1931 China floods China July, August, 1931
Cyclone Very severe
cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 3 tropical
The Bhola cyclone on
November 12, 1970,
at 0956 UTC. Formed
November 7, 1970
13, 1970 Highest
185 km/h (115 mph)
205 km/h (130 mph)
Lowest pressure 966
mbar (hPa); 28.53
Damage $86.4 million
(1970 USD) Areas
affected India, East
Pakistan Part of the
1970 North Indian
The 1970 Bhola
cyclone was a
cyclone that struck
East Pakistan (now
India's West Bengal
on November 11,
1970. It remains the
cyclone ever r
China January 23, 1556
China July 1976
5 500,000 1970 Bhola cyclone
East Pakistan (now
November 13, 1970
6 300,000 1839 India Cyclone India November 25, 1839
6 300,000 1737 Calcutta cyclone India October 7, 1737
China December 16, 1920
Byzantine Empire May 526
Byzantine Empire December 13, 115
Victims of the flooding in August 1931
Duration: July–November 1931 (depending on river)
Areas affected: Yellow River, Yangtze River, Huai River
The 1931 Central China floods or the Central China floods of 1931 were a series of floods that
occurred in the Republic of China. The floods are generally considered among the deadliest natural
disasters ever recorded, and almost certainly the deadliest of the 20th century (when pandemics and
famines are discounted). Estimates of the total death toll range from 145,000 to between 3.7
million and 4 million.The 1887 Yellow River flood was a devastating flood on the Yellow
River (Huang He) in China. This river is prone to flooding due to the elevated nature of the river,
running between dykes above the broad plains surrounding it. The flood that began in September
1887 inundated the area, killing some 900,000 people. It was one of the deadliest natural
disasters ever recorded.
The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake (Chinese: 华县大地震; pinyin: Huàxiàn Dàdìzhèn) or Jiajing
earthquake (Chinese: 嘉靖大地震; pinyin: Jiājìng Dàdìzhèn) was a catastrophic earthquake and is
also the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people. It occurred on the
morning of 23 January 1556 in Shaanxi, during the Ming Dynasty. More than 97 counties in the
provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu and Anhui
were affected. An 840-kilometre-wide (520 mi) area was destroyed, and in some counties
60% of the population was killed. Most of the population in the area at the time lived in
yaodongs, artificial caves in loess cliffs, many of which collapsed with catastrophic loss of life.
The Tangshan Earthquake, also known as the Great
Tangshan Earthquake, was a natural disaster that occurred on Wednesday, July 28, 1976. It is
believed to be the largest earthquake of the 20th century by death toll. The epicenter of the
earthquake was near Tangshan in Hebei, People's Republic of China, an industrial city with
approximately one million inhabitants. The number of deaths initially reported by the Chinese
government was 655,000, but this number has since been stated to be around 240,000 to 255,000.
 Another report indicates that the actual death toll was much higher, at approximately 650,000
and explains that the lower estimates are limited to Tangshan and exclude fatalities in the densely
populated surrounding areas. 
A further 164,000 people were recorded as being severely injured. The earthquake occurred
between a series of political events involving the Communist Party of China, ultimately leading to
the expulsion of the ruling Gang of Four by Mao's chosen successor Hua Guofeng. In traditional
Chinese thought, natural disasters are seen as a precursor of dynastic change.
The earthquake hit in the early morning, at 03:42:53.8 local time (1976 July 27 19:42:53.8 UTC),
and lasted 14 to 16 seconds. Chinese government official sources state a magnitude of 7.8 on the
Richter magnitude scale, though some sources listed it as high as 8.2. It was followed by a major
7.1 magnitude aftershock some 16 hours later, increasing the death toll to over 255,000. The
earthquake was generated by the 25-mile long Tangshan Fault, which runs near the city and
ruptured due to tectonic forces caused by the Amurian Plate sliding past the Eurasian Plate.
1970 Bhola Cyclone
Very severe cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHS)
The Bhola cyclone on November 12, 1970, at 0956 UTC.
Formed November 7, 1970
Dissipated November 13, 1970
185 km/h (115 mph)
205 km/h (130 mph)
Lowest pressure 966 mbar (hPa); 28.53 inHg
Fatalities 300,000–500,000 (Deadliest recorded tropical cyclone)
Damage $86.4 million (1970 USD)
Areas affected India, East Pakistan
Part of the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (now
Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on November 11, 1970. It remains the deadliest tropical
cyclone ever r
ecorded, and one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern times. Up to 500,000 people lost
their lives in the storm, primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying
islands of the Ganges Delta. This cyclone was the sixth cyclonic storm of the 1970 North Indian
Ocean cyclone season, and also the season's strongest, reaching a strength equivalent to a strong
Category 3 hurricane.
The cyclone formed over the central Bay of Bengal on November 8 and travelled north, intensifying
as it did so. It reached its peak with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) on November 11, and made
landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) that night. The storm surge devastated
many of the offshore islands, wiping out villages and destroying crops throughout the region. In the
most severely affected upazila, Tazumuddin, over 45% of the population of 167,000 was killed by
The Pakistani government led by junta leader General Yahya Khan was severely criticized for its
delayed handling of the relief operations following the storm, both by local political leaders in East
Pakistan and in the international media. The opposition Awami League gained a landslide victory in
the province, and continuing unrest between East Pakistan and the central government triggered the
Bangladesh Liberation War, which led to widespread atrocities and eventually concluded with the
creation of the country of Bangladesh. This storm as well as the war would also inspire ex-Beatle
George Harrison and Bengali musician Ravi Shankar to organize The Concert for Bangladesh, the
prototype benefit concert, to raise money for aid, in 1971.
• 1 Meteorological chronology
526 Antioch earthquake
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526 Antioch earthquake
Date May 526
Magnitude 7.0 Ms
Epicenter 36.23°N 36.12°ECoordinates: 36.23°N 36.12°E
Countries or regions Turkey, Syria
Max. intensity VIII-IX
The 526 Antioch earthquake was a major earthquake that hit Syria and Antioch in the Byzantine
Empire in 526. It struck during late May, probably between May 20–29, at mid-morning, killing
approximately 250,000 people. The earthquake was followed by a fire that destroyed most of the
buildings left standing by the earthquake. The maximum intensity in Antioch is estimated to be
between VIII (destructive) and IX (violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale.
• 1 Tectonic setting
• 2 Earthquake
• 3 Damage
• 4 Aftermath
• 5 See also
• 6 References
The site of Antioch lies close to the complex triple junction between the northern end of the Dead
Sea Transform, the mainly transform boundary between the African Plate and the Arabian Plate, the
southwestern end of the East Anatolian Fault, the mainly transform boundary between the Anatolian
Plate and the Arabian Plate, and the northeastern end of the Cyprus Arc, the boundary between the
Anatolian and African Plates. The city lies on the Anatakya Basin, part of the Amik Basin, filled by
Pliocene to recent alluvial sediments. The area has been affected by many large earthquakes during
the last 2,000 years.
10 Worst Man Made Disasters of All Time
Object 2 339
Mankind has frequently created catastrophes that devastate the environment and taken lives. The 10
worst man-made disasters of all time are difficult to determine with so many blunders. However,
excluding the loss of life resulting from war, terrorism or transportation disaster, this list includes
the incidents that have had the most affect on people and the environment.
1. London’s Killer Fog
With the advent of industry, London’s population was accustomed to seeing foggy, pollution laden
air. In 1952 however, this pollution took a tragic turn. This winter, the weather was cold and
residents burned more coal in their fireplaces to alleviate the chill. The smoke laced with sulfur
dioxide, nitrogen oxides and soot, and left London encased in a black cloud of near total darkness
and killed over 12,000 people.
2. The Al-Mishraq Fire
Another of the 10 worst man-made disasters of all time was the Al-Mishraq fire on June 24, 2003.
This fire at an Iraqi sulfur plant burned for about a month releasing sulfur dioxide into the
atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide can kill people by causing respiratory problems and also creates acid
rain which destroys crops.
3. The Nuclear Power Plant Explosion in Chernobyl, Russia
On April 26th 1986, the Chernobyl Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic had a major
meltdown which resulted in the atmospheric release of radioactive material four hundred times
more radioactive than Hiroshima. Since the accident there have been countless children with birth
defects, a sickening increase of cancer sufferers and many other health issues as well. It is estimated
that the disaster could result in nearly 100,000 fatal cancers, and the area won’t be safe for any
activity, including farming for up to 200 years.
4. The Kuwait Oil Fires
The Gulf War oil spill is the largest oil spill in history making it one of the 10 worst man-made
disasters of all time. In 1991, following the invasion of Kuwait, Hussein sent men in to blow up the
Kuwait oil wells. They managed to set over 600 ablaze and these burned for over seven months.
The oil spill that resulted from the fires caused considerable environmental damage.
5. The Destruction of the Aral Sea
The Aral Sea was one of the four largest lakes at one point in time. However, in the 1960’s, the
Soviet Union diverted the waters from the rivers that fed the lake to irrigation projects. The sea has
now shrunk by 90 percent and the salt and sandstorms that the devastation created kill plant life and
have negative consequences for hundreds of miles around.
6. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
On March 24, 1989, the American oil tanker the Exxon Valdez collided with the Bligh Reef. This
created an oil spill with far reaching consequences in the Prince William Sound in Alaska. Over 11
million gallons of oil spilled over nearly 500 miles polluting the coastline. Over a quarter million
birds were killed and countless other wildlife. Over 11,000 people aided in the clean up process.
7. Dioxin Pollution
On July 10, 1976 in Meda, Italy, a reactor in the ICMESA chemical company exploded. This led to
a toxic cloud of dioxin being released into the atmosphere. Dioxin is one of the most toxic
chemicals known to man. While no one died as a direct result of the accident, many children were
affected by the serious skin disease chloracne from the accident.
8. The Love Canal
In the 1940’s a strange smell enveloped the area around the Love Canal near Niagara Falls.
Residents also began to notice an odd seepage leaking into their yards and people began to fall ill.
In addition, many women began to have miscarriages and give birth to babies with birth defects.
Upon inspection, it was discovered that there was over 21,000 tons of toxic industrial waste buried
below the surface of the town by a local company.
9. The Union Carbide Gas Leak
On the night of December 2, 1984, the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India began to leak
methyl isocyanate gas and other poisonous toxins into the atmosphere. Over 500,000 were exposed
and there were up to 15,000 deaths at that time. In addition, more than 20,000 people have died
since the accident from gas-related diseases.
10. The Three Mile Island Nuclear Explosion
In Harrisburg, PA on March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor experienced a partial
core meltdown. While little radiation was released from the accident thanks to a working
containment system, this accident became the rallying call for fears about the nuclear power
industry. Livestock deaths, premature deaths and birth defects have been attributed to the nuclear
Man can have a devastating effect on the environment and the 10 worst man-made disasters of all
time have had a negative effect on the environment for decades afterwards. Frequently these
disasters are related to poor industrial oversight within developing countries. However, even with
regulation a catastrophe can strike.