MS SQL Server 2005  Lab # 3 :      Practicing Queries              Adavnced Database Programming   1
1. Practicing Company Database Example       Create Employee Table:        FNAME: First Name        LNAME: Last Name   ...
1. Practicing Company Database Example       Create Department Table:        DNAME: Department Name        DNUMBER: Dep...
1. Practicing Company Database Example       Create Project Table:        PNAME: Project Name        PNUMBER: Project N...
1. Practicing Company Database Example       Create Works_ON Table:        ESSN: Employee Social Security Number        ...
2. Simple Queries   Basic SELECT Form:    USE     database_name    SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT ] Column_List    From    table...
2. Simple Queries   Basic SELECT Form:    Column_List Specifications:        *  denotes for all columns of all tables  ...
2. Simple QueriesExample : Q: View all Departments info details A:     Use         Company     Select      *     From    ...
2. Simple Queries Example :Q: View all Employees Salary values  A:      Use         Company      Select ALL Salary      F...
2. Simple Queries   WHERE Clause Form:    USE          database_name    SELECT       Column_List    [ INTO       New_tabl...
2. Simple Queries   Clauses must be written in order   Comparison of strings are executed according to the    collation ...
Notes to be Mentioned !   DISTINCT Clause Must precede all Columns    list   Dates are stored in the table according to ...
2. Simple Queries   Example :    Q: View all Male employees SSN and    Department number who works in Departments    loca...
2. Simple Queries   Example :    Q: View all employees SSN who doesn’t work in    Departments number 43    A:       Use  ...
2. Simple Queries   Example :    Q: View all employees SSN who doesn’t work in    Departments number 43    A:       Use  ...
2. Simple Queries   Example :    Q: View all employees SSN who works in    project Number 125 Or project number 326    A:...
2. Simple Queries   Example :    Q: View all employees total salary    A:       Use        Company       Select     SUM(S...
2. Simple Queries   IN and BETWEEN Clauses :    USE        database_name    SELECT     Column_List    From       table1[t...
2. Simple Queries   IN and BETWEEN Clauses :    USE         database_name    SELECT      Column_List    From        table...
2. Simple Queries Example :  Q: View all employees First & Last Name who  their Salary is 20000 or 18500 or 16000A:      ...
2. Simple Queries Example : (Equivalent Solution)  Q: View all employees First & Last Name who  their Salary is 20000 or ...
2. Simple Queries Example :  Q: View all employees First & Last Name who  their Salary is Not 20000 or 18500 or 16000A:  ...
2. Simple Queries Example :  Q: View all employees SSN whose Salary is in  range between 4526 and 4700A:     Use        C...
2. Simple Queries Example : (Equivalent Solution)  Q: View all employees SSN whose Salary is in  range between 4526 and 4...
2. Simple Queries Example :  Q: View all employees SSN whose BDate is  NOT between 1/1/1960 and 4/3/1968A:     Use       ...
Queries Involving NULL values   Comparisons with NULL Values will always    return False   To Retrieve rows with NULL va...
Queries Involving NULL values   Example :    Q: View all Managers First & Last Name    A:       Use        Company       ...
Queries Involving NULL values Example :  Q: View all Employees SSN who are supervised  by Mangers  A:     Use        Comp...
Queries Involving NULL values   Using ISNULL System Function :SELECT          ISNULL(ColumnName,                Substitut...
Queries Involving NULL values Example :  Q: View all Employees First Name who are  supervised by Mangers(View their Super...
Like Operator   Compares column values with specified    pattern which can be any character or    DateTime data type     ...
Like Operator Example :  Q: View all Employees SSN who their First  Name starts with OA:     Use        Company     Selec...
Like Operator Example :  Q: View all Employees SSN who their Last  Name second letter is aA:     Use        Company     S...
Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^   Example :    [RangeStart-RangeEnd]  Range of Charac...
Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^ Example :  Q: View all department number who their  lo...
Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^ Example :  Q: View all department number which their l...
Like Operator Example :  Q: View all Employees SSN who their Last  Name doesn’t end with nA:     Use        Company     S...
Like Operator Example :  Q: How can i search for a String contains one of  the Wild characters ( [],_, ^, %)A:  By Using ...
Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^ Example :  Q: View all department number who their  lo...
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Sql server lab_3

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Sql server lab_3

  1. 1. MS SQL Server 2005 Lab # 3 :  Practicing Queries Adavnced Database Programming 1
  2. 2. 1. Practicing Company Database Example Create Employee Table:  FNAME: First Name  LNAME: Last Name  SSN: Social Security Number (Primary Key)  BDATE: Birth Date  ADDRESS: Employee’s Address  Gender: F (Female) OR M (Male)  SALARY  SUPERSSN: Employee’s Supervisor SSN  DNO: No. of the Department the Emp. Works in (Foreign Key) Adavnced Database Programming 2
  3. 3. 1. Practicing Company Database Example Create Department Table:  DNAME: Department Name  DNUMBER: Department Number (Primary Key)  DLOCATION: Department Location  MGRSSN: Manager Social Security Number (Foreign Key)  MGRSTARTDATE: Manager Work Start Date Adavnced Database Programming 3
  4. 4. 1. Practicing Company Database Example Create Project Table:  PNAME: Project Name  PNUMBER: Project Number (Primary Key)  PLOCATION: Project Location  DNUM: Department Number which Project belongs to (Foreign Key) Adavnced Database Programming 4
  5. 5. 1. Practicing Company Database Example Create Works_ON Table:  ESSN: Employee Social Security Number (Primary Key) + (Foreign Key)  PNO: Project Number (Primary Key) + (Foreign Key)  HOURS: Project Working Hours Adavnced Database Programming 5
  6. 6. 2. Simple Queries Basic SELECT Form: USE database_name SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT ] Column_List From table1[table2,….] WHERE conditions Adavnced Database Programming 6
  7. 7. 2. Simple Queries Basic SELECT Form: Column_List Specifications:  *  denotes for all columns of all tables specified in the FROM Clause  Specified Column name  Column_Name as Column_Heading  To Replace OR to assign a new column name to an expression  An Expression, System or Aggregate Function Adavnced Database Programming 7
  8. 8. 2. Simple QueriesExample : Q: View all Departments info details A: Use Company Select * From departmentOR Use Company Select DNAME,DNUMBER,DLOCATION, MGRSSN,MGRSTARTDATE From department Adavnced Database Programming 8
  9. 9. 2. Simple Queries Example :Q: View all Employees Salary values A: Use Company Select ALL Salary From employeeQ: View Distinct Employees Salary values A: Use Company Select DISTINCT Salary From employee Adavnced Database Programming 9
  10. 10. 2. Simple Queries WHERE Clause Form: USE database_name SELECT Column_List [ INTO New_table ] From table1[table2,….] [ WHERE conditions ] [ GROUP BY group_by_expression ] [ HAVING search_conditions ] [ ORDER BY order_expression[ASC|DESC] ] Adavnced Database Programming 10
  11. 11. 2. Simple Queries Clauses must be written in order Comparison of strings are executed according to the collation (Sort) order of the database ASCCI code Strings Comparisons will be done character-to-character according to the difference between their values (Even if their lengths are different) Priorities: NOT  AND  OR To avoid priorities conflicts, you may use parentheses () Adavnced Database Programming 11
  12. 12. Notes to be Mentioned ! DISTINCT Clause Must precede all Columns list Dates are stored in the table according to the system date format Dates are viewed in the Query Result according to the equivalent date in Gregorian Calendar To view them in Hijri Format Use: Select Convert(nchar(10),DateColumn,131) Adavnced Database Programming 12
  13. 13. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all Male employees SSN and Department number who works in Departments located in Riyadh A: Use Company Select SSN, DNumber From Employee, Department where Gender=‘M’ AND Dno=DNumber and DLocation=‘Riyadh’ Adavnced Database Programming 13
  14. 14. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees SSN who doesn’t work in Departments number 43 A: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where NOT DNumber=43 Adavnced Database Programming 14
  15. 15. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees SSN who doesn’t work in Departments number 43 A: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where DNumber<>43 Adavnced Database Programming 15
  16. 16. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees SSN who works in project Number 125 Or project number 326 A: Use Company Select ESSN From Works_On where PNO=125 OR PNO=326 Adavnced Database Programming 16
  17. 17. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees total salary A: Use Company Select SUM(Salary) Total_Salary From Employee Same way to use all other aggregate functions such as: MIN, MAX, AVG, COUNT ,COUNT_BIG Adavnced Database Programming 17
  18. 18. 2. Simple Queries IN and BETWEEN Clauses : USE database_name SELECT Column_List From table1[table2,….] WHERE Column_Name IN(value1, value2, value,…) Adavnced Database Programming 18
  19. 19. 2. Simple Queries IN and BETWEEN Clauses : USE database_name SELECT Column_List From table1[table2,….] WHERE Column_Name BETWEEN value1 AND value2 Adavnced Database Programming 19
  20. 20. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees First & Last Name who their Salary is 20000 or 18500 or 16000A: Use Company Select FNAME, LNAME From Employee where Salary IN (20000,18500,16000) Adavnced Database Programming 20
  21. 21. 2. Simple Queries Example : (Equivalent Solution) Q: View all employees First & Last Name who their Salary is 20000 or 18500 or 16000A: Use Company Select FNAME, LNAME From Employee where Salary=20000 OR Salary=18500 OR Salary=16000 Adavnced Database Programming 21
  22. 22. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees First & Last Name who their Salary is Not 20000 or 18500 or 16000A: Use Company Select FNAME, LNAME From Employee where Salary NOT IN (20000,18500, 16000) Adavnced Database Programming 22
  23. 23. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees SSN whose Salary is in range between 4526 and 4700A: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where Salary BETWEEN 4526 AND 4700 Adavnced Database Programming 23
  24. 24. 2. Simple Queries Example : (Equivalent Solution) Q: View all employees SSN whose Salary is in range between 4526 and 4700A: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where Salary >= 4526 AND Salary <= 4700 Adavnced Database Programming 24
  25. 25. 2. Simple Queries Example : Q: View all employees SSN whose BDate is NOT between 1/1/1960 and 4/3/1968A: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where BDate NOT BETWEEN ‘1/1/1960’ AND ‘4/3/1968’ Adavnced Database Programming 25
  26. 26. Queries Involving NULL values Comparisons with NULL Values will always return False To Retrieve rows with NULL values Use the Column_Name IS [NOT] NULL operator in the WHERE Clause Adavnced Database Programming 26
  27. 27. Queries Involving NULL values Example : Q: View all Managers First & Last Name A: Use Company Select FNAME, LNAME From Employee where SUPERSSN IS NULL Adavnced Database Programming 27
  28. 28. Queries Involving NULL values Example : Q: View all Employees SSN who are supervised by Mangers A: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where SUPERSSN IS NOT NULL[ Equivalent Sol. NOT (SUPERSSN IS NULL)] Adavnced Database Programming 28
  29. 29. Queries Involving NULL values Using ISNULL System Function :SELECT ISNULL(ColumnName, Substitution Value) NewColumnName FROM TableName  Note: Note  Substitution Value Must be same as column type Adavnced Database Programming 29
  30. 30. Queries Involving NULL values Example : Q: View all Employees First Name who are supervised by Mangers(View their SuperSSN as 0)A: Use Company Select FNAME, ISNULL(SuperSSN,0) Supervidesd From Employee Adavnced Database Programming 30
  31. 31. Like Operator Compares column values with specified pattern which can be any character or DateTime data type Column [NOT] LIKE ‘Pattern’ Pattern may be string or date constant or expression by using Wild Characters such as:  %  any sequence of zero or more characters  _  any single charcter Adavnced Database Programming 31
  32. 32. Like Operator Example : Q: View all Employees SSN who their First Name starts with OA: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where FName LIKE ‘O%’ Adavnced Database Programming 32
  33. 33. Like Operator Example : Q: View all Employees SSN who their Last Name second letter is aA: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where LName LIKE ‘_a%’ Adavnced Database Programming 33
  34. 34. Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^ Example : [RangeStart-RangeEnd]  Range of Characters [1stChar2ndChar..]  List of Characters ^  Negation of Range or List of Characters Adavnced Database Programming 34
  35. 35. Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^ Example : Q: View all department number who their location begin with a character in the range C through FA: Use Company Select DNumber From Department where DLocation LIKE ‘[C-F]%’ Adavnced Database Programming 35
  36. 36. Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^ Example : Q: View all department number which their location do NOT begin with the letters J,K,L,M,N,O and whose Department Name doesnt begin with letters E Or ZA: Use Company Select DNumber From Department where DLocation LIKE ‘[^J-O]%’ AND DName LIKE ‘[^EZ]%’ Adavnced Database Programming 36
  37. 37. Like Operator Example : Q: View all Employees SSN who their Last Name doesn’t end with nA: Use Company Select SSN From Employee where FName NOT LIKE ‘%n’ (NOT FName LIKE ‘%n’) Adavnced Database Programming 37
  38. 38. Like Operator Example : Q: How can i search for a String contains one of the Wild characters ( [],_, ^, %)A: By Using Square Brackets ‘[WildChar]’ OR By Using ESCAPE option Such as Column_Name LIKE ‘ESCAPECHARWildChar’ ESCAPE ‘ESCAPECHAR’ Adavnced Database Programming 38
  39. 39. Like Operator: More Special Characters forSearching Patterns [ ],^ Example : Q: View all department number who their location includes an UnderscoreA: Use Company Select DNumber From Department where DLocation LIKE ‘%[ _ ]%’ OR DLocation LIKE ‘%!_% ESCAPE ‘!’ Adavnced Database Programming 39
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