RISK AND MANAGEMENT
-By Md. Shafiqur Rahman
RISK AND MANAGEMENT
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized
by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement
of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location
and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such
as hurricane (/ˈhʌrɨkeɪn/ or /ˈhʌrɨkən/), typhoon /taɪˈfuːn/, tropical
storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.
LIST OF BANGLADESH TROPICAL CYCLONES
30–31 October 1960: A severe cyclonic storm hit Chittagong, Noakhali, Bakerganj,
Faridpur, Patuakhali and eastern Meghna estuary, with winds speed up to 210 km/h. The
storm surge reached a height of 4.5-6.1 m. Casualty: about 10,000 people, 27,793 cattle
. Losses: 568,161 houses destroyed (including 70% houses in Hatiya). Also, two large
ocean-going ships ran aground in the shore, and 5-7 vessels capsized inKarnaphuli
9 May 1961: A severe cyclonic storm hit Bagerhat and Khulna. It had wind speeds of up
to 161 km/h. The storm surge reached 2.44-3.05 m. Casualty: 11,468 people (mostly in
Char Alexander), 25,000 cattle. Damages: The railway tracks between Noakhali and
Harinarayanpur were damaged.
26–30 October 1962: A severe cyclone hit Feni. Maximum windspeed was 161 km/h. The
storm surge was 2.5-3.0 m. Casualty: about 1,000 people, many domestic cattle.
28–29 May 1963: A severe cyclonic storm devastated Chittagong, Noakhali, Cox's Bazar
and coastal islands of Sandwip, Kutubdia, Hatiya and Maheshkhali. The storm surge
reached 4.3-5.2 m in Chittagong. Maximum windspeed was up to 203 km/h and at Cox's
Bazar 164 km/h. Casualty: 11,520 people, 32,617 cattle. Damages: 376,332 houses,
4,787 boats, and standing crops.
11–12 May 1965: A strong cyclone hit Barisal and Bakerganj. The windspeed reached a
maximum of 162 km/h. The storm surge was 3.7 m. Casualty:19,279 people (out of that,
16,456 in Barisal).
14–15 December 1965: A strong cyclone hit the coast near Cox's Bazar and Patuakhali.
The storm surge rose up to 4.7-6.1 m. The windspeed was up to 210 km/h in Cox's
Bazar. Casualty" 873 people. Damage: 40,000 salt beds destroyed.
LIST OF BANGLADESH TROPICAL CYCLONES
1 October 1966: A cyclone hit Sandwip, Bakerganj, Khulna, Chittagong, Noakhali and Comilla.
Maximum strong surge was 4.7-9.1 m. The maximum wind speed was 146 km/h. Total people affected:
1.5 million people. Casualty: 850 people, 65,000 cattle.
7 November-13 November: The 1970 Bhola cyclone hit the entire coast of Bangladesh (then East
Pakistan). Most affected were Chittagong, Barguna, Khepupara, Patuakhali, north of Char Burhanuddin,
Char Tazumuddin and south of Maijdi, Haringhata. The official death toll was 500,000 but the number is
likely to be higher. Damages include destruction of approximately 20,000 fishing boats, and also
property and crops. Total loss of cattle reached more than one million. More than 400,000 houses and
3,500 educational institutions were destroyed. Maximum windspeed reached about 222 km/h. Maximum
storm surge was about 10.6 m.
5–6 November 1971: A cyclone hit coastal areas of Chittagong.
28–30 November 1971: A cyclonic storm hit the coast near the Sundarbans. Maximum wind speed was
97–113 km/h. The storm surge reached 1 m. Low lying areas of Khulna town inundated.
6–9 December 1973: The coastal areas near the Sundarbans were hit by a cyclone, accompanied by
storm surge. Coastal areas near Patuakhali and nearby islands were submerged under the tidal bore.
13–15 August 1974: A cyclonic storm hit Khulna. Maximum wind speed reached 80.5 km/h.
24–28 November 1974: A cyclone struck the coastal areas near Cox's Bazar and Chittagong, including
the offshore islands. Maximum wind speed reached 161 km/h. The storm surge was up to 2.8-5.2 m.
Casualty: 200 people, 1000 cattle. Damages: 2,300 houses destroyed.
9–12 May 1975: A strong cyclone pummeled Bhola, Cox's Bazar and Khulna. Maximum wind speed was
96.5 to 112.6 km/h. Casualty: 5 people.
9–12 May 1977: Khulna, Noakhali, Patuakhali, Barisal, Chittagong and offshore islands were hit by a
cyclone. Maximum wind speed was up to 112.63 km/h.
LIST OF BANGLADESH TROPICAL CYCLONES
14–15 October 1983: A strong cyclone hit the coastal islands and chars near Chittagong and Noakhali. Maximum
wind speed reached 122 km/h: Casualty: 43 people. 6 fishing boats and a trawler lost, more than 150 fishermen
and 100 fishing boats went missing Damages: 20% of the aman rice crops in the affected regions were
5–9 November 1983: A cyclone hit Chittagong, Cox's Bazar coast near Kutubdia, St Martin's Island, Teknaf,
Ukhia, Moipong, Sonadia, Barisal, Patuakhali and Noakhali. The maximum wind speed reached 136 km/h. The
storm surge was 1.52 m. Casualty:300 fishermen with 50 boats missing. Damages:2,000 houses destroyed.
24–25 May 1985: A severe cyclone hit Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Noakhali and coastal islands (Sandwip, Hatiya,
and Urirchar). Maximum wind speed at Chittagong was 154 km/h, at Sandwip was 140 km/h, at Cox's Bazar was
100 km/h. The storm surge reached a height of 3.0-4.6 m. Casualty:11,069 people, 135,033 cattle. Damages:
94,379 houses and 74 km of road, and embankments destroyed.
8–9 November 1986: A severe cyclonic storm hit the coastal island and chars near Chittagong, Barisal,
Patuakhali and Noakhali. Maximum windspeed was 110 km/h at Chittagong and 90 km/h at Khulna. Casualty: 14
people. Damages: 972 km² of paddy fields were inundated; Schools, mosques, warehouses, hospitals, houses
and buildings were destroyed at Amtali upazila in Barguna District.
24–30 November 1988: A severe cyclonig storm struck Jessore, Kushtia, Faridpur and coastal islands of Barisal
and Khulna. The maximum windspeed was 162 km/h. The storm was accompanied by a storm surge of 4.5 m
at Mongla Port. Casualty: 5,708 people, and numerous wild animals at The Sundarbans (deer 15,000,
Royal Bengal Tiger 9), cattle 65,000. Total damage to crops reached Taka 9.41 billion.
29–30 April 1991: The 1991 Bangladesh cyclone hit Bangladesh late 29 April night. The storm originated in the
Indian Ocean and reached the Bay of Bengal coast after 20 days. The diameter of the storm was close to 600 km.
The maximum wind speed (observed at Sandwip) reached 225 km/h. At other places, the maximum wind speed
was reported as follows: Chittagong 160 km/h, Khepupara (Kalapara) 180 km/h, Kutubdia 180 km/h, Cox's Bazar
185 km/h, and Bhola 178 km/h. (The NOAA-11 satellite estimated the maximum wind speed to be about
240 km/h at 1.38 pm on 29 April). The storm made landfall near the coast north of Chittagong port during the
night of the 29th April. The maximum storm surge height reached about 5 to 8 m. Casualty: 150,000 people,
70,000 cattle. Damages: loss of property was estimated at about Tk 60 billion.
LIST OF BANGLADESH TROPICAL CYCLONES
31 May-2 June 1991: A cyclone hit the coastal islands and chars near Patuakhali, Barisal,
Noakhali and Chittagong. Maximum wind speed reached 110 km/h. The storm surge was
29 April-3 May 1994: A severe cyclonic storm hit the coastal islands near Cox's Bazar.
Maximum windspeed reached 210 km/h. Casualty: 400 people, 8,000 cattle.
21–25 November 1995: A severe cyclonic storm hit the coastal islands near Cox's Bazar.
The maximum wind speed was up to 210 km/h. Casualty: 650 people, 17,000 cattle.
16–19 May 1997: A severe cyclonic storm hit the coastal islands and chars near
Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Noakhali and Bhola districts. The maximum wind speed was
225 km/hour, and the storm surge reached 3.05 metres. Casualty: 126 people.
25–27 September 1997: A severe cyclonic storm hit coastal islands near Chittagong,
Cox's Bazar, Noakhali and Bhola. It had wind speeds of up to 150 km/hour, and a storm
surge of 1.83 to 3.05 metres.
16–20 May 1998 A severe cyclonic storm with windspeed of 150 km/hour struck coastal
islands near Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, and Noakhali. The storm surge was from 1.83 to
19–22 November 1998: A cyclonic storm, with wind speeds up to 90 km/hour, and a
storm surge of 1.22 to 2.44 metres. hit coastal islands and sand shoals near Khulna,
Barisal, and Patuakhali.
November 15, 2007: Cyclone Sidr makes landfall on southern Bangladesh, causing over
2,000 deaths and severe damage.
Cyclone Sidr (JTWC designation: 06B, also known as Very
Severe Cyclonic Storm Sidr) was a tropical cyclone that
resulted in one of the worst natural disasters in Bangladesh.
The fourth named storm of the 2007 North Indian Ocean
cyclone season, Sidr formed in the central Bay of Bengal, and
quickly strengthened to reach peak 1-minute sustained winds
of 260 km/h (160 mph), making it a Category-5 equivalent
tropical cyclone on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. The storm
eventually made landfall in Bangladeshon November 15,
2007, causing large-scale evacuations. 3,447 deaths were
blamed on the storm.
Save the Children estimated the number of deaths associated
with the cyclone to be between 5,000 and 10,000, while the Red
Crescent Society reported on November 18 that the number of
deaths could be up to 10,000. International groups
pledgedUS$95 million to repair the damage, which was
estimated at $1.7 billion (2007 USD).
On November 9, an area of disturbed weather developed southeast of
the Andaman Islands, with a weak low-level circulation near the Nicobar Islands.
Initially moderate upper-level wind shear inhibited organization, while
strong diffluence aloft aided in developing convection.Vertical shear decreased
greatly as the circulation became better defined, and a Tropical Cyclone Formation
Alert was issued on November 11 while located a short distance south of the
Andaman Islands. Around the same time, the India Meteorological
Department (IMD) designated the system as Depression BOB 09. The Joint
Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) upgraded it to Tropical Cyclone 06B after Dvorak
estimates indicated winds of 65 km/h (40 mph). Later that day, it intensified into
a deep depression as it moved slowly north-westward.
The IMD upgraded the system to Cyclonic Storm Sidr early on November
12. The system then began to intensify quickly as it moved slowly
northwestward, and the IMD upgraded it to a severe cyclonic storm later that
day and a very severe cyclonic storm early the next day. On the morning of
November 15, the cyclone intensified to reach peak winds of 215 km/h (135 mph)
according to the IMD, and a peak of 260 km/h (160 mph) according to the JTWC
best track. Sidr officially made landfall around 1700 UTC later that day, with
sustained winds of 215 km/h (135 mph). It weakened quickly after landfall and
the final advisories were issued early on November 16. The name Sidr was
contributed by Oman; it is an Arabic name of a tree belonging to the
genus Ziziphus, specifically the Ziziphus spina-christi. There is another saying that
it is derived from the Sinhalese Language where "Sidr" means 'hole' or 'eye.
As it intensified to a Category 4-equivalent cyclone on
November 15, thousands of emergency officials were put on
standby in eastern India and Bangladesh in advance of the
storm's arrival. Forecast heights of the storm surge predicted
by a numerical model developed by Dr. Hassan Mashriqui
(Louisiana State University) was communicated to the
emergency response authorities in Bangladesh, prompting
a massive evacuations of low-lying coastal areas. A total of
2 million people in Bangladesh evacuated to emergency
shelters. The Indian Metrological Department (IMD) also
issued a cyclone alert for Orissa and West Bengal on
November 14. In Bangladesh, an emergency cabinet meeting
decided to withdraw weekly leave for the government officials
to join the evacuation process. Over 40,000 Red Crescent
volunteers were deployed to order residents in the 15 affected
provinces into special cyclone and flood shelters. The main
ports had been closed.
Coastal districts of Bangladesh faced heavy rainfall as an early impact of the
cyclone. Dhaka and other parts of Bangladesh experienced drizzle and gusty winds. Total
damages came close to $450 million.
Storm surges reaching up to a height of 3 metres (9.8 ft) were reported in the coastal
areas of north Chennai in southern state of Tamil Nadu in India, triggering panic among
the fishing community.
The damage in Bangladesh was extensive, including tin shacks flattened, houses and
schools blown away and enormous tree damage. Some local officials have described the
damage as being even worse than that from the 1991 cyclone. The entire cities
of Patuakhali, Barguna and Jhalokati District were hit hard by the storm surge of over
5 meters (16 ft). About a quarter of the world heritage site Sunderbans were damaged.
Researchers said mangrove forest Sunderban will take at least 40 years to recover itself
from this catastrophe. Much of the capital city of Dhakawas also severely affected, as
electricity and water service were cut and significant damage was reported there due to
winds and flooding. The local agricultural industry was also devastated, as many rice
crops — which have a December harvest — were lost.
At least 3,447 deaths have been reported. The hardest-hit area was Barguna, where
423 people were reported to have been killed, according to local officials. Patuakhali was
also hard-hit, with 385 deaths reported. Most of the deaths confirmed thus far were
due to the winds, although 13 of them have been as a result of capsized boats in
theFaridpur district of Bangladesh. The head of the Red Crescent in Bangladesh
expects the death toll to reach as high as 10,000. Over 3,000 other fishermen were
reported missing on over 500 fishing boats.
Cyclone Sidr slammed the highly vulnerable low lying densely
populated coastal areas of Bangladesh with heavy rain, winds of up
to 120 miles/hr, and a storm surge. Sidr may be the strongest
cyclone to hit the country since a cyclone killed over 143,000
Bangladeshis in 1991. Although, the death from Sidr number in the
hundreds but damage to homes, crops and livelihoods could be
extensive. Under a Cyclone Preparedness Program, volunteers
evacuated at least 600,000 Bangladeshis in the path of the storm.
Many are housed in 1,800 multipurpose disaster shelters built along
the coast. Relief organizations distributed seven-day emergency
disaster kits of food, blankets and clothing for evacuated families.
Since 1991, the donor community, including the US and EC, has
supported disaster-preparedness to mitigate the impact of tropical
storms and improve post-disaster relief and reconstruction. Cyclone
walls planted within trees are in place to protect vulnerable areas
from storm surges. Disaster shelters on stilts housing refugees plus
early warning systems and timely evacuations appear to have greatly
reduced the fatalities from Sidr. It did kill 3,447 people, but this was
much less than the 140,000 that died in 1991.
Cyclone victims lining up for
aid boats in Bangladesh
Houses damaged by the
DISASTER HOUSING FACILITIES
Building Shelter House Building Shelter House
AWARENESS PROGRAMS FOR PUBLIC
Through Text Books Demonstration of Book
AWARENESS PROGRAMS FOR PUBLIC
KEY PART-WARNING SYSTEM
Community Awareness Community Awareness
LAYERS OF AWARENESS PROGRAMME
d) First aid
e) Food and clothing
Public awareness is an integral and very important part
of cyclone preparedness activities for its successful
implementation. Keeping this in view,the Govt
implements the following public awareness activities in
various ways in the cyclone prone coastal areas:-
a) Public awareness through volunteers.
b) Cyclone drills and demonstration
c) Film/ Video Shows/folk songs
d) Publicity campaign
e) Radio and Television
f) Posters, leaflets and Booklets
g) Staging of drama
Govt now have 42675 active volunteers. These
volunteers are respected and becoming increasingly
integrated and influential within their community and
with the local government agencies. They exhibit a high
level of commitment to their programme and readiness
to meet the community equirements for better disaster
preparedness. Since the inception of cyclone
preparedness programme in 1972, a total of 178
depressions have formed in the Bay of Bengal out of
which 20 intensified into a severe cyclonic storm. The
programme faced all the situation with determination
and courage and gradually achieved greater success in
moving people to shelters and saving live and property
of the coastal people.
710 km long coast line of Bangladesh with numerous
off-shore islands are inhabited by 11 million people
who are direct beneficiaries of the programme and
they depend on Govt. Its devoted and committed
volunteers are well organised to face any
eventualities for saving lives and properties of their
own communities. These extra ordinary volunteers
team need to be supported for the very well being of
the 11 million coastal people of Bangladesh
Source: various google searches