Tracking Chemical Injection Using Surface Geophysics

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Tracking Chemical Injection Using Surface Geophysics

  1. 2. <ul><li>Amendments have physical and chemical properties significantly different than natural soil and groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Volume added usually 3% to 10% of pore volume </li></ul><ul><li>Actual radius of injected amendments can be tracked using surface geophysics, looking for change in total conductivity </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Potassium Permanganate 20 g/l (~ 2%) = ~1400 mS/m </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Persulfate 20 g/l = ~1600 mS/m </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Electromagnetic induction to map changes in ground conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Uses separated antennas (coils) for transmitter and receiver at surface </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter induces eddy currents in subsurface which produce a magnetic field read by receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent conductivity is weighted average of subsurface conductivity from surface to max depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Two max depths: ~2.5 m, ~5.2 m </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>10,000 lbs of persulfate injected in 11 DPT borings </li></ul><ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity of Injection in central area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small radius of influence, ~ 5 feet </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. 2S 1.5S 1S 1W
  6. 8. No change from background
  7. 9. Increase due to persulfate
  8. 10. Increase from persulfate
  9. 11. Increase from persulfate
  10. 12. <ul><li>Comprehensive Coverage of Site </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 lbs of K Permanganate </li></ul><ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant increase in total conductivity site wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site has since reached cleanup standards (5 µg/L) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. 2E 3E 2S
  12. 15. Gas Line Permanganate
  13. 16. Water Line Permanganate
  14. 17. Water Line Permanganate
  15. 18. <ul><li>Electrical methods (electromagnetics, resistivity) can detect amendment addition </li></ul><ul><li>Physical measurements of injection radius can help guide effective remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical resistivity tomography could be used for 2D and 3D imaging </li></ul>

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