“Youth Entrepreneurship & Empowerment” (UN-HABITAT) 2007


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“Youth Entrepreneurship & Empowerment” (UN-HABITAT) 2007

  1. 1. Y outh entrepreneurship & empowermentU N I T E D N AT I O N S H U M A N S E T T L E M E N T S P R O G R A M M E
  2. 2. ContentsForeword .......................................................................................................................... 3Section 1 .......................................................................................................................... 5UN-HABITAT’s Philosophy ............................................................................................... 5Section 2 .......................................................................................................................... 7UN-HABITAT’s Strategies .................................................................................................. 7Section 3 .......................................................................................................................... 8What is Youth Entrepreneurship? ........................................................................................ 8Section 4 ........................................................................................................................ 18UN-HABITAT’s Targeted Measures in Youth Employment and Urban Renewal ............... 18Section 5 ........................................................................................................................ 20Resources .......................................................................................................................... 20Supporting Youth Entrepreneurship .................................................................................. 20Presenters List ................................................................................................................... 23
  3. 3. ForewordAt the Millennium Summit in September 2000, worldleaders agreed on a set of eight objectives called theMillennium Development Goals. Goal 8, Target 16,stipulates that governments “develop and implementstrategies for decent and productive work for youth indeveloping countries”. UN-HABITAT believes thatfostering entrepreneurship is a good way of meeting thistarget, as well as those related to sustainable develop-ment and employment. However, entrepreneurship isa useful way to promote self-employment among theyoung only if they get help with access to infrastructure,seed money, advice and other services that can be usedset up micro enterprises.Between now and 2010, 700 million young people aged15-24 will enter the labour market in developing coun-tries. According to the International Labour Organisa-tion, more than 1 billion new jobs must be created toreduce unemployment. Without a concerted effort, anew generation will grow up feeling it has no stake insociety. Conversely, we in the UN system passionatelybelieve that by harnessing the potential of the young,the world can benefit enormously from a new wave ofparticipation and intellectual creativity and help achievethe goals by the 2015 target date.Mrs. Anna Tibaijuka,Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations,Executive Director,UN-HABITAT
  4. 4. Section 1UN-HABITAT philosophyThe year 2007 has gone down in history ing countries, possess immense potential toas the year, when for the first time half of contribute to social development if affordedhumanity was living in towns and cities. In the right opportunities. These young peoplejust a generation to come, this figure will are the promise of the future, and failure torise to two-thirds of all human beings as the invest in the young generation will imposeworld witnesses the fastest rate of urbanisa- great constraints on the potential for futuretion yet recorded. Coincidentally, 2007 was development, and pose great dangers.also the year in which the global numberof slum dwellers reached 1 billion. How UN-HABITAT recognizes that youth em-will we cope with urban centres growing in ployment is vital for better living standardssize and growing in poverty? How will we and a sense of self worth. Sustained unem-cope with what has come to be called in ployment can make the young vulnerableUnited Nations parlance, the urbanisation to social exclusion and turn to crime. Thoseof poverty? Sub-Sahara Africa has the world’s who enter the workforce with limited jobfastest growing cities and slums. Its slum prospects, underdeveloped skills and inad-population today tops 200 million. It is a equate education are most at risk for long-continent where over 70 percent of urban term unemployment, intermittent spells ofAfricans live in slums. So how will Africa’s unemployment, and low-wage employmentyouth develop as leaders when faced with throughout their working lives.the highest rates of unemployment and thehighest levels of social exclusion?The rationale for UN-HABITAT’s intensi-fied focus on youth is the fact that a highproportion of the developing world’s popu-lation is young, and this segment of societyis inordinately affected by the problems ofunsustainable development. At the sametime, the target group of UN-HABITAT’sstrategy, urban 15-24 year-olds in develop-
  5. 5. Young participants at the YED. Photo © UN-HABITAT
  6. 6. Section 2UN-HABITAT strategiesYoung people require the best information The Global Partnerships Initiative has beenresources they can get when it comes to em- launched in Nairobi, Kampala, Kigali andployment, health, crime prevention, govern- Dar es Salaam. In February, 2007, a regionalance, gender equality, empowerment, rights planning meeting in Kampala, Uganda,and responsibilities. UN-HABITAT’s Glo- produced various recommendations for thebal Partnership Initiative for Urban Youth future of the programme and identified theDevelopment is one of these resources. It main principles of youth led development.regards young people as a major force fora better world. Thus, their empowerment Five Principles of Youth Ledthrough effective and meaningful partici- Development Developed by GPIpation in decision-making is crucial. The Partner CitiesGlobal Partnership Initiative is based oninnovative partnerships from neighbour- n Youth should define their own develop-hood level all the way through to the private ment goals and objectives.sector, schools and universities, the national n Youth should be given a social andand international levels. physical space to participate in develop- ment and to be regularly consulted.In partnership with cities and their young n Adult mentorship and peer-to-peerresidents across East Africa, UN-HABITAT mentorship should be encouraged.is trying out a programme to help young n Youth should be role models in or-people, especially those living in poverty, to der to help other youth to engage inget the information and skills they need for development.the job market. And it is with this in mind n Youth should be integrated into all lo-that One Stop Youth Centres have been set cal and national development pro-up in four cities complete with computers grammes and frameworks.provided by organizations such as Compu-ter Aid. These centres bring the world of thecyber café to those least able to afford it, andoffer training. Plans are being made to setup more such centres.
  7. 7. Section 3What is youth entrepreneurship?Youth entrepreneurship is a source of jobcreation, empowerment and economicdynamism in a rapidly globalizing world1.Effective youth entrepreneurship educationprepares young people to be responsible,enterprising individuals who become en-trepreneurs or entrepreneurial thinkers andcontribute to economic development andsustainable communities. UN-HABITAT’sYoung Entrepreneurs Day in Nairobi, April2007, welcomed young entrepreneurs anda broad range of partners to deliberate on aconcept of entrepreneurship that stimulatesboth personal initiative, as well as initiativesin a broad variety of organizations includingthe private sector and beyond.Following is a summary of stories of manyof the young entrepreneurs who participatedin the event. Criteria for youth entrepreneurship education,Consortium for Entrepreneurship Education Participants at the YED © UN-HABITAThttp://www.entre-ed.org/entre/criteria.htm
  8. 8. Knowing what government schemes Reaching out to your community forare available to you and how to access help - from soft loans to experiencedthem. advice.Emilie Shuuya - Namibia - “Planting, Poul- Chifundo Mikaya - Malawi - “Awonejitry and Weaving” Samosas” With approximately 70% of the Malawian“ Although born in a poor family, I always population below the age of 30, it is not sur- had big dreams. prising that the absence of economic growth ”Emilie Shuuya, 23, grew up in the Omu- and job creation strategies for youth poses a major challenge to the development of thesati Region of northern Namibia and knew country, let alone its youth. Chifundo’s ownfrom an early age that her family would experience motivated her to appeal to thenot be able to afford to send her to college. Commonwealth Youth Credit Initiative -Motivated by her dream of being self-suf- through the Malawi Rural Finance Companyficient and educating herself, she decided - to start her samosa business. She was grant-to start up a business from home, from hair ed a 107USD loan and through a series ofbraiding to weaving to selling marula nuts. training session, was able to learn credit man-The Namibia Youth Credit Scheme soon agement skills, basic rules of economics, andoffered Emilie a place in a business-training the intricacies of group dynamics in business.programme where she learned management, Two years into her business, 23 year-old Chi-market research, stocktaking skills, and fundo is able to pay for school fees for bothhow to prepare budgets and business plans. herself and her siblings, and has opened up aThe programme also provided her with a bank account. Some of her strategies were to70USD loan, with which she invested in her offer promotional prices, charge interest tobusiness and was able to pay back within six late debt payers, collaborate in joint ventures,months. Since last year, Emilie’s business has and minimize drawings from her businessexpanded along with her objectives; she is funds before knowing her profit levels. Innow interested in creating employment and her advice to others, Chifundo says, “Whenincome, and promoting Namibian art in the there is something important happening, wename of alleviating poverty. To date, Emilie always try to get feedback from our commu-has been able to supply crafts for local and nity; the elders come and visit us and discussnational markets, has created two jobs for our problems with us.”other youth, and has contributed to herown family’s income. In some lasting andimportant words, Emilie is confident in ex-claiming, “I make sure to pay myself a salaryevery month!”
  9. 9. Adelina Ampilla - Tanzania - “Kiroyera Albert Nashon Odhoji - KenyaTours” - “Slumcode”“ When starting a new business a strong “ You have to try to link community, govern- effort needs to be made in marketing, link- ment and support agencies to further your ing and networking with various local goals, and you’ve got to strive to see a long- stakeholders and community members. This term employment vision instead of getting way, the community will be more likely to distracted by insubstantial, short-term eventually accept the new service. returns. ”The high poverty rate of Kagera region in ” Having grown up in heart of Starehe slumTanzania prompted Adelina to consider in the outskirts of Nairobi, Albert and histourism as a way to alleviate some of the peers saw how economic hardships causedproblems her community was facing. She most youth to rally behind initiatives thatcarried out research within her community delivered quick returns, and to avoid po-and approached local leaders, appealing tentially risky long-term projects. Albert,for their support. She also networked with however, wanted to use his personal poten-service providers such as hoteliers, bankers, tial through positive means, for the benefittransporters and other existing tour opera- of his community. This empowerment, ex-tors. Challenges faced from the outset, how- plains Albert, “Leads to youthful participa-ever were; low levels of literacy within the tion in effective leadership, governance andcommunity, little knowledge about tourist decision-making.” Today, Slumcode sup-source markets, and poorly developed infra- ports and supplements government initia-structure in the Kagera region as a whole. tives through resource mobilization and fa-Adelina and her partners attempted to solve cilitation of community development agen-the problems through public tourism aware- das. Resources have been collected directlyness campaigns and vigorous marketing from Slumcode members themselves, as thestrategies at national and international tour- group has never relied on donor agencies.ism fairs. The results have been outstanding. Even with fleeting amounts which come andTourism rates have increased every year, and go, however, the group has been able to sup-the programme remains in the hands of lo- port income-generating initiatives carriedcal people for their own profit. Adelina be- out by garbage collection groups, environ-lieves that, “The local community is a very mental conservation campaigners, HIV/important asset in developing tourism. One AIDS support groups and performing andhas to keep close links and continually listen visual artists. As Albert explains, “We neverto their ideas.” wanted to start an organization based on the availability of funds, but instead, build a personal profile which can later be used to solicit funding. This ensures an organization10
  10. 10. is made up of a strong and dedicated start- communities spread across the Korogochoup team.” territory. Out of this group, an executive body of 10 people holds the office for 3Ogola Oluoch Japheth - Kenya - “People years. There are also working groups calledUnited for a New Korogocho” the Huduma, comprised of another set of representative members, who render specific“ Rich is he who has a dream, even without charitable services to the whole community. coins in his pocket. At the moment, “People United for a New ”Japheth is proud to exclaim that his project, Korogocho” has 20 projects targeting street children, women, and schools in the slum.“People United for a New Korogocho”, is a To name a few: the Boma Rescue Centre is awinner of the Milgap Award, a UN-HABI- day centre for the recovery and re-educationTAT award programme for local projects of street children who work in the rub-that have contributed to leadership within bish dump; the Korogocho Street Childrencommunities. He emphasizes, however, that Programme is a street work and commu-all the youth are partners in the process of nity centre for 40 children who sniff glue;winning. St. John’s Sports Society uses ten different“In the past,” says Japheth, “Korogocho games to help young talents to emerge andslum was known as a place of criminals, to prevent crime, drugs and alcohol abuse;and at the bad end of a lot of media stories. Bega Kwa Bega is a women’s cooperativeNow it is full of good stories.” This change that produces wonderful ethnic artisanship;is in due thanks to a lot of hard work by and finally, Mukuru Recycling Centre isJapheth and his fellow youth, as well as the a co-operative that sees 40 young peoplededicated sponsorship of St. John’s Catholic recycling materials from the rubbish dumpChurch. Japheth explains that the project daily. “We believe that the future of ourbelieves in a reintegration strategy, which community is in the hands of women andtargets those young people who are looking youths. Therefore they are the main focus ofto get back to the ordinary market economy. our projects.” Japheth further explains thatThe project is housed in Korogocho itself, the Sustainability of their programme laysrun by volunteers, made up of both youth in the fact that the ideas for projects comefrom the community and members of St. from the community itself, thereby instill-John’s church. No one is making a salary ing a sense of ownership amongst the resi-yet, but as increased efforts are put into the dents, ensuring the long-term success of thedifferent income generation programmes, projects, and their ability to be replicated.there is a likely potential for youth to profit. “People United for a New Korogocho” are founders and promoters of a network of“People United for a New Korogocho” slum communities where ideas and chal-is lead by a Baraza, a body consisting of lenges are shared to help others with similarelected representatives from 26 smaller projects in their own environments. 11
  11. 11. Approaching financial institutions Spotting a niche market for a productfor a start-up loan, using targeted where there is an absence of a locallymarketing devices and building a made alternative.solid working team. Juliet Nakibuule - Uganda - “MakaPads”Ndanga Levy Michel Shirishize - Burundi Just a few years ago, little did Juliet know- “InfoMarket” that she would play a large role in the pro- duction and distribution of the first African-“ My experience in business is that it is not made sanitary pad. Indeed, upon graduating an easy thing. You have to be careful and from university, Juliet had joined the ranks work hard or otherwise you can lose every- of many youth who could not find a job. Af- thing. ter applying for training with the innovator ”While working at a brewery in internet of the *MakaPads technology Dr. Musaazi Moses, however, Juliet was intrigued sotechnology support, Shirishize looked for a much that she offered to train other girlsway he could use his skills to employ him- on how to seal the pads, soon realizing thatself, as well as help other young people de- there existed a large business potential invelop their own computer skills. With a loan the their production. As she explains, “Allfrom the Banque de Gestion et de Finance- processes are decentralized so that process-ment, he was able to start a cyber café with- ing the papyrus and waste paper, making thein his community in 2004. Profiting from absorbent, softening and sizing the paper,this venture alone, however, was not enough sterilizing, and packing the pads all allow forfor Shirishize - he wanted to contribute to different people to be gainfully employed.”the much-needed capacity building of his Juliet now supplies pads to NGOs, as wellfellow Burundian peers. Thus, Shirishize as United Nations High Commission forcommitted himself to his vision, and now Refugees, and the Government of Ugandathree years on, he owns two cyber cafes with has also recently ordered thirty thousand13 computers each, as well as one training pads, to be distributed in school across theroom where he instructs fellow youth in country. Juliet is now 26 years old and hasinternet technology. Shirishize believes he 17 employees working for her; the first threehas such a strong customer base because of who were previously unemployed, are nowhis low fees, regular radio advertisements, making 600USD a month. Meanwhile, theand his pure hard work -often putting in actual papyrus plants stay intact, the com-more than 12 hours a day. “My workplace munity is engaged in production withoutenvironment is encouraging and upbeat. the use of any chemicals, the pads are avail-Every Monday we have a meeting with all able at 27US cents for a packet of ten, andthe employees to assess how the work went the girl-child stays in school no matter whatthe last week.” the time of month. *MakaPads was shortlisted for the BBC’s World Challenge Awards - 20071
  12. 12. Finding a way to inspire and September 2000, to find likeminded peo-empower others in a way you have ple, mobilize resources, and establish thebeen motivated yourself. Become a NGO, “Echoes”. The objective of “Echoes”mentor who promotes other youth is to train and empower female students soentrepreneurs! that they build their self-confidence and are enabled to take active leadership rolesOlafyinfoluwa Oluwatosin Taiwo - Nigeria in the development of their communities.- “Echoes” “Echoes” also trains female students to acquire vocational skills like hairdressing,“ I have had the rare privilege of translating dressmaking, bead production, shoe and my vision into reality. ”As a student at the University of Ibadan, bag production from local hides and skin, interior decoration, pottery, and portrait production. Female students are also taughtTaiwo saw how the institution was becom- business and management strategies, com-ing infamous for the growing increase of munication skills and information technol-prostitution, as well as the levels of dis- ogy. “Echoes” has contributed immensely tocrimination and molestation against female youth employment as female students arestudents. After she discovered there was now gainfully employed, and there has beennot a single female-focused organization a sharp decline in female prostitution ratesin the university, nor a forum for exchang- around campus.ing information, Taiwo was motivated in 1
  13. 13. Researching what youth can directly since trained 120 youth at the ‘Blacksmith produce for their communities, using Training Center’ in technologies that will a peer-to-peer skill that ensures enable the youth to establish their own transferability. blacksmith ventures in their respective com- munities. “Youth from the street can use Reuben Mtitu - Tanzania - “Kisangani the technologies they’ve learned to sustain Smith Group” themselves, thus reducing the rate of crime Ten years ago, Reuben conducted research that would otherwise be brought about by into possible simple agricultural tools which these idle people in our society.” As a young could be used by smallholder farmers in entrepreneur, Reuben has noted that if one Tanzania. The product of this investigation wants to succeed in business, he or she has is the now widely known and hugely suc- to observe certain factors such as undertak- cessful “Kisangani Smith Group”. Reuben, ing persistent market research, producing 29, explains that his group started simply as quality products at all times, and advertising a vendor, and activities were being done in the business through the media. Reuben an open space because they could not meet feels the fruits of his efforts has have been the cost of owning a workshop. When they realized as he now collects a fixed salary of achieved financial sustainability and formal 95USD every month, and at the same time, registration in 2000, they were finally able sees his peers opening their own businesses to buy a plot of land where their workshop in their rural homes. is now based. Reuben and his partners have 1Photo © UN-HABITAT
  14. 14. Localizing action - initiating and Identifying what your city orlobbying for support of a regional government is not providing for youryouth programming network based neighbourhood, and approachingon others existing internationally. the authorities to find a way to fill the gap.Patrick Dueme Safi - Democratic Republicof Congo - “AEO for Youth - Green TV” Claire Tembo - Zambia - “Helen Kaun- da Community Enterprise Garbage“After the creation of UNEP’s (United Na- Collection”tions Environment Programme’s) - AfricanEnvironment Outlook in Uganda in 2002,”explains Patrick, “African experts realized “ There were so many youth doing absolutelythey needed to associate with youth.” This nothing in the neighbourhood.was the genesis for what is now “AEO for ” Just over a year ago, Claire realized that dueYouth”, created under the auspice of the to an obvious lack of capacity in the LusakaUNEP, and for the benefit of hundreds of City Council to collect garbage in the city,enthusiastic youth like Patrick. Recognizing she was going to have to beautify her neigh-both a local gap and opportunity, Patrick bourhood herself. Within a few months, shewas part of an initial team that helped in had established a Community Based Enter-creating networks of this programme at the prise, which would eventually be incorpo-local levels in the Democratic Republic of rated in 2006, and initiated a partnershipCongo. Realizing it was, indeed, a job crea- with the Lusaka City Council by way of ation opportunity, over 2500 youth from all 1000USD loan. This money went primarilyover the country signed up. It was precisely to the procurement of tools and rentingthis overwhelming response that encour- a shop at the market. As for human re-aged Patrick and his peers to come up with sources, all Claire had to do was look at thedifferent environmental projects and initia- idle youth around her community and shetives for these youth. This prompted visits quickly had a committed and enthusiasticto several TV channels in the Democratic crew. Her team’s objective was to provide anRepublic of Congo in hopes of creating effective and efficient solid waste collectionopportunities and experiences for youth service for the residents of Helen Kaundainterested in reporting on the environment. locality, and to collect revenue from everyGreen TV was born. Four years on, this household being serviced. At present, theenvironmental education reality programme Helen Kaunda Community Garbage Collec-regularly instills its young reporters with tion team has managed to bring 420 clientspractical production and reporting skills and on board and has created employment forprepares them for the job market. Along the about 8 youth, with a strong likelihood forway, it has become the Democratic Republic growth. Claire explains that with the highof Congo’s most popular youth programme levels of unemployment in Zambia, youthson the air. are ready to do anything to make ends meet. 1
  15. 15. Although only able to provide themselveswith about 20USD a month, members ofthe Helen Kaunda Community EnterpriseGarbage Collection team are now able tosupport their siblings and sponsor them-selves in tertiary education.Ogunbanke Aduragbemi - Nigeria - “LesMediques Francais”“ We await the dawn of the day when Les Mediques Francais will be a world re- nowned non-profit organization that has effectively used language to heal the sick.Prior to his initiation of the Les Mediques ”Francais project, Ogunbanke realized thatfew students had an international outlookon health delivery. Indeed, most had verylittle exposure to foreign cultures, and werepoorly prepared to function in a linguisti-cally diverse setting. In order to get aroundthis, Ogunbanke realized the need forexpanding the geographical functionality Photo © Les Mediques Francaisof future doctors and making it possiblefor doctors to reach out to communitiesbeyond their own locality. Ogunbanke, in private and commercial patrons. Ogun-essence, embarked on an initiative of break- banke explains that Les Mediques Francaising language barriers in the name of health. has opened a bank account to ensure properLes Mediques Francais has now been able monitoring of fund transfers, and has en-to spread their vision and have trained 12 gaged in aggressive marketing/campaigningvalue-added bilingual doctors, established attempts in the media and on the internet.several French language schools in various Ogunbanke believes perseverance, innova-colleges of medicine, expanded the health- tion and a division of labour will keep Lesreach of medical practitioners, and organ- Mediques Francais moving forward in leapsized voluntary community oriented initia- and bounds. “A benchmark of our success istives to promote preventive health care prac- all the lives that have been touched by ourtices. Financial resources come from dues project.”regularly paid each month by Les MediquesFrancais members, as well as grants from1
  16. 16. Discovering ways to increase the Abenet Abite and Milkias Bonke - “Ethio-power of your degree and your pia Kindergarten Project” and “Tebeb Tra-entrepreneurial spirit through a ditional Cloth Producers and Distributors”school-to-work strategy, allowing forpractical work experience before yougraduate! “ Even as a student, you can come to a better understanding of the current market andJean-Blaise Adjeklakara Mossus - Senegal the challenges faced by fellow stakeholders,- “Veterinary School of Dakar: Junior thereby increasing the likelihood of yourUndertaken” own success in the field.Jean-Blaise’s colleagues and friends at the ” Abenet and Milkias explain that the educa-Dakar Veterinary School decided to form a tion level in Meketeya, Ethiopia, is suffer-company of young veterinary surgeons, creat- ing due to the lack of qualified educationing a framework for practical work experience centres. Thus, they decided they wantedthat would allow recent graduates to more to contribute to providing education andeasily enter into the professional world. “It improving their society’s capacity. Theyis difficult,” explains Jean-Blaise, “to suc- asked themselves questions like, “Why areceed in Africa where nothing is done to help young children not attending school?”, andyoung graduates”. Therefore, under his own in search of answers, collected informationinitiative, Jean-Blaise accumulated as much about the current situation through face-experience as he could in health and livestock to-face interviews with members of theirproduction, the designing and installation community. They realized that by open-of livestock buildings, and the setting up of ing a good kindergarten with fair fees, thequality control levels in the food industry. He community would benefit. Moreover, evenestablished Junior Undertaken to reinforce though they were students themselves, theythe capacities and competences of his peers saw how they could change both their livesin these fields and to encourage the spread and the lives of those around them. Abenetof entrepreneurial spirit. From their school, and Milkias also established the “Tebeb Tra-the group received a start-up budget of about ditional Cloth Producers and Distributors”9400USD, used for the installation and company, with the objectives of advertisinglaunch of the project’s structure. In terms of and promoting their products, to open aits operations, sources of finances are through series of good standardized shops, and toservices rendered, bank loans, and gifts. Since sell online through the internet. By the time2000, his team has carried out research in they graduate, they emphasize, they willthe field of health and livestock production have had solid work experience with whichin over 14 countries in Africa. Jean-Blaise be- to use as professionals entering the work-lieves it becomes necessary to have a creative force.spirit and entrepreneurial instinct in order tosolve the problems of unemployment amongstAfrica’s youth. 1
  17. 17. Section 4UN-HABITATTargeted measures in youth Public Sectoremployment and urban renewal One role is as a direct employer, by hiringPolicy instruments that are available at the youth in public administration or for publicmacro level to fight economic downturns works projects. A growing area of concernand avoid higher unemployment (e.g. mon- is that the construction and maintenance ofetary, fiscal, trade and exchange rate poli- infrastructure in some countries has beencies), are not normally in the purview of lo- taken over by multinational public workscal governments, nor are they differentiated enterprises which use more capital intensiveenough to address the problems of specific rather than labour-intensive methods. Theslums or municipal areas. This is not to say public sector can also provide vital socialthat macro-economic policy has no effect on services, which are instrumental in creatingurban renewal and youth employment, since employment and fostering social integrationgeneral improvements in the economy and and intergenerational solidarity. In develop-reductions in unemployment should result ing countries, it is interesting to note that inin some improvement in the livelihoods of many poor urban areas, civil society groupsthe urban poor as well as young people. have been mobilized to provide social serv- ices in the absence of government provision,The disproportionate disadvantages of and there is a high level of youth participa-urban youth, however, calls for more tar- tion in these volunteer activities.geted measures. Opportunities for new orstrengthened initiatives targeting urban Globalization and World Marketyouth specifically can be envisioned in the Expansionfollowing areas2: Globalization and world market expansion provide space for labour intensive industrial growth, which can particularly benefit ur- ban areas in general and unemployed youth in particular.2 Youth Employment and Urban Renewal,UN-HABITAT Discussion paper, draft 2,4 October2004.1
  18. 18. Inter-Sectoral Partnerships Opportunities Fund for Urban Youth-led DevelopmentThe public sector can engage the private sec-tor in promoting youth employment through The 21st Governing Council of UN-HABI-policies that grant private sector employers TAT in April 2007, agreed to establish thisvarious incentives for hiring youth. These fund by which to support youth-led initia-incentives can take the form of tax rebates, tives in pursuance of the HABITAT agendawage subsidies or loosening of employment within the following areas:regulations. There are also good opportuni-ties for the public sector, especially local gov- n Mobilization of young people toernments, to engage with civil society organi- help strengthen youth-related policyzations on strategies to address urban youth formulation;unemployment. Expansion and strengthen- n Building the capacities of governmentsing of social services in the context of urban at all levels, non-governmental and civilrenewal initiatives should give high priority society organizations and private sectorto establishing formal partnerships with civil entities to ensure a better response tosociety organizations, including local groups the needs and issues of young people;as well as national and international NGOs, n Supporting the development of inter-with a conscious focus on employing young est-based information and communica-people. tion-oriented networks; n Piloting and demonstration of new andInformal Sector Expansion innovative approaches to employment, good governance, adequate shelter andOutside of agricultural activities, the bulk of secure tenure;informal sector employment is in urban or n Sharing and exchange of informationsemi-urban settlements, characterized by low on best practices;productivity, inadequate incomes and poor n Facilitating vocational training andor even exploitative working conditions. This credit mechanisms to promote en-sector however, provides an easily exploitable trepreneurship and employment foropportunity for employment and sustained young people, in collaboration withlivelihoods, for skilled and unskilled labour the private sector and in cooperationalike. Strategies to promote the informal with other United Nations bodies andsector have tended to focus on improving stakeholders;access to credit, technical and business train- n Promoting equal opportunities for bothing, improved infrastructure, and marketing young men and women in all activitiesskills. Demand-sided issues need to be fur- of urban youth development.ther examined, including linkages betweenthe formal and informal economies, wherethe formal private sector can gain from fos-tering the growth of new business that sup-ply their production needs.26 1
  19. 19. Section 5ResourcesSupporting Youth Entrepreneurship viating poverty and HIV/AIDS. One of the programmes, ‘African Young Entrepreneurs’,The following are both existing initiatives is intent on increasing the entrepreneurialand long-term strategies which are promis- capabilities of young people in Africa bying an increased focus on youth employ- providing them with knowledge and practi-ment and the institutionalization of youth cal skills that would assist them in becomingentrepreneurship self-reliant.Youth Business International, an initiative KIVAof International Business Leaders Forum(www.youth-business.org) (www.kiva.org) KIVA lets the public con- nect with, and invest in outstanding entre-Youth Business International is an interna- preneurs from impoverished communitiestional network of programmes helping dis- worldwide. By choosing a business on KIVA.advantaged young people. org, one can “sponsor a business” and helpInternational Youth Foundation workers in developing nations make great(www.iyfnet.org) strides towards economic independence. As the particular business starts profiting, theThe International Youth Foundation works sponsor gets his or her loan repaid.in some 70 countries to improve the condi-tions and prospects for young people. Es- The Seed Initiative (Supporting Entrepre-tablished in 1990, it works with hundreds neurs in Environment and Development)of companies, foundations, and civil society (www.seedinit.org) The Seed Initiative aimsorganizations to give youth better prospects to inspire, support and build the capacity ofby promoting education, employability, locally driven entrepreneurial partnershipsleadership, and health education. to contribute to the delivery of the Millen-Empowering Africa Program nium Development Goals. The initiative(www.a/esec.org) focuses on ‘business as unusual’ - innova- tive action delivering real solutions throughEmpowering Africa Program is a continent- project cooperation among small and largewide network initiative geared towards alle- businesses, local and international NGOs,0
  20. 20. women’s groups, labour organizations, pub- principles that, when adhered to, will helplic authorities and UN agencies, and others provide decent work for young people.working in the field of sustainable devel-opment. The annual Seed Awards are an The Youth Employment Summit (YES)international competition to find the most Campaignpromising new entrepreneurial or innova- (www.yesweb.org)tive, locally driven partnerships for sustain- The YES Campaign brings together di-able development. verse stakeholders, and works with them to develop the capacity of youth to lead em-The Youth Employment Network ployment initiatives, to promote youth em-(www.ilo.org/yen) ployment to address key development chal-The Secretary General’s Youth Employment lenges, and to build in-country coalitions toNetwork was established to act as a vehicle develop national strategies addressing youthto address the global challenge of youth em- unemployment. The YES Campaign and theployment. As a joint initiative of the United UN Industrial Development OrganizationNations, World Bank and International have also explored ways to promote youthLabour Organization, the Network views employment and entrepreneurship throughyoung people as partners in devising solu- renewable energy technologies and value-tions to a common problem and seeks to added agro-business.support their aspirations rather than imposeperceived ‘needs’ upon them. The four top TakinglTGIobalpriorities for all national action plans are: (www.takingitglobal.org)employability, equal opportunities between TakinglTGIobal.org serves as the mostyoung men and women, entrepreneurship, popular online community for young peo-and employment creation. ple interested in connecting across cultures and making a difference. They work withThe International Labour Organization’s global partners- from UN agencies, to majorYouth Employment Team companies, and especially youth organiza-(www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/ tions - to build the capacity of youth for de-strat/yen/network/index.htm) velopment, artistic and media expression, toThe International Labour Organization’s make education more engaging, and to in-Youth Employment Team was established to volve young people in global decision-mak-strengthen its technical activities and policy ing. TakinglTGlobal houses a business andmessages on youth employment within the entrepreneurship initiative called YouthBiz,context of the International Labour Organi- and regularly hosts global entrepreneurshipzation’s Global Employment Agenda. The conferences and workshops.ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principlesand Rights at Work provides a basic set of 1
  21. 21. Commonwealth Youth Credit Initiative Street Kids International(www.thecommonwealth.org) (www.streetkids.org) SKI conducts trainingThe Commonwealth Youth Credit Initia- in over 20 countries to help young peopletive helps young business people assess their development new skills. A new initiativecredit needs, develop their entrepreneurial called the Street Banking Toolkit, builds oncapabilities, and it provides loans. lessons from Street Kids International’s oth- er business programmes, and provides youth with skills to save and manage loans. A number of overall strategies for UN-HABITAT’s work with youth were captured during Young Entrepreneurs’ Day. From the youth themselves, the top suggestions were:Increased resources for youth entrepreneursDirectly reaching out to youthFacilitating youth tenders for suppliersInvolving youth in forum’s and event’s organizationLobbying for youth in informal sectorIncreased programming in games and sportsPromoting best practicesSetting up an autonomous body to manage the youth fundHaving more forums like the YEDProtecting markets and fighting dumpingWorking on slum youth challenge awardsFacilitating dialogue with municipalities and functional centresCreating dialogue between youth and investorsSecuring neighbourhoodsAllowing for fair wagesEncouraging a market focus from governmentsEnabling access to policy makersKeeping adolescent girls in schools
  22. 22. UN-HABITAT YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS’ PRESENTERS LIST1. Emilie Shuuya Namibia2. Chifundo Mikaya Malawi3. Ndanga Levy Michel Shirishize Burundi4. Juliet Nakibuule Uganda5. Olafyinfoluwa Oluwatosin Taiwo Nigeria6. Reuben Mtitu Tanzania7. Patrick Dueme Saf Democratic Republic of Congo8. Claire Tembo Zambia9. Ogunbanke Aduragbemi Nigeria10. Adelina Ampilla Tanzania11. Abenet Abite and Milkias Bonke Ethiopia12. Albert Nashon Odhoji Kenya13. Jean-Blaise Adjeklakara Mossus Senegal14. Ogola Oluoch Japheth Kenya15. Bella Oden Gervais Marital Cameroon16. Kwizera Aime Burundi17. Golden Zikatiwindu Malawi18. Christine Kyaruzi Tanzania19. Irene Namuyanja Uganda20. Liz Ogumbo Kenya
  23. 23. UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMMEPartners and Youth Section, Monitoring and Research Division (UN-HABITAT)P.O. Box 30030, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254 20 7623900; Fax: +254 20 7624588Email: partners@unhabitat.org; Website: www.unhabitat.org/