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2011-GE-56
EQ Seismology and Risk Assesment
Lab Manual
Submitted By:
Faisal Hayat (2011-GE-56)
Submitted To:
Ma’am Engr. Maryam
Department of Geological Engineering
University of engineering and Technology Lahore
2011-GE-56
LAB#01 (A)
Objective:
To Record the most hazards earthquakes in the world based on its
magnitude, fault name and in their location.
Related theory:
Earthquake:
Earthquake is caused by the release of built-up stress within rocks along geologic faults or by
the movement of magma in volcanic areas.
Magnitude of earthquake:
Earthquake magnitude is a measure of the “size,” or amplitude, of the seismic waves generated
by an earthquake source and recorded by seismographs. Richter magnitude scale is used to find
out the magnitude of the earthquakes.
Intensity of an earthquake:
The intensity of an earthquake at a particular locality indicates the violence of earth motion
produced there by the earthquake. It is determined from reported effects of the tremor on human
beings, furniture, buildings, geological structure, etc. Marcalli intensity meter is used while
predicting the intensity of earthquake.
Fault:
A crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other;
"they built it right over a geological fault". Fault may be divided into a lot of types.
Earthquake hazard:
An earthquake hazard is anything associated with an earthquake that may affect the normal
activities of people and their community.
Causes of Earthquake:
Two theories are given which explain the cause of earthquake.
 Plate tectonic theory
 Elastic rebound theory
Both the theory explains the causes of earthquake most efficiently.The most of the earthquakes
occours due to interplate boundaries(about 99%), while some of them occours due to intraplate
(about 1%).
Some Hazardous Earthquakes occurred in the world
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1) Valdivia earthquake
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean Earthquake was the most
powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It occurred in
the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 15:11 local time), and the resulting tsunami affected southern
Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the
Aleutian Islands.The epicenter was near Lumaco (approximately 570 kilometres (350 mi)
south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city. The tremor caused localised
tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 metres (82 ft). The
main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii. Waves as high as
10.7 metres (35 ft) were recorded 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) from the epicenter, and as far
away as Japan and the Philippines.The death toll and monetary losses arising from such a
widespread disaster are not certain. Various estimates of the total number of fatalities from
the earthquake and tsunamis have been published, with the United States Geological
Survey citing studies with figures of 2,231, 3,000, or 5,700 killed and another source uses an
estimate of 6,000 dead. Different sources have estimated the monetary cost ranged
from US$400 million to 800 million (or 2.9 to 5.8 billion in 2011 dollars, adjusted for
inflation). Fig 1.1 shows the destruction caused by vadivia earthquake.
2) Sumatra, Indonesia Earthquake
Location Date Magnitude Epicenter
Valdivia, Chile May 22, 1960 9.5 Near Lumaco
Location Date Magnitude Epicenter
Sumatra,Indonesia December 24, 2004 9.3 West coast of
sumatra
Figure 1.1 Valdivia EQ 1960
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The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at
00:58:53 UTC with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The quake itself is
known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. The
resulting tsunami was given various names, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, South
Asian tsunami, Indonesian tsunami, the Christmas tsunami and the Boxing Day tsunami.
The earthquake was caused when the Indian Plate was subducted by the Burma Plate and
triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the
Indian Ocean, killing over 230,000 people in fourteen countries, and inundating coastal
communities with waves up to 30 meters (100 ft) high. It was one of the deadliest natural
disasters in recorded history. Indonesia was the hardest-hit country, followed by Sri
Lanka, India, and Thailand. It is the third largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph.
The earthquake had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and
10 minutes. It caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimetre (0.4 inches) and
triggered other earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicentre was between Simeulue and
mainland Indonesia. The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a
worldwide humanitarian response. In all, the worldwide community donated more than $14
billion (2004 US$) in humanitarian aid. Shown in fig 1.2
3) Assam Tibet Earthquake:
The 1950 Assam – Tibet earthquake, also known as the Assam earthquake or Medog earthquake.
The epicentre was actually located near Rima, Tibet. The earthquake was destructive in
both Assam and Tibet, and 1,526 people were killed.
It was the 10th largest earthquake of the 20th century. It is also the largest known earthquake to have
not been caused by an oceanic subduction. Instead, this quake was caused by two continental plates
converging.
Location Date Magnitude Epicenter
Assam - Tibet August 15,1950 8.6 Near Rima,Tibet
Figure 1.2 Sumatra EQ causing Tsunami
Figure 1.3 Asaam EQ
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4) 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake
The 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake occurred at 15:36 UTC on January 31, off the coast
of Ecuador, near Esmeraldas. The earthquake had a magnitude of 8.8 and triggered a
destructive tsunami that caused at least 500 casualties on the coast of Colombia.
The earthquake occurred along the boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South
American Plate. The earthquake is likely to be a result ofthrust-faulting, caused by
the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate.
The greatest damage from the tsunami occurred on the coast between Río Verde, Ecuador
and Micay, Colombia. Estimates of the number of deaths caused by the tsunami vary between
500 and 1,500.fig 1.4
5) Kamchatka earthquakes
Location Date Magnitude Epicenter
Colombia January 31,1906 8.8 Near Emeraldas
Location Date Magnitude Epicenter
Colombia January 31,1906 8.8 Near Emeraldas
Figure 1.4 Colombia EQ
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Three earthquakes, which occurred off the coast of Kamchatka Peninsula in far
eastern Russia in 1737, 1923 and 1952, were megathrust earthquakes and caused tsunamis.
They occurred where the Pacific Plate subducts under the Okhotsk Plate at the Kuril-
Kamchatka Trench. The depth of the trench at the point of the earthquakes is 7,000–7,500 m.
Northern Kamchatka lies at the western end of the Bering fault, between the Pacific Plate
and North American Plate or the Bering plate. There are many more earthquakes and
tsunamis originating from Kamchatka, of which the most recent was the 1997 Kamchatka
earthquake and tsunami originating near the Kronotsky Peninsula.fig 1.5
Refrences:
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/10_largest_world.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_earthquakes
Lab#01 (B)
To Record the most hazards earthquakes in the Pakistan based on its
magnitude, fault name and in their location.
2005 Kashmir earthquake:
Figure 1.5 Kamchatka earthquakes
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The 2005 Kashmir earthquake was a major earthquake centered in the Pakistan administered
Kashmir near the city of Muzaffarabad, also affecting and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province
of Pakistan. It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time (03:52:37 GMT) on 8 October
2005. It registered a moment magnitude of 7.6 making it similar in size to the 1906 San
Francisco earthquake, the 1935 Quetta earthquake, the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, and the 2009
Sumatra earthquakes. As of 8 November, the government of Pakistan's official death toll was
75,000. The earthquake also affected countries in the surrounding region where tremors were
felt in Tajikistan and western China, while officials say nearly 1,400 people also died in Jammu
and Kashmir and four people in neighboring Nangarhar Province of Afghanistan. The severity
of the damage caused by the earthquake is attributed to severe upthrust, coupled with poor
construction.
Well over US$ 5.4 billion (400 billion Pakistani rupees) in aid arrived from all around the
world. US Marine and Army helicopters stationed in neighbouring Afghanistan quickly flew
aid into the devastated region along with five CH47 Chinook helicopters from the Royal Air
Force that were deployed from the United Kingdom. Five crossing points were opened on
the Line of Control (LoC), between India and Pakistan, to facilitate the flow of humanitarian
and medical aid to the affected region, and aid teams from different parts of Pakistan and
around the world came to the region to assist in relief. Pakistan-administered Kashmir lies in
the area of collision of the Eurasian and Indian tectonic plates. The geological activity born out
of this collision, also responsible for the birth of the Himalayan mountain range, is the cause
of unstable seismicity in the region. International donors have estimated that about 100,000
died, with an additional 138,000 becoming seriously injured, and 3.5 million becoming
displaced.
Hunza Earthquake 1974:
Location Date Magnitude Epicenter
Kashmir,Pakistan October 8, 2005 7.6 Near Muzaffarabad
Figure 1A.1 Kasmir EQ
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The 1974 Hunza Earthquake occurred in the rugged and
isolated Hunza, Hazara and Swat districts of northern Pakistan at 12:11 UTC on December
28, 1974. The epicentre was located at 35.0 degrees north and 72.8 degrees east. The 6.2
magnitude quake had a shallow focal depth and was followed by numerous aftershocks. An
official estimate of the number killed was 5,300 with approximately 17,000 injured. A total
of 97,000 were reported affected by the tremor. Most of the destruction was centered on the
village of Pattan, located about 100 miles (160 km) north of the capital city of Islamabad. The
village was almost completely destroyed.The epicental region is characterized by steep-
walled narrow canyons and valleys. Most of the population was concentrated along the rivers.
Much of the destruction was caused by the numerous landslides and rockfalls which came
tumbling down from high above. The main road leading into the area was blocked for about
25 miles (40 km) by landslides and rockfalls, hampering relief efforts. The government flew
in emergency supplies by helicopter until the roads were reopened on 13 January.
The earthquake, which reached MMI V in Kabul, Afghanistan, affected some 1,000 square
miles (2,600 km2
) of the Indus Valley region. Several nations contributed money and supplies
to aid the inhabitants of the stricken area.
Comments:
Most of the earthquakes occours in Baluchistan and Kashmir areas due to the fact that there
exists the tectonic activity, in between the Eurasian and Indian plate. These plates collides
making the area shake.
Refrences:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1974_Hunza_earthquake
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_Kashmir_earthquake
Location Date Magnitude Epicenter
Hunza,Pakistan December 28, 1974 6.2 35 degrees north
and 72.8 degrees
east
Figure 3A.2 Hunza EQ
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Lab#02
To Locate Earthquake Epicenter by using Seismograph and
travel time graph
Focus of an Earthquake:
The focus of an earthquake is the point where the rocks start to fracture. It is the origin of the
earthquake. The epicenter is the point on land directly above the focus.
The focus is also called the hypocenter of an earthquake. The vibrating waves travel away from
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the focus of the earthquake in all directions. The waves can be so powerful they will reach all
parts of the Earth and cause it to vibrate like a turning fork. Fig 3.1
Epicenter of an earthquake:
Directly above the focus on the Earth's surface is the earthquake epicenter. Earthquake waves
start at he focus and travel outward in all directions. Earthquake waves do not originate at the
epicenter. Fig 3.1
Amplitude:
o The amplitude of a seismic wave is the amount the ground moves as the wave passes
by. (As an illustration, the amplitude of an ocean wave is one-half the distance
between the peak and trough of the wave. The amplitude of a seismic wave can be
measured from the signal recorded on a seismogram.) (Noson, et.al., 1988)
o The maximum height of a wave crest of depth of a trough. (USGS National
Earthquake Information Center, 1999)
Focal Depth:
The focal depth refers to the depth of an
earthquake hypocenter. Shown in fig.3.3
Figure 3.1
Figure 3.2
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Frequency:
The frequency is the number of times something happens in a certain period of time, such as
the ground shaking up and down or back and forth during an earthquake.
Seismogram:
A seismogram is a record written by a seismograph in response to ground motions produced
by an earthquake, explosion, or other ground-motion sources. Fig 3.5
Seismograph:
A seismograph, or seismometer, is an
instrument used to detect and record earthquakes. Generally, it consists of a mass attached to a
fixed base. During an earthquake, the base moves and the mass does not. The motion of the
base with respect to the mass is commonly transformed into an electrical voltage. The electrical
voltage is recorded on paper, magnetic tape, or another recording medium. This record is
proportional to the motion of the seismometer mass relative to the earth, but it can be
mathematically converted to a record of the absolute motion of the
ground. Seismograph generally refers to the seismometer and its recording device as a single
unit. ( See also Earthquake ABC and Seismographs - Keeping Track of Earthquakes.). fig 3.6
Figure 3.3
Figure 3.4
Figure 3.5
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Travel Time:
A traveltime curve is a graph of arrival times, commonly P or S waves, recorded at different
points as a function of distance from the seismic source. Seismic velocities within the earth can
be computed from the slopes of the resulting curves. Fig 3.6
Results:
The data taken from the three stations shows that the Epicenter of this earthquake lies near to
Fresno (California), The three stations met a place about 200 KM away from Fresno.
Comments:
The scale taken from the map is :
o 100KM on map = 1.2 cm
o Atleast three stations are required to findout the Epicenter of the Earthquake.
o It is an easy way to calculate the Epicenter.
Refrences:
http://www.kids-fun-science.com/earthquake-focus.html
Lab#03
Figure 3.6
Figure 3.7
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To determine Earthquake magnitude by Scale conversion
diagram (Richter diagram) and given seismograph
Richter Scale:
The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the
California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of
earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the
amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Adjustments are included for the variation
in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquakes. On
the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions. For
example, a magnitude 5.3 might be computed for a moderate earthquake, and a strong
earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale,
each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured
amplitude; as an estimate of energy, each whole number step in the magnitude scale
corresponds to the release of about 31 times more energy than the amount associated with
the preceding whole number value.
The Epicentral distances are taken from lab#02, while using these values we can find the
magnitude of the earthquake on Richter sacle. This provides an easy way to calculate the
magnitude.
Refrence:
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=Richter%20scale
Lab#04
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Propagation of seismic waves through different media
Scope:
To find out the propagation of the seismic waves through different media
Seismic Waves:
Seismic waves are of two basic types:
 Body waves
I. P waves
II. S waves
 Surface waves
I. Love waves
II. Raleigh waves
Propagation of p wave through media :
Consider an infinitely thin long rod. If the rod is constrained against radial straining, then
particle displacements caused by a longitudinal wave must be parallel to the axis of the rod.
Assume that cross- sectional planes will remain planar and that stress will be distributed
uniformly over each other cross-section. The One dimensional wave equation can be written
in the form
The propagation velocity of the waves depends on density and elasticity of the medium. These
waves can travel through any type of material, and can travel at nearly twice the speed of S
waves.
o These waves can pass easily through the solid because of high rigidity of the solids. As
the pattern of P wave is compressional so these waves are capable of being pass quickly.
o In liquids the speed of P waves reduces because of less rigidness of fluids than solid.
o In air, these pressure waves take the form of sound waves; hence they travel at the speed
of sound. Typical speeds are 330 m/s in air
o Velocity tends to increase with depth, and ranges from approximately 2 to 8 km/s in the
o Earth's crust up to 13 km/s in the deep mantle.
Speed of P-waves:
Where K is the modulus of incompressibility, μ is the modulus of rigidity and ρ the density of
the material through which the wave is propagating
S Waves:
Consider an infinitely thin long rod .Torsional waves involve rotation of the rod about its own
axis. For torsional waves, particle motion is constrained to planes perpendicular to the direction
of wave propagation. Suppose the short segment of cylindrical rod, the one dimensional wave.
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S waves can only pass through the solids, they cannot pass through the liquids or fluids because
a fluids and gasses cannot transmit a shear stress and S-waves are waves that shear the material.
Propagation of s waves through a medium depend on the parameters including shear modulus
and density, it don’t in clued modulus of rigidity and as shear modulus of the fluids is zero so
they dies in the fluids. It is this property of S waves that led seismologists to conclude that the
Earth's outer core is liquid, typical values for S-wave velocities within the Earth are between
3.5 and 6 km/s.
Rayleigh waves:
Rayleigh waves, also called ground roll, are surface waves that travel as ripples with motions
that are similar to those of waves on the surface of water. A Rayleigh wave rolls along the
ground just like a wave rolls across a lake or an ocean. Because it rolls, it moves the ground up
and down and side-to-side in the same direction that the wave is moving. However, that the
associated particle motion at shallow depths is retrograde, and that the restoring force in
Rayleigh and in other seismic waves is elastic, not gravitational as for water waves.They are
slower than body waves, roughly 90% of the velocity of S waves for typical homogeneous
elastic media.Rayleigh waves on ideal, homogeneous and flat elastic solids show no dispersion.
However, if a solid or structure has a density or sound velocity that varies with depth, Rayleigh
waves become dispersive. One example is Rayleigh waves on the Earth's surface: those waves
with a higher frequency travel more slowly than those with a lower frequency.
Love waves:
Love waves are surface waves that cause horizontal shearing of the ground. Love waves exist
because of the Earth’s surface. They usually travel slightly faster than Rayleigh waves. It's the
fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to- side. They are largest at the surface
and decrease in amplitude with depth. Love waves are dispersive, that is, the wave velocity is
dependent on frequency, generally with low frequencies propagating at higher velocity. Depth
of penetration of the Love waves is also dependent on frequency, with lower frequencies
penetrating to greater depth. Since Love waves travel on the Earth's surface, the strength (or
amplitude) of the waves decrease exponentially with the depth of an earthquake. However,
given their confinement to the surface, their amplitude decays only as, where r represents the
distance the wave has traveled from the earthquake.
Air depending on
temperature
310 360
Weather soil horizon 100 500
Gravel, dray sand 100 600
Loam 300 900
Wet sand 200 1800
Clay 1200 2500
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Water depending on
temperature
1430 1590
Sandstone friable 1500 2500
Sandstone dense 1800 4000
Chalk 1800 3500
Limestone 2500 6000
Marl 2000 3500
Gypsum 4500 6500
Ice 3100 4200
Granite 4000 5700
Wave propagation in anisotropic media:
Wave motion in an anisotropic solid is fundamentally different from motion in an isotropic
solid, although the effects are often subtle and difficult to recognize. There are such a wide
range of three-dimensional variations possible in anisotropic media that it is difficult to
understand the behavior of wave motion without experimentation. Laboratory experiments are
very difficult to construct and extensive numerical experiments have now given many
theoretical insights so that the behavior of waves in anisotropic media is now comparatively
well understood.
P-wave propagation:
In isotropic and homogeneous solids, the mode of propagation of a P-wave is always
longitudinal; thus, the particles in the solid have vibrations along or parallel to the travel
direction of the wave energy.
S-wave propagation
The S-wave moves as a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction
of wave propagation: S-waves are like waves in a rope, as opposed to waves moving through
a slinky, the P-wave. The wave moves through elastic media, and the main restoring force
comes from shear effects.
An earthquake radiates P and S waves in all directions and the interaction of the P and S waves
with Earth's surface and shallow structure produces surface waves.
Near an earthquake the shaking is large and dominated by shear-waves and short-period surface
waves. These are the waves that do the most damage to our buildings, highways, etc. Even in
Figure 4.4
2011-GE-56
large earthquakes the intense shaking generally lasts only a few tens of seconds, but it can last
for minutes in the greatest earthquakes. At farther distances the amplitude of the seismic waves
decreases as the energy released by the earthquake spreads throughout a larger volume of Earth.
Also with increasing distance from the earthquake, the waves are separated apart in time and
dispersed because P, S, and surface waves travel at different speeds.
Seismic waves can be distinguished by a number of properties including the speed the waves
travel, the direction that the waves move particles as they pass by, where and where they don't
propagate. We'll go through each wave type individually to expound upon the differences.
The first two wave types, P and S , are called body waves because they travel or propagate
through the body of Earth. The latter two are called surface waves they the travel along Earth's
surface and their amplitude decreases with depth into Earth.
References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transverse_isotropy
http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/phat/phat98/phat98-01.pdf
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1984.tb05018.x/abstract
Lab#05
To find out the properties of Tsunami by using seismogram of
Tsunami
Figure 4.5
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Underwater Earth Quake:
A submarine, undersea, or underwater earthquake is an earthquake that occurs underwater at
the bottom of a body of water, especially an ocean. They are the leading cause of tsunamis.
The magnitude can be measured scientifically by the use of either the Richter scale or
the Mercalli scale. Understanding plate tectonics helps to explain the cause of submarine
earthquakes. The Earth's surface or lithosphere comprises tectonic plates which average
approximately 50 miles in thickness, and are continuously moving very slowly upon a bed of
magma in the asthenosphere and inner mantle. The plates converge upon one another, and one
subducts below the other. fig 5.1
Landslides:
A landslide, also known as a landslip, is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range
of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows,
which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action
of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing
factors affecting the original slope stability. fig 5.2
Meteoroides:
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body travelling through space. Meteoroids are
significantly smaller than asteroids, and range in size from small grains to 1 meter-wide
objects. Smaller objects than this are classified as micrometeoroids or space dust. Most are
fragments fromcomets or asteroids,
while others are collision impact debris ejected from
bodies such as the Moon or Mars. fig 5.3
Figure 5.6
Figure 5.7
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Tsunami:
A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body
of water, generally an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and
other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices),
landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all
have the potential to generate a tsunami. fig
5.4
How Tsunami Occurs:
About two-thirds of the earth is covered by the waters of the four oceans. The Pacific Ocean is
surrounded by a series of mountain chains, deep ocean trenches and island arcs, sometimes
called a "ring of fire." The great size of the Pacific Ocean and the large earthquakes associated
with the "ring of fire" combine to produce deadly tsunamis. Tsunami's can occur due to
earthquake's, landslides on the sea floor, land slumping into the ocean, or from large volcanic
eruptions. Most of them are caused by earthquakes. fig 5.5
Types of Tsunami:
There are three main types of tsunami
1) Immediate Waves:
These are generated locally by sudden lateral movements of walls. The water is pushed out of
the way(push effect) and initially has nowhere to go but upwards. This temporary hump then
collapses outwards in both directions, forming an almost instant response to the ground
movement. these waves may climb very high, although the volume involved is not large.
Alternatively, there may be a “pull” effect if a steep wall is dragged away from the water, but
in this case the water will detach from the wall if the wall movement is sufficiently violent.
2) Seismic Seiches:
Figure 5.8
Figure 5.9
Figure 5.10
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These are generated by variations in the local vertical ground displacement (tilting effects).
These waves are called a seiche because the response of the water body is dependent on its
resonance properties, and will take the form of waves recurring at time intervals determined
by the various natural frequencies. This type includes propagating waves generated by the
collapse of Immediate Waves, but these tend to be minor compared with the effects of
seismic tilting.
3) Classical Tsunami:
These waves are open sea waves resulting from the action of gravity following the initiating
short duration disturbance (or “bump”), with particular emphasis on the interaction between
these waves and coastlines. If seabed displacement results from an earthquake, volcanic action,
or submarine landslide,it results into this type of tsunami.
Speed of tsunami:
Tsunami wave speed is controlled by water depth. Where the ocean is over 6,000 meters (3.7
miles) deep, unnoticed tsunami waves can travel at the speed of a commercial jet plane, over
800 km per hour (500 miles per hour). Tsunamis travel much slower in shallower coastal waters
where their wave heights begin to increase dramatically
Wavelength of Tsunami:
The wave length of Tsunami can be calculated by multiplying the value of speed to the time.
The formula is :
Distance= speed × time
Detection of Tsunami:
A tsunami warning system (TWS) is used to detect tsunamis in advance and issue warnings to
prevent loss of life and damage. It is made up of two equally important components: a network
of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to
permit evacuation of the coastal areas. There are two distinct types of tsunami warning
systems: international andregional. When operating, seismic alerts are used to instigate the
watches and warnings; then, data from observed sea level height (either shore-based tide
Figure 5.11
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gauges or DART buoys) are used to verify the existence of a tsunami. Other systems have been
proposed to augment the warning procedures.
The DART System:
In 1995 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began developing
the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) system. An array of
stations is currently deployed in the Pacific Ocean. These stations give detailed
information about tsunamis while they are still far off shore. Each station consists of a sea-
bed bottom pressure recorder which detects the passage of a tsunami. (The pressure of the
water column is related to the height of the sea-surface) . The data is then transmitted to a
surface buoy via sonar. The surface buoy then radios the information to the Pacific
Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) via satellite. The bottom pressure recorder lasts for two
years while the surface buoy is replaced every year. The system has considerably improved
the forecasting and warning of tsunamis in the Pacific.
Tsunami Alerts:
1) Severe ground shaking from local earthquakes may cause tsunamis.
2) As a tsunami approaches shorelines, water may recede from the coast, exposing the ocean
floor, reefs and fish.
3) Abnormal ocean activity, a wall of water, and an approaching tsunami create a loud
"roaring" sound similar to that of a train or jet aircraft.
If you experience any of these phenomena, don't wait for official evacuation orders.
Immediately leave low-lying coastal areas and move to higher ground
Figure 5.12
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Calculations:
d1= 200m
d2= 300m
Speed= V= √gd
Wavelength= vt
Scale:
0.6cm= 1 hour
0.2cm= 0.33 hour= 20 min= 1200sec
Velocities:
V1= √9.81 × 2000 = 𝟏𝟒𝟎. 𝟏 𝒎/𝒔
V2=√9.81 × 3000 = 𝟏𝟕𝟏. 𝟓 𝒎/𝒔
Epicenter Distance:
A= 1200 KM B= 1500 KM
Time to Reach points:
Epicenter of X
Speed of X
For Point A:
T1=
1200
0.1401
= 8565sec
= 142.75 min = 2 hrs, 22 min, 45sec
T2=
1200
0.17155
= 1hr, 56 min, 35sec
For Point B:
Figure 5.13
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T1=
1500
0.1401
= 2hrs, 58 min, 27sec
T2=
1500
0.17155
= 2hrs, 25 min, 44sec
Refrences:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
http://www.ask.com/question/how-does-a-tsunami-occur
http://www.bom.gov.au/tsunami/info/
Lab#06
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To study the attenuation relationship between epicenter distance
and duration
Theory:
Attenuation of earthquake:
The decrease in size, or amplitude, of the waves is called attenuation. Seismic waves also
become attenuated as they move away from the earthquake source. The amplitude is largest
where they are formed and gradually get smaller as they move away.
Causes of attenuation:
1) Geometrical spreading: wavefront spreading out while energy per unit area
becomes less.
2) Multipathing: waves seek alternative paths to the receiver. Some are dispersed and
some are bundled, thereby affecting amplitudes.
3) Scattering: A way to partition energy of supposedly main arrivals into boundary or
corner diffracted, scattered energy
Deep drill holes reveal alternating layers of basalt and sediments. The basalt layers are lava
flows from repeated volcanic eruptions occurring from 3.2 millions years ago to as recently as
2,100 years ago. During times in between volcanic eruptions, soils form and cover the basalt
flows. The soils accumulate from wind blown dust, erosion of rocks due to precipitation in
local drainages, and deposition of sediments from rivers (e.g., the Big Lost River) and
occasional lakes (e.g., Lake Terreton).
The passage of seismic waves through alternating layers of hard basalt (higher seismic
velocities) and loosely consolidated sediments (lower seismic velocities) scatter and dampen
seismic energy. The net effect is to reduce earthquake ground motions by 15 to 25% of the
motions expected for uniform rock (all basalt and no sediment layers). An independent review
panel convened by the State of Idaho and U.S. Department of Energy in 1997 concluded that
alternating layers of basalt and sediments was highly effective in damping ground motion. They
also concluded that the geometries of the sedimentary layers did not cause focusing or
amplification of ground motions.
Damping Process:
The conventional approach to earthquake resistant
design of buildings depends upon providing the building with strength, stiffness and inelastic
deformation capacity which are great enough to withstand a given level of earthquake–
generated force. This is generally accomplished through the selection of an appropriate
structural configuration and the careful detailing of structural members, such as beams and
columns, and the connections between them. In contrast, we can say that the basic approach
underlying more advanced techniques for earthquake resistance is not to strengthen the
Figure 6.1
2011-GE-56
building, but to reduce the earthquake–generated forces acting upon it. Among the most
important advanced techniques of earthquake resistant design and construction are base
isolation and energy dissipation devices.
Base Isolation:
It is easiest to see this principle at work by referring directly to the most widely used of these
advanced techniques, which is known as base isolation. A base isolated structure is supported
by a series of bearing pads which are placed between the building and the building's foundation.
A variety of different types of base isolation bearing pads have now been developed. For our
example, we'll discuss lead–rubber bearings. These are among the frequently–used types of
base isolation bearings. A lead–rubber bearing is made from layers of rubber sandwiched
together with layers of steel. In the middle of the bearing is a solid lead "plug." On top and
bottom, the bearing is fitted with steel plates which are used to attach the bearing to the building
and foundation. The bearing is very stiff and strong in the vertical direction, but flexible in the
horizontal direction. Fig 6.2
Spherical Sliding Isolation
Systems:
As we said earlier, lead–rubber bearings are just one of a number of different types of base
isolation bearings which have now been developed. Spherical Sliding Isolation Systems are
another type of base isolation. The building is supported by bearing pads that have a curved
surface and low friction. Shown in fig 6.3
Attenuation of EQ through
different Media:
The table given below (6.4) shows the velocities of primary waves through different
materials:
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
2011-GE-56
Table used for the Intensity, Epicenter distance and the Duration:
Intensity Epicenter distance
(km)
Duration (sec)
1 0 0
0.99 10 1
0.98 20 1.9
0.95 30 3
0.89 40 4.5
0.85 50 5.8
0.74 60 7.8
0.6 70 10
0.4 80 12.5
0.2 90 14.8
0.18 100 15.8
Figure 6.4
2011-GE-56
0.15 110 16.7
0.11 120 18
0.09 130 19
0.05 140 20.1
0.03 150 20.8
0.02 160 21.4
0.01 170 22
Comments:
From the graph attached we have concluded the following interpretations:
Area 1:
In this zone there is low ground shaking, but time duration of wave to pass through medium
is very low, this is due to the presence of hard rock material in this area.
Area 2:
This is very crucial zone, in this zone duration of wave travel is increasing, which is
showing that, there is a transition zone of hard to soft formation in this zone, as the distance
is increasing, due to which ground motion is decreasing, or we can say intensity is
decreasing.
Area 3:
This is the zone at which waves are taking much longer time to pass showing the presence
of soft formation over there, and intensity is almost dead due to increase in epicentral
distance.. So this zone is seismically safe area.
Refrences:
https://inlportal.inl.gov/portal/server.pt/community/inl_seismic_monitoring_program/441/atte
nuation_effects/4378
http://mceer.buffalo.edu/infoservice/reference_services/adveqdesign.asp
Lab#07 (A)
2011-GE-56
To study the techtonic map of Pakistan and to classify different
areas of Pakistan on the basis of seismic danger zone
Plate tectonics:
It is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere. The model
builds on the concept of continental drift which was developed during the first few decades of
the 20th century. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (on Earth, the
crust and upper mantle), is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven or eight
major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. Where plates meet,
their relative motion determines the type of boundary; convergent, divergent,
or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation
occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative movement of the plates typically varies
from zero to 100 mm annually.
Tectonic set up of Pakistan
Earthquakes and active faults in northern Pakistan and adjacent parts of India and Afghanistan
are the direct result of the Indian subcontinent moving northward at a rate of about 40
mm/yr(1.6 inches/yr) and colliding with the Eurasian continent. This collision is causing uplift
that produces the highest mountain peaks in the world including the Himalayan, the
Karakoram, the Pamir and the Hindu Kush ranges. As the Indian plate moves northward, it is
being subducted or pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. Much of the compressional motion
between these two colliding plates has been and continues to be accommodated by slip on a
suite of major thrust faults that are at the Earth’s surface in the foothills of the mountains and
dip northward beneath the ranges. These include the Main Frontal thrust, the Main Central
thrust, the Main boundary thrust, and the Main Mantle thrust. These thrust faults have a sinuous
trace as they arc across the foothills in northern India and into northern Pakistan. In detail, the
modern active faults are actually a system of faults comprised of a number of individual fault
traces. In the rugged mountainous terrain, it is difficult to identify and map all of the individual
thrust faults, but the overall tectonic style of the modern deformation is clear in the area of the
earthquake; north- and northeast-directed compression is producing thrust faulting. Near the
town of Muzaffarabad, about 10 km southwest of the earthquake epicenter, active thrust faults
that strike northwest-southeast have deformed and warped Pleistocene alluvial-fan surfaces
into anticlinal ridges. The strike and dip direction of these thrust faults is compatible with the
style of faulting indicated by the focal mechanism from the nearby M 7.6 earthquake.
2011-GE-56
Techtonic Map:
Techtonic map is a map which is an easy approach to findout the techtonic activities happening
in the world. Here in this lab we study the techtonic map of Pakistan which includes the five
provinces. The severe seismic danger area is the balochistan and Kashmir area causing deathly
earthquakes. Shown in fig 7.1
Abbreviations used in the
Map:
MKT: Main Karakoram Thrust
MMT: Main Mantan Thrust
MBT: Main Boundary Thrust
Figure 7.14
2011-GE-56
MFT: Main Frontal Thrust
MCT : Main central Thrust
SRT: Salt Range Thrust
Refrences:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics
2011-GE-56
Lab#07 (B)
Seismic Danger Zones
The map of Pakistan is divided into different zones according to the seismicity of different
areas. The magnitudes of different earthquakes are given in the map.
Explanations of the map symbols according to the magnitude of earthquakes:
1) Zone of serious seismic danger
This area is safe from the seismic activity due to the fact that this zone is far away
from the significant faults present in Pakistan. The historical background of the zone
also indicates that there has been no significant hazardous earthquake occurred.
M-7 to M-8 Acceleration: 0.3g to 0.8g
The City included in this zone is only
1- Quetta
2) Zone of significant seismic danger
This zone has some affect of seismic activity as it is near to the faulting zone as
compared to low hazardous zone.
M-6 to M-7 Acceleration: 0.15g to 0.3g
The Cities included in this zone are
1- Chaman
2- Khost
3- Sibi
4- Kalat
5- Saidu Sharif
6- Chilas
7- Gilgit
8- Mor Khan
9- Chenab
3) Zone of noticeable seismic danger
This zone is near to the main faults of Pakistan such as MBT, MKT, MMT and
Chaman Fault. So these faults have greater influence on the areas present in this zone.
History of these areas also reveals that this is highly affected by seismic activity. For
example the earthquake of October 2005 affected these areas.
M-5 to M-6 Acceleration 0.05g to 0.15g
The Cities included in this zone are
1- Zhob
2- Dera Ismail Khan
3- Faisal Abad
Figure 1
Figure 15
2011-GE-56
4- Sahiwal
5- Lahore
6- Nowshehra
7- Peshawar
8- Bannu
9- Bela
10- Karachi
11- Dalbandin
12- Nok kundi
4) Zone of least seismic danger
This area is safe from the seismic activity due to the fact that this zone is far away from
the significant faults present in Pakistan. The historical background of the zone also
indicates that there has been no significant hazardous earthquake occurred.
M below-5 acceleration below 0.05g
The Cities included in this zone are
1- Bahawalpur
2- Sukkar
3- Mirpur Khas
4- Khairpur
5- Multan
According to Geological Survey of Pakistan Quetta
Lab#08
Figure 16
Figure 17
2011-GE-56
To study the tectonic map of earth and to mark global earth
quake locations
Theory:
Theory of Plate Tectonics:
It is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere. The model
builds on the concept of continental drift which was developed during the first few decades of
the 20th century. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (on Earth, the
crust and upper mantle), is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven or eight
major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. Where plates meet,
their relative motion determines the type of boundary; convergent, divergent,
or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation
occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative movement of the plates typically varies
from zero to 100 mm annually.
Driving forces of plate motion:
As stated earlier, in order to fully understand what drives the lithospheric plates of the Earth,
we must first identify and understand the forces involved. A number of forces have been
postulated since the dawn of the tectonic theory, including ridge push, slab pull, trench suction,
collisional resistance, and basal drag (Forsyth et al., 1975; Richardson, 1992). In the past ten
years, many scientists have begun to assume that the boundary and body forces of the plates,
rather than the frictional drag produced by mantle convection, are the most dominant group of
forces driving plate motions.
Tectonic
plates of
earth:
There are
seven or eight big plates on earth and also a number of smaller ones. Some of them are given
under:
1) Nazca Plate
2) North American Plate
3) South American Plate
Figure 8.18
2011-GE-56
4) Eurasian Plate
5) India Australian Plate
6) African Plate
7) Arabian Plate
8) Philippine Plate
9) Antarctic Plate
10) Cocos Plate
11) Pacific Plate
12) Juan De Fuca Plate
World Tectonic Map:
Major Faults in the world:
Plate Type Major Faulting
pacific plate strike slip faulting
north American plate strike slip faulting
south American plate oblique faulting
African plate normal faulting
Eurasian plate normal faulting
Antarctic plate strike slip
2011-GE-56
cocas plate reverse
Nazca plate strike slip
Australian plate strike slip
Indian plate strike slip
USA strike slip
Russia strike slip
China Oblique
Japan Reverse
Saudi Arabia strike slip
Pakistan Reverse
Europe normal
Australia oblique
Indonesia oblique
Iran reverse
India reverse
Turkey strike slip
south Africa normal
2011-GE-56
World Fault Line:
Strike slip fault
A type of fault whose surface is typically vertical or nearly sothe motion along a strike-slip
fault is parallel to the strike of the fault surface, and the fault blocks move sideways past each
other. A strike-slip fault in which the block across the fault moves to the right is described as
a dextral strike-slip fault. If it moves left, the relative motion is described as sinistral. Fig 9.3
Normal fault
A type of fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall and the
fault surface dips steeply, commonly from 500
to 900
. Groups of normal faults can produce
horst and graben topography. Fig 9.4
Figure 9.3
2011-GE-56
Reverse fault
A type of fault formed when the hanging wall fault block
moves up along a fault surface relative to the footwall. Such
movement can occur in areas where the Earth's crust is
compressed. Fig 9.5
Oblique-slip faults
A fault that has a component of dip-slip and a component of strike-slip is termed an "oblique-
slip fault." Nearly all faults will have some component of both dip-slip and strike-slip, so
defining a fault as oblique requires both dip and strike components to be measurable and
significant. Fig 9.6
Figure 9.4
Figure 9.5
Figure 9.6
2011-GE-56
Lab#09
Using the Edu Shake Software
Proshake:
A powerful, user-friendly program for one-dimensional, equivalent linear ground response
analysis. ProShake is currently being used by more than 200 of the world's top consulting
firms and research institutions. Download a copy of the ProShake Users Manual or, for a
hands-on demonstration of ProShake's interface and capabilities, download a free copy of
EduShake.
EduShake:
A free program for one-dimensional, equivalent linear ground response analysis. EduShake
is equivalent to ProShake, but is restricted to the use of only eight different input motions,
all of which are included with the program.
EduShake Report
Data File:
Soil Profile
Profile Name: UET Soil
Water Table: 100.00 ft
Number of Layers: 2
Layer
Numb
er
Material
Name
Thickn
ess
(ft)
Unit
Weigh
t
(pcf)
Gma
x
(ksf)
Vs
(ft/se
c)
Modulus
Curve
Damping Curve Mod.
Param
eter
Damp
Param
eter
1 Soil 20.00 54.11 1,46
1.98
932.
37
Clay - PI=20-
40 (Sun et al.)
Clay - Upper
Bound (Sun et
al.)
2 Dolerite Infinit
e
57.29 3,13
2.82
1,32
6.40
Gravel (Seed
et al.)
Gravel (Seed et
al.)
2011-GE-56
Input Motion
Number of Motions: 2
Numeber of Iterations: 5
Strain Ratio: 0.65
Tolerance: 5.00%
File Name No of
Acc.
Values
Max.
Acc.
(g)
Time
Step
(sec)
Cuttoff
Freq.
(Hz)
No of
Fourier
Terms
Layer Outcro
p
2 No
No
Output Locations
Layer No Depth
(ft)
Outcrop
1 0.00 No
Graph B/W Modulus Ratio and Shear Strain (Clay):
Clay - PI=20-40 (Sun et al.)
ModulusRatio
Shear Strain (%)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
2011-GE-56
Graph B/W Modulus Ratio and Shear Strain (Clay):
Graph B/W Damping Ratio and Shear Strain (Gravel):
Clay - Upper Bound (Sun et al.)
DampingRatio(%)
Shear Strain (%)
0
10
20
30
40
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Clay - PI=20-40 (Sun et al.)
ModulusRatio
Shear Strain (%)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
2011-GE-56
Graph B/W Damping Ratio and Shear Strain (Clay):
Clay - Upper Bound (Sun et al.)
DampingRatio(%)
Shear Strain (%)
0
10
20
30
40
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Gravel (Seed et al.)
DampingRatio(%)
Shear Strain (%)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
2011-GE-56
Graph B/w Modulus Ratio and Shear Strain (Gravel):
Gravel (Seed et al.)
ModulusRatio
Shear Strain (%)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10

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Earthquake and Seismic Analysis Labs

  • 1. 2011-GE-56 EQ Seismology and Risk Assesment Lab Manual Submitted By: Faisal Hayat (2011-GE-56) Submitted To: Ma’am Engr. Maryam Department of Geological Engineering University of engineering and Technology Lahore
  • 2. 2011-GE-56 LAB#01 (A) Objective: To Record the most hazards earthquakes in the world based on its magnitude, fault name and in their location. Related theory: Earthquake: Earthquake is caused by the release of built-up stress within rocks along geologic faults or by the movement of magma in volcanic areas. Magnitude of earthquake: Earthquake magnitude is a measure of the “size,” or amplitude, of the seismic waves generated by an earthquake source and recorded by seismographs. Richter magnitude scale is used to find out the magnitude of the earthquakes. Intensity of an earthquake: The intensity of an earthquake at a particular locality indicates the violence of earth motion produced there by the earthquake. It is determined from reported effects of the tremor on human beings, furniture, buildings, geological structure, etc. Marcalli intensity meter is used while predicting the intensity of earthquake. Fault: A crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other; "they built it right over a geological fault". Fault may be divided into a lot of types. Earthquake hazard: An earthquake hazard is anything associated with an earthquake that may affect the normal activities of people and their community. Causes of Earthquake: Two theories are given which explain the cause of earthquake.  Plate tectonic theory  Elastic rebound theory Both the theory explains the causes of earthquake most efficiently.The most of the earthquakes occours due to interplate boundaries(about 99%), while some of them occours due to intraplate (about 1%). Some Hazardous Earthquakes occurred in the world
  • 3. 2011-GE-56 1) Valdivia earthquake The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean Earthquake was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT, 15:11 local time), and the resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands.The epicenter was near Lumaco (approximately 570 kilometres (350 mi) south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city. The tremor caused localised tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 metres (82 ft). The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii. Waves as high as 10.7 metres (35 ft) were recorded 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) from the epicenter, and as far away as Japan and the Philippines.The death toll and monetary losses arising from such a widespread disaster are not certain. Various estimates of the total number of fatalities from the earthquake and tsunamis have been published, with the United States Geological Survey citing studies with figures of 2,231, 3,000, or 5,700 killed and another source uses an estimate of 6,000 dead. Different sources have estimated the monetary cost ranged from US$400 million to 800 million (or 2.9 to 5.8 billion in 2011 dollars, adjusted for inflation). Fig 1.1 shows the destruction caused by vadivia earthquake. 2) Sumatra, Indonesia Earthquake Location Date Magnitude Epicenter Valdivia, Chile May 22, 1960 9.5 Near Lumaco Location Date Magnitude Epicenter Sumatra,Indonesia December 24, 2004 9.3 West coast of sumatra Figure 1.1 Valdivia EQ 1960
  • 4. 2011-GE-56 The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The quake itself is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. The resulting tsunami was given various names, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, South Asian tsunami, Indonesian tsunami, the Christmas tsunami and the Boxing Day tsunami. The earthquake was caused when the Indian Plate was subducted by the Burma Plate and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing over 230,000 people in fourteen countries, and inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 meters (100 ft) high. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Indonesia was the hardest-hit country, followed by Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. It is the third largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph. The earthquake had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and 10 minutes. It caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimetre (0.4 inches) and triggered other earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicentre was between Simeulue and mainland Indonesia. The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response. In all, the worldwide community donated more than $14 billion (2004 US$) in humanitarian aid. Shown in fig 1.2 3) Assam Tibet Earthquake: The 1950 Assam – Tibet earthquake, also known as the Assam earthquake or Medog earthquake. The epicentre was actually located near Rima, Tibet. The earthquake was destructive in both Assam and Tibet, and 1,526 people were killed. It was the 10th largest earthquake of the 20th century. It is also the largest known earthquake to have not been caused by an oceanic subduction. Instead, this quake was caused by two continental plates converging. Location Date Magnitude Epicenter Assam - Tibet August 15,1950 8.6 Near Rima,Tibet Figure 1.2 Sumatra EQ causing Tsunami Figure 1.3 Asaam EQ
  • 5. 2011-GE-56 4) 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake The 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquake occurred at 15:36 UTC on January 31, off the coast of Ecuador, near Esmeraldas. The earthquake had a magnitude of 8.8 and triggered a destructive tsunami that caused at least 500 casualties on the coast of Colombia. The earthquake occurred along the boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate. The earthquake is likely to be a result ofthrust-faulting, caused by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. The greatest damage from the tsunami occurred on the coast between Río Verde, Ecuador and Micay, Colombia. Estimates of the number of deaths caused by the tsunami vary between 500 and 1,500.fig 1.4 5) Kamchatka earthquakes Location Date Magnitude Epicenter Colombia January 31,1906 8.8 Near Emeraldas Location Date Magnitude Epicenter Colombia January 31,1906 8.8 Near Emeraldas Figure 1.4 Colombia EQ
  • 6. 2011-GE-56 Three earthquakes, which occurred off the coast of Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia in 1737, 1923 and 1952, were megathrust earthquakes and caused tsunamis. They occurred where the Pacific Plate subducts under the Okhotsk Plate at the Kuril- Kamchatka Trench. The depth of the trench at the point of the earthquakes is 7,000–7,500 m. Northern Kamchatka lies at the western end of the Bering fault, between the Pacific Plate and North American Plate or the Bering plate. There are many more earthquakes and tsunamis originating from Kamchatka, of which the most recent was the 1997 Kamchatka earthquake and tsunami originating near the Kronotsky Peninsula.fig 1.5 Refrences: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/10_largest_world.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_earthquakes Lab#01 (B) To Record the most hazards earthquakes in the Pakistan based on its magnitude, fault name and in their location. 2005 Kashmir earthquake: Figure 1.5 Kamchatka earthquakes
  • 7. 2011-GE-56 The 2005 Kashmir earthquake was a major earthquake centered in the Pakistan administered Kashmir near the city of Muzaffarabad, also affecting and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time (03:52:37 GMT) on 8 October 2005. It registered a moment magnitude of 7.6 making it similar in size to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1935 Quetta earthquake, the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, and the 2009 Sumatra earthquakes. As of 8 November, the government of Pakistan's official death toll was 75,000. The earthquake also affected countries in the surrounding region where tremors were felt in Tajikistan and western China, while officials say nearly 1,400 people also died in Jammu and Kashmir and four people in neighboring Nangarhar Province of Afghanistan. The severity of the damage caused by the earthquake is attributed to severe upthrust, coupled with poor construction. Well over US$ 5.4 billion (400 billion Pakistani rupees) in aid arrived from all around the world. US Marine and Army helicopters stationed in neighbouring Afghanistan quickly flew aid into the devastated region along with five CH47 Chinook helicopters from the Royal Air Force that were deployed from the United Kingdom. Five crossing points were opened on the Line of Control (LoC), between India and Pakistan, to facilitate the flow of humanitarian and medical aid to the affected region, and aid teams from different parts of Pakistan and around the world came to the region to assist in relief. Pakistan-administered Kashmir lies in the area of collision of the Eurasian and Indian tectonic plates. The geological activity born out of this collision, also responsible for the birth of the Himalayan mountain range, is the cause of unstable seismicity in the region. International donors have estimated that about 100,000 died, with an additional 138,000 becoming seriously injured, and 3.5 million becoming displaced. Hunza Earthquake 1974: Location Date Magnitude Epicenter Kashmir,Pakistan October 8, 2005 7.6 Near Muzaffarabad Figure 1A.1 Kasmir EQ
  • 8. 2011-GE-56 The 1974 Hunza Earthquake occurred in the rugged and isolated Hunza, Hazara and Swat districts of northern Pakistan at 12:11 UTC on December 28, 1974. The epicentre was located at 35.0 degrees north and 72.8 degrees east. The 6.2 magnitude quake had a shallow focal depth and was followed by numerous aftershocks. An official estimate of the number killed was 5,300 with approximately 17,000 injured. A total of 97,000 were reported affected by the tremor. Most of the destruction was centered on the village of Pattan, located about 100 miles (160 km) north of the capital city of Islamabad. The village was almost completely destroyed.The epicental region is characterized by steep- walled narrow canyons and valleys. Most of the population was concentrated along the rivers. Much of the destruction was caused by the numerous landslides and rockfalls which came tumbling down from high above. The main road leading into the area was blocked for about 25 miles (40 km) by landslides and rockfalls, hampering relief efforts. The government flew in emergency supplies by helicopter until the roads were reopened on 13 January. The earthquake, which reached MMI V in Kabul, Afghanistan, affected some 1,000 square miles (2,600 km2 ) of the Indus Valley region. Several nations contributed money and supplies to aid the inhabitants of the stricken area. Comments: Most of the earthquakes occours in Baluchistan and Kashmir areas due to the fact that there exists the tectonic activity, in between the Eurasian and Indian plate. These plates collides making the area shake. Refrences: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1974_Hunza_earthquake http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_Kashmir_earthquake Location Date Magnitude Epicenter Hunza,Pakistan December 28, 1974 6.2 35 degrees north and 72.8 degrees east Figure 3A.2 Hunza EQ
  • 9. 2011-GE-56 Lab#02 To Locate Earthquake Epicenter by using Seismograph and travel time graph Focus of an Earthquake: The focus of an earthquake is the point where the rocks start to fracture. It is the origin of the earthquake. The epicenter is the point on land directly above the focus. The focus is also called the hypocenter of an earthquake. The vibrating waves travel away from
  • 10. 2011-GE-56 the focus of the earthquake in all directions. The waves can be so powerful they will reach all parts of the Earth and cause it to vibrate like a turning fork. Fig 3.1 Epicenter of an earthquake: Directly above the focus on the Earth's surface is the earthquake epicenter. Earthquake waves start at he focus and travel outward in all directions. Earthquake waves do not originate at the epicenter. Fig 3.1 Amplitude: o The amplitude of a seismic wave is the amount the ground moves as the wave passes by. (As an illustration, the amplitude of an ocean wave is one-half the distance between the peak and trough of the wave. The amplitude of a seismic wave can be measured from the signal recorded on a seismogram.) (Noson, et.al., 1988) o The maximum height of a wave crest of depth of a trough. (USGS National Earthquake Information Center, 1999) Focal Depth: The focal depth refers to the depth of an earthquake hypocenter. Shown in fig.3.3 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2
  • 11. 2011-GE-56 Frequency: The frequency is the number of times something happens in a certain period of time, such as the ground shaking up and down or back and forth during an earthquake. Seismogram: A seismogram is a record written by a seismograph in response to ground motions produced by an earthquake, explosion, or other ground-motion sources. Fig 3.5 Seismograph: A seismograph, or seismometer, is an instrument used to detect and record earthquakes. Generally, it consists of a mass attached to a fixed base. During an earthquake, the base moves and the mass does not. The motion of the base with respect to the mass is commonly transformed into an electrical voltage. The electrical voltage is recorded on paper, magnetic tape, or another recording medium. This record is proportional to the motion of the seismometer mass relative to the earth, but it can be mathematically converted to a record of the absolute motion of the ground. Seismograph generally refers to the seismometer and its recording device as a single unit. ( See also Earthquake ABC and Seismographs - Keeping Track of Earthquakes.). fig 3.6 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5
  • 12. 2011-GE-56 Travel Time: A traveltime curve is a graph of arrival times, commonly P or S waves, recorded at different points as a function of distance from the seismic source. Seismic velocities within the earth can be computed from the slopes of the resulting curves. Fig 3.6 Results: The data taken from the three stations shows that the Epicenter of this earthquake lies near to Fresno (California), The three stations met a place about 200 KM away from Fresno. Comments: The scale taken from the map is : o 100KM on map = 1.2 cm o Atleast three stations are required to findout the Epicenter of the Earthquake. o It is an easy way to calculate the Epicenter. Refrences: http://www.kids-fun-science.com/earthquake-focus.html Lab#03 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7
  • 13. 2011-GE-56 To determine Earthquake magnitude by Scale conversion diagram (Richter diagram) and given seismograph Richter Scale: The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Adjustments are included for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquakes. On the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions. For example, a magnitude 5.3 might be computed for a moderate earthquake, and a strong earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; as an estimate of energy, each whole number step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of about 31 times more energy than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value. The Epicentral distances are taken from lab#02, while using these values we can find the magnitude of the earthquake on Richter sacle. This provides an easy way to calculate the magnitude. Refrence: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=Richter%20scale Lab#04
  • 14. 2011-GE-56 Propagation of seismic waves through different media Scope: To find out the propagation of the seismic waves through different media Seismic Waves: Seismic waves are of two basic types:  Body waves I. P waves II. S waves  Surface waves I. Love waves II. Raleigh waves Propagation of p wave through media : Consider an infinitely thin long rod. If the rod is constrained against radial straining, then particle displacements caused by a longitudinal wave must be parallel to the axis of the rod. Assume that cross- sectional planes will remain planar and that stress will be distributed uniformly over each other cross-section. The One dimensional wave equation can be written in the form The propagation velocity of the waves depends on density and elasticity of the medium. These waves can travel through any type of material, and can travel at nearly twice the speed of S waves. o These waves can pass easily through the solid because of high rigidity of the solids. As the pattern of P wave is compressional so these waves are capable of being pass quickly. o In liquids the speed of P waves reduces because of less rigidness of fluids than solid. o In air, these pressure waves take the form of sound waves; hence they travel at the speed of sound. Typical speeds are 330 m/s in air o Velocity tends to increase with depth, and ranges from approximately 2 to 8 km/s in the o Earth's crust up to 13 km/s in the deep mantle. Speed of P-waves: Where K is the modulus of incompressibility, μ is the modulus of rigidity and ρ the density of the material through which the wave is propagating S Waves: Consider an infinitely thin long rod .Torsional waves involve rotation of the rod about its own axis. For torsional waves, particle motion is constrained to planes perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. Suppose the short segment of cylindrical rod, the one dimensional wave.
  • 15. 2011-GE-56 S waves can only pass through the solids, they cannot pass through the liquids or fluids because a fluids and gasses cannot transmit a shear stress and S-waves are waves that shear the material. Propagation of s waves through a medium depend on the parameters including shear modulus and density, it don’t in clued modulus of rigidity and as shear modulus of the fluids is zero so they dies in the fluids. It is this property of S waves that led seismologists to conclude that the Earth's outer core is liquid, typical values for S-wave velocities within the Earth are between 3.5 and 6 km/s. Rayleigh waves: Rayleigh waves, also called ground roll, are surface waves that travel as ripples with motions that are similar to those of waves on the surface of water. A Rayleigh wave rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls across a lake or an ocean. Because it rolls, it moves the ground up and down and side-to-side in the same direction that the wave is moving. However, that the associated particle motion at shallow depths is retrograde, and that the restoring force in Rayleigh and in other seismic waves is elastic, not gravitational as for water waves.They are slower than body waves, roughly 90% of the velocity of S waves for typical homogeneous elastic media.Rayleigh waves on ideal, homogeneous and flat elastic solids show no dispersion. However, if a solid or structure has a density or sound velocity that varies with depth, Rayleigh waves become dispersive. One example is Rayleigh waves on the Earth's surface: those waves with a higher frequency travel more slowly than those with a lower frequency. Love waves: Love waves are surface waves that cause horizontal shearing of the ground. Love waves exist because of the Earth’s surface. They usually travel slightly faster than Rayleigh waves. It's the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to- side. They are largest at the surface and decrease in amplitude with depth. Love waves are dispersive, that is, the wave velocity is dependent on frequency, generally with low frequencies propagating at higher velocity. Depth of penetration of the Love waves is also dependent on frequency, with lower frequencies penetrating to greater depth. Since Love waves travel on the Earth's surface, the strength (or amplitude) of the waves decrease exponentially with the depth of an earthquake. However, given their confinement to the surface, their amplitude decays only as, where r represents the distance the wave has traveled from the earthquake. Air depending on temperature 310 360 Weather soil horizon 100 500 Gravel, dray sand 100 600 Loam 300 900 Wet sand 200 1800 Clay 1200 2500
  • 16. 2011-GE-56 Water depending on temperature 1430 1590 Sandstone friable 1500 2500 Sandstone dense 1800 4000 Chalk 1800 3500 Limestone 2500 6000 Marl 2000 3500 Gypsum 4500 6500 Ice 3100 4200 Granite 4000 5700 Wave propagation in anisotropic media: Wave motion in an anisotropic solid is fundamentally different from motion in an isotropic solid, although the effects are often subtle and difficult to recognize. There are such a wide range of three-dimensional variations possible in anisotropic media that it is difficult to understand the behavior of wave motion without experimentation. Laboratory experiments are very difficult to construct and extensive numerical experiments have now given many theoretical insights so that the behavior of waves in anisotropic media is now comparatively well understood. P-wave propagation: In isotropic and homogeneous solids, the mode of propagation of a P-wave is always longitudinal; thus, the particles in the solid have vibrations along or parallel to the travel direction of the wave energy. S-wave propagation The S-wave moves as a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation: S-waves are like waves in a rope, as opposed to waves moving through a slinky, the P-wave. The wave moves through elastic media, and the main restoring force comes from shear effects. An earthquake radiates P and S waves in all directions and the interaction of the P and S waves with Earth's surface and shallow structure produces surface waves. Near an earthquake the shaking is large and dominated by shear-waves and short-period surface waves. These are the waves that do the most damage to our buildings, highways, etc. Even in Figure 4.4
  • 17. 2011-GE-56 large earthquakes the intense shaking generally lasts only a few tens of seconds, but it can last for minutes in the greatest earthquakes. At farther distances the amplitude of the seismic waves decreases as the energy released by the earthquake spreads throughout a larger volume of Earth. Also with increasing distance from the earthquake, the waves are separated apart in time and dispersed because P, S, and surface waves travel at different speeds. Seismic waves can be distinguished by a number of properties including the speed the waves travel, the direction that the waves move particles as they pass by, where and where they don't propagate. We'll go through each wave type individually to expound upon the differences. The first two wave types, P and S , are called body waves because they travel or propagate through the body of Earth. The latter two are called surface waves they the travel along Earth's surface and their amplitude decreases with depth into Earth. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transverse_isotropy http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/phat/phat98/phat98-01.pdf http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1984.tb05018.x/abstract Lab#05 To find out the properties of Tsunami by using seismogram of Tsunami Figure 4.5
  • 18. 2011-GE-56 Underwater Earth Quake: A submarine, undersea, or underwater earthquake is an earthquake that occurs underwater at the bottom of a body of water, especially an ocean. They are the leading cause of tsunamis. The magnitude can be measured scientifically by the use of either the Richter scale or the Mercalli scale. Understanding plate tectonics helps to explain the cause of submarine earthquakes. The Earth's surface or lithosphere comprises tectonic plates which average approximately 50 miles in thickness, and are continuously moving very slowly upon a bed of magma in the asthenosphere and inner mantle. The plates converge upon one another, and one subducts below the other. fig 5.1 Landslides: A landslide, also known as a landslip, is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. fig 5.2 Meteoroides: A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body travelling through space. Meteoroids are significantly smaller than asteroids, and range in size from small grains to 1 meter-wide objects. Smaller objects than this are classified as micrometeoroids or space dust. Most are fragments fromcomets or asteroids, while others are collision impact debris ejected from bodies such as the Moon or Mars. fig 5.3 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7
  • 19. 2011-GE-56 Tsunami: A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, generally an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. fig 5.4 How Tsunami Occurs: About two-thirds of the earth is covered by the waters of the four oceans. The Pacific Ocean is surrounded by a series of mountain chains, deep ocean trenches and island arcs, sometimes called a "ring of fire." The great size of the Pacific Ocean and the large earthquakes associated with the "ring of fire" combine to produce deadly tsunamis. Tsunami's can occur due to earthquake's, landslides on the sea floor, land slumping into the ocean, or from large volcanic eruptions. Most of them are caused by earthquakes. fig 5.5 Types of Tsunami: There are three main types of tsunami 1) Immediate Waves: These are generated locally by sudden lateral movements of walls. The water is pushed out of the way(push effect) and initially has nowhere to go but upwards. This temporary hump then collapses outwards in both directions, forming an almost instant response to the ground movement. these waves may climb very high, although the volume involved is not large. Alternatively, there may be a “pull” effect if a steep wall is dragged away from the water, but in this case the water will detach from the wall if the wall movement is sufficiently violent. 2) Seismic Seiches: Figure 5.8 Figure 5.9 Figure 5.10
  • 20. 2011-GE-56 These are generated by variations in the local vertical ground displacement (tilting effects). These waves are called a seiche because the response of the water body is dependent on its resonance properties, and will take the form of waves recurring at time intervals determined by the various natural frequencies. This type includes propagating waves generated by the collapse of Immediate Waves, but these tend to be minor compared with the effects of seismic tilting. 3) Classical Tsunami: These waves are open sea waves resulting from the action of gravity following the initiating short duration disturbance (or “bump”), with particular emphasis on the interaction between these waves and coastlines. If seabed displacement results from an earthquake, volcanic action, or submarine landslide,it results into this type of tsunami. Speed of tsunami: Tsunami wave speed is controlled by water depth. Where the ocean is over 6,000 meters (3.7 miles) deep, unnoticed tsunami waves can travel at the speed of a commercial jet plane, over 800 km per hour (500 miles per hour). Tsunamis travel much slower in shallower coastal waters where their wave heights begin to increase dramatically Wavelength of Tsunami: The wave length of Tsunami can be calculated by multiplying the value of speed to the time. The formula is : Distance= speed × time Detection of Tsunami: A tsunami warning system (TWS) is used to detect tsunamis in advance and issue warnings to prevent loss of life and damage. It is made up of two equally important components: a network of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to permit evacuation of the coastal areas. There are two distinct types of tsunami warning systems: international andregional. When operating, seismic alerts are used to instigate the watches and warnings; then, data from observed sea level height (either shore-based tide Figure 5.11
  • 21. 2011-GE-56 gauges or DART buoys) are used to verify the existence of a tsunami. Other systems have been proposed to augment the warning procedures. The DART System: In 1995 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began developing the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) system. An array of stations is currently deployed in the Pacific Ocean. These stations give detailed information about tsunamis while they are still far off shore. Each station consists of a sea- bed bottom pressure recorder which detects the passage of a tsunami. (The pressure of the water column is related to the height of the sea-surface) . The data is then transmitted to a surface buoy via sonar. The surface buoy then radios the information to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) via satellite. The bottom pressure recorder lasts for two years while the surface buoy is replaced every year. The system has considerably improved the forecasting and warning of tsunamis in the Pacific. Tsunami Alerts: 1) Severe ground shaking from local earthquakes may cause tsunamis. 2) As a tsunami approaches shorelines, water may recede from the coast, exposing the ocean floor, reefs and fish. 3) Abnormal ocean activity, a wall of water, and an approaching tsunami create a loud "roaring" sound similar to that of a train or jet aircraft. If you experience any of these phenomena, don't wait for official evacuation orders. Immediately leave low-lying coastal areas and move to higher ground Figure 5.12
  • 22. 2011-GE-56 Calculations: d1= 200m d2= 300m Speed= V= √gd Wavelength= vt Scale: 0.6cm= 1 hour 0.2cm= 0.33 hour= 20 min= 1200sec Velocities: V1= √9.81 × 2000 = 𝟏𝟒𝟎. 𝟏 𝒎/𝒔 V2=√9.81 × 3000 = 𝟏𝟕𝟏. 𝟓 𝒎/𝒔 Epicenter Distance: A= 1200 KM B= 1500 KM Time to Reach points: Epicenter of X Speed of X For Point A: T1= 1200 0.1401 = 8565sec = 142.75 min = 2 hrs, 22 min, 45sec T2= 1200 0.17155 = 1hr, 56 min, 35sec For Point B: Figure 5.13
  • 23. 2011-GE-56 T1= 1500 0.1401 = 2hrs, 58 min, 27sec T2= 1500 0.17155 = 2hrs, 25 min, 44sec Refrences: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki http://www.ask.com/question/how-does-a-tsunami-occur http://www.bom.gov.au/tsunami/info/ Lab#06
  • 24. 2011-GE-56 To study the attenuation relationship between epicenter distance and duration Theory: Attenuation of earthquake: The decrease in size, or amplitude, of the waves is called attenuation. Seismic waves also become attenuated as they move away from the earthquake source. The amplitude is largest where they are formed and gradually get smaller as they move away. Causes of attenuation: 1) Geometrical spreading: wavefront spreading out while energy per unit area becomes less. 2) Multipathing: waves seek alternative paths to the receiver. Some are dispersed and some are bundled, thereby affecting amplitudes. 3) Scattering: A way to partition energy of supposedly main arrivals into boundary or corner diffracted, scattered energy Deep drill holes reveal alternating layers of basalt and sediments. The basalt layers are lava flows from repeated volcanic eruptions occurring from 3.2 millions years ago to as recently as 2,100 years ago. During times in between volcanic eruptions, soils form and cover the basalt flows. The soils accumulate from wind blown dust, erosion of rocks due to precipitation in local drainages, and deposition of sediments from rivers (e.g., the Big Lost River) and occasional lakes (e.g., Lake Terreton). The passage of seismic waves through alternating layers of hard basalt (higher seismic velocities) and loosely consolidated sediments (lower seismic velocities) scatter and dampen seismic energy. The net effect is to reduce earthquake ground motions by 15 to 25% of the motions expected for uniform rock (all basalt and no sediment layers). An independent review panel convened by the State of Idaho and U.S. Department of Energy in 1997 concluded that alternating layers of basalt and sediments was highly effective in damping ground motion. They also concluded that the geometries of the sedimentary layers did not cause focusing or amplification of ground motions. Damping Process: The conventional approach to earthquake resistant design of buildings depends upon providing the building with strength, stiffness and inelastic deformation capacity which are great enough to withstand a given level of earthquake– generated force. This is generally accomplished through the selection of an appropriate structural configuration and the careful detailing of structural members, such as beams and columns, and the connections between them. In contrast, we can say that the basic approach underlying more advanced techniques for earthquake resistance is not to strengthen the Figure 6.1
  • 25. 2011-GE-56 building, but to reduce the earthquake–generated forces acting upon it. Among the most important advanced techniques of earthquake resistant design and construction are base isolation and energy dissipation devices. Base Isolation: It is easiest to see this principle at work by referring directly to the most widely used of these advanced techniques, which is known as base isolation. A base isolated structure is supported by a series of bearing pads which are placed between the building and the building's foundation. A variety of different types of base isolation bearing pads have now been developed. For our example, we'll discuss lead–rubber bearings. These are among the frequently–used types of base isolation bearings. A lead–rubber bearing is made from layers of rubber sandwiched together with layers of steel. In the middle of the bearing is a solid lead "plug." On top and bottom, the bearing is fitted with steel plates which are used to attach the bearing to the building and foundation. The bearing is very stiff and strong in the vertical direction, but flexible in the horizontal direction. Fig 6.2 Spherical Sliding Isolation Systems: As we said earlier, lead–rubber bearings are just one of a number of different types of base isolation bearings which have now been developed. Spherical Sliding Isolation Systems are another type of base isolation. The building is supported by bearing pads that have a curved surface and low friction. Shown in fig 6.3 Attenuation of EQ through different Media: The table given below (6.4) shows the velocities of primary waves through different materials: Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3
  • 26. 2011-GE-56 Table used for the Intensity, Epicenter distance and the Duration: Intensity Epicenter distance (km) Duration (sec) 1 0 0 0.99 10 1 0.98 20 1.9 0.95 30 3 0.89 40 4.5 0.85 50 5.8 0.74 60 7.8 0.6 70 10 0.4 80 12.5 0.2 90 14.8 0.18 100 15.8 Figure 6.4
  • 27. 2011-GE-56 0.15 110 16.7 0.11 120 18 0.09 130 19 0.05 140 20.1 0.03 150 20.8 0.02 160 21.4 0.01 170 22 Comments: From the graph attached we have concluded the following interpretations: Area 1: In this zone there is low ground shaking, but time duration of wave to pass through medium is very low, this is due to the presence of hard rock material in this area. Area 2: This is very crucial zone, in this zone duration of wave travel is increasing, which is showing that, there is a transition zone of hard to soft formation in this zone, as the distance is increasing, due to which ground motion is decreasing, or we can say intensity is decreasing. Area 3: This is the zone at which waves are taking much longer time to pass showing the presence of soft formation over there, and intensity is almost dead due to increase in epicentral distance.. So this zone is seismically safe area. Refrences: https://inlportal.inl.gov/portal/server.pt/community/inl_seismic_monitoring_program/441/atte nuation_effects/4378 http://mceer.buffalo.edu/infoservice/reference_services/adveqdesign.asp Lab#07 (A)
  • 28. 2011-GE-56 To study the techtonic map of Pakistan and to classify different areas of Pakistan on the basis of seismic danger zone Plate tectonics: It is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere. The model builds on the concept of continental drift which was developed during the first few decades of the 20th century. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (on Earth, the crust and upper mantle), is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. Where plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary; convergent, divergent, or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative movement of the plates typically varies from zero to 100 mm annually. Tectonic set up of Pakistan Earthquakes and active faults in northern Pakistan and adjacent parts of India and Afghanistan are the direct result of the Indian subcontinent moving northward at a rate of about 40 mm/yr(1.6 inches/yr) and colliding with the Eurasian continent. This collision is causing uplift that produces the highest mountain peaks in the world including the Himalayan, the Karakoram, the Pamir and the Hindu Kush ranges. As the Indian plate moves northward, it is being subducted or pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. Much of the compressional motion between these two colliding plates has been and continues to be accommodated by slip on a suite of major thrust faults that are at the Earth’s surface in the foothills of the mountains and dip northward beneath the ranges. These include the Main Frontal thrust, the Main Central thrust, the Main boundary thrust, and the Main Mantle thrust. These thrust faults have a sinuous trace as they arc across the foothills in northern India and into northern Pakistan. In detail, the modern active faults are actually a system of faults comprised of a number of individual fault traces. In the rugged mountainous terrain, it is difficult to identify and map all of the individual thrust faults, but the overall tectonic style of the modern deformation is clear in the area of the earthquake; north- and northeast-directed compression is producing thrust faulting. Near the town of Muzaffarabad, about 10 km southwest of the earthquake epicenter, active thrust faults that strike northwest-southeast have deformed and warped Pleistocene alluvial-fan surfaces into anticlinal ridges. The strike and dip direction of these thrust faults is compatible with the style of faulting indicated by the focal mechanism from the nearby M 7.6 earthquake.
  • 29. 2011-GE-56 Techtonic Map: Techtonic map is a map which is an easy approach to findout the techtonic activities happening in the world. Here in this lab we study the techtonic map of Pakistan which includes the five provinces. The severe seismic danger area is the balochistan and Kashmir area causing deathly earthquakes. Shown in fig 7.1 Abbreviations used in the Map: MKT: Main Karakoram Thrust MMT: Main Mantan Thrust MBT: Main Boundary Thrust Figure 7.14
  • 30. 2011-GE-56 MFT: Main Frontal Thrust MCT : Main central Thrust SRT: Salt Range Thrust Refrences: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics
  • 31. 2011-GE-56 Lab#07 (B) Seismic Danger Zones The map of Pakistan is divided into different zones according to the seismicity of different areas. The magnitudes of different earthquakes are given in the map. Explanations of the map symbols according to the magnitude of earthquakes: 1) Zone of serious seismic danger This area is safe from the seismic activity due to the fact that this zone is far away from the significant faults present in Pakistan. The historical background of the zone also indicates that there has been no significant hazardous earthquake occurred. M-7 to M-8 Acceleration: 0.3g to 0.8g The City included in this zone is only 1- Quetta 2) Zone of significant seismic danger This zone has some affect of seismic activity as it is near to the faulting zone as compared to low hazardous zone. M-6 to M-7 Acceleration: 0.15g to 0.3g The Cities included in this zone are 1- Chaman 2- Khost 3- Sibi 4- Kalat 5- Saidu Sharif 6- Chilas 7- Gilgit 8- Mor Khan 9- Chenab 3) Zone of noticeable seismic danger This zone is near to the main faults of Pakistan such as MBT, MKT, MMT and Chaman Fault. So these faults have greater influence on the areas present in this zone. History of these areas also reveals that this is highly affected by seismic activity. For example the earthquake of October 2005 affected these areas. M-5 to M-6 Acceleration 0.05g to 0.15g The Cities included in this zone are 1- Zhob 2- Dera Ismail Khan 3- Faisal Abad Figure 1 Figure 15
  • 32. 2011-GE-56 4- Sahiwal 5- Lahore 6- Nowshehra 7- Peshawar 8- Bannu 9- Bela 10- Karachi 11- Dalbandin 12- Nok kundi 4) Zone of least seismic danger This area is safe from the seismic activity due to the fact that this zone is far away from the significant faults present in Pakistan. The historical background of the zone also indicates that there has been no significant hazardous earthquake occurred. M below-5 acceleration below 0.05g The Cities included in this zone are 1- Bahawalpur 2- Sukkar 3- Mirpur Khas 4- Khairpur 5- Multan According to Geological Survey of Pakistan Quetta Lab#08 Figure 16 Figure 17
  • 33. 2011-GE-56 To study the tectonic map of earth and to mark global earth quake locations Theory: Theory of Plate Tectonics: It is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere. The model builds on the concept of continental drift which was developed during the first few decades of the 20th century. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (on Earth, the crust and upper mantle), is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. Where plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary; convergent, divergent, or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative movement of the plates typically varies from zero to 100 mm annually. Driving forces of plate motion: As stated earlier, in order to fully understand what drives the lithospheric plates of the Earth, we must first identify and understand the forces involved. A number of forces have been postulated since the dawn of the tectonic theory, including ridge push, slab pull, trench suction, collisional resistance, and basal drag (Forsyth et al., 1975; Richardson, 1992). In the past ten years, many scientists have begun to assume that the boundary and body forces of the plates, rather than the frictional drag produced by mantle convection, are the most dominant group of forces driving plate motions. Tectonic plates of earth: There are seven or eight big plates on earth and also a number of smaller ones. Some of them are given under: 1) Nazca Plate 2) North American Plate 3) South American Plate Figure 8.18
  • 34. 2011-GE-56 4) Eurasian Plate 5) India Australian Plate 6) African Plate 7) Arabian Plate 8) Philippine Plate 9) Antarctic Plate 10) Cocos Plate 11) Pacific Plate 12) Juan De Fuca Plate World Tectonic Map: Major Faults in the world: Plate Type Major Faulting pacific plate strike slip faulting north American plate strike slip faulting south American plate oblique faulting African plate normal faulting Eurasian plate normal faulting Antarctic plate strike slip
  • 35. 2011-GE-56 cocas plate reverse Nazca plate strike slip Australian plate strike slip Indian plate strike slip USA strike slip Russia strike slip China Oblique Japan Reverse Saudi Arabia strike slip Pakistan Reverse Europe normal Australia oblique Indonesia oblique Iran reverse India reverse Turkey strike slip south Africa normal
  • 36. 2011-GE-56 World Fault Line: Strike slip fault A type of fault whose surface is typically vertical or nearly sothe motion along a strike-slip fault is parallel to the strike of the fault surface, and the fault blocks move sideways past each other. A strike-slip fault in which the block across the fault moves to the right is described as a dextral strike-slip fault. If it moves left, the relative motion is described as sinistral. Fig 9.3 Normal fault A type of fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall and the fault surface dips steeply, commonly from 500 to 900 . Groups of normal faults can produce horst and graben topography. Fig 9.4 Figure 9.3
  • 37. 2011-GE-56 Reverse fault A type of fault formed when the hanging wall fault block moves up along a fault surface relative to the footwall. Such movement can occur in areas where the Earth's crust is compressed. Fig 9.5 Oblique-slip faults A fault that has a component of dip-slip and a component of strike-slip is termed an "oblique- slip fault." Nearly all faults will have some component of both dip-slip and strike-slip, so defining a fault as oblique requires both dip and strike components to be measurable and significant. Fig 9.6 Figure 9.4 Figure 9.5 Figure 9.6
  • 38. 2011-GE-56 Lab#09 Using the Edu Shake Software Proshake: A powerful, user-friendly program for one-dimensional, equivalent linear ground response analysis. ProShake is currently being used by more than 200 of the world's top consulting firms and research institutions. Download a copy of the ProShake Users Manual or, for a hands-on demonstration of ProShake's interface and capabilities, download a free copy of EduShake. EduShake: A free program for one-dimensional, equivalent linear ground response analysis. EduShake is equivalent to ProShake, but is restricted to the use of only eight different input motions, all of which are included with the program. EduShake Report Data File: Soil Profile Profile Name: UET Soil Water Table: 100.00 ft Number of Layers: 2 Layer Numb er Material Name Thickn ess (ft) Unit Weigh t (pcf) Gma x (ksf) Vs (ft/se c) Modulus Curve Damping Curve Mod. Param eter Damp Param eter 1 Soil 20.00 54.11 1,46 1.98 932. 37 Clay - PI=20- 40 (Sun et al.) Clay - Upper Bound (Sun et al.) 2 Dolerite Infinit e 57.29 3,13 2.82 1,32 6.40 Gravel (Seed et al.) Gravel (Seed et al.)
  • 39. 2011-GE-56 Input Motion Number of Motions: 2 Numeber of Iterations: 5 Strain Ratio: 0.65 Tolerance: 5.00% File Name No of Acc. Values Max. Acc. (g) Time Step (sec) Cuttoff Freq. (Hz) No of Fourier Terms Layer Outcro p 2 No No Output Locations Layer No Depth (ft) Outcrop 1 0.00 No Graph B/W Modulus Ratio and Shear Strain (Clay): Clay - PI=20-40 (Sun et al.) ModulusRatio Shear Strain (%) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
  • 40. 2011-GE-56 Graph B/W Modulus Ratio and Shear Strain (Clay): Graph B/W Damping Ratio and Shear Strain (Gravel): Clay - Upper Bound (Sun et al.) DampingRatio(%) Shear Strain (%) 0 10 20 30 40 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Clay - PI=20-40 (Sun et al.) ModulusRatio Shear Strain (%) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
  • 41. 2011-GE-56 Graph B/W Damping Ratio and Shear Strain (Clay): Clay - Upper Bound (Sun et al.) DampingRatio(%) Shear Strain (%) 0 10 20 30 40 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Gravel (Seed et al.) DampingRatio(%) Shear Strain (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
  • 42. 2011-GE-56 Graph B/w Modulus Ratio and Shear Strain (Gravel): Gravel (Seed et al.) ModulusRatio Shear Strain (%) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10