) New trends, latest research – “obesity epidemic”, international testing regimes/NAPLAN Pedagogic Recontextualising Field Essential Learnings in KLAs, ACARA – National curriculum, textbooks, Dept policy – Eat well Be Active, Smart Moves, other policies Secondary field Your school curriculum – your context, colleagues, your Principal, Local priorities, Assessment practices Primary Field Students, parents, communities
Community demographic/community needs & priorities
Semester Roadmap Wiki Exam 6 – Integrated unit planning & assessment/ rubrics Wiki 5 – Resources – where do you find content and resources for HPE, SOSE & history Wiki Microteach Exam 4 – Planning in HPE & SOSE – understanding ELs, K&U + WoWs, designing lessons & teaching approaches Microteach Exam 3 - Social View of Health – social justice, inclusion & diversity Wikis Exam 2 – Key values for SOSE & History focus/ Inquiry based learning. Designing “worthy topics”. Exam Microteach 1 – HPE & SOSE overview – where you are now, priorities & rationales Assessment links Week/Lecture/tutorial
“ national policy making is inevitably a process of bricolage: a matter of borrowing and copying bits and pieces of ideas from elsewhere, drawing upon and amending locally tried and tested approaches, theories, research, trends and fashions and not infrequently flailing around for anything at all that looks like it might work”.
Thus, destined to be reworked & nuanced as they progress towards practice (p.44).
*The Karl Mannheim Professor of Sociology in Education at Institute of Education, London. See www.ioe.ac.uk .