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The Andes Mountain Range


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  • 1. The Andes Mountains
    Tiana Yarbrough
    Professor Arguello
    History 28
  • 2. Geography
    The world’s largest continental mountain range
    Lies along the western coast of South America
    Ranges over 4,300 mi long, 120-430 mi wide, and has an average height of 13,000 ft.
    Highest mountain range outside of Asia
    Highest peak: Aconcagua (22,841 ft)
    Extends over seven countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
  • 3. Geography
    Andes divided into 3 sections:
    Southern Andes in Angentina and Chile
    Cental Andes in Chilean and Peruvian Cordilleras and parts of Bolivia
    Northern Andes in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador
    In Colombia, Andes split in to three parallel ranges: Cordillera occidental, central y oriental
  • 4. Volcanoes
    A belt of mountains along The Ring of Fire: A zone of volcanic activity
    Andes contain many active volcanoes; all distributed into four sections, separated by areas of inactivity:
    • Northern Volcanic Zone: Southern Colombia and Equador
    • 5. Central Volcanic Zone: Southern Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile and Argentina
    • 6. Southern Volcanic Group: Central Chile to the Chile Triple Junction
    - Austral Volcanic Zone: South of Chile Triple Junction
  • 7. Geology
    East of the Andes lie several sedimentary basins such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de dios, and Grand Chaco
    Separates Andes from ancient cratons of eastern South America
    West of mountain range lies the Pacific Ocean
    Submerged peaks off the coast of Venezuela make up the Caribbean Islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao.
  • 8. Climate
    Climate varies and depends on location, altitude and proximity of the sea.
    The Southern Section is rainy and cool
    Central Andes are typically dry
    Northern Range is rainy and warm
    Average temp in Colombia is 64 degrees F
    Andes of Chile and Argentina divided into two climatic and glaciological zones: the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes
    Climate is known to drastically change in short distances
    Rainforests exist miles away from snow covered peaks
  • 9. Flora
    Rainforests once encircled much of the Northern Andes, but now have been greatly diminished.
    Only 10% of original woodland remains due to modern clearance.
    30,000 species of Vascular plants live in the Andes
    Many plants used for medicinal purposes
    Cinchona pubescens is a small tree used to treat malaria
    Tobacco and Potatoes originated from the Andes
    High-altitude polylepis forests and woodlands found in Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile
    These trees can be found at altitudes of 14,760 ft above sea level.
  • 10. Fauna
    Very rich in Fauna; nearly 1,000 different species and 2/3 of them endemic to the region
    The most important region in the world for amphibians
    Animal diversity is high: 30,000 species of vascular plants, 1,000 amphibians, 600 species of mammals, 1,700 species of birds, 600 reptiles, and 400 different kinds of fish
  • 11. Agriculture
    Ancient people (Incas) practiced irrigation 6,000 years ago
    Because of the mountain slopes, terracing is quite common
    Potatoes and Maize hold an important role in widely consumed staple crops
    Tobacco, coffee, and cotton are the leading export crops of today
    Coca an important crop for legal local use in mildly stimulating herbal teas
    Also used for the production of cocaine
  • 12. Resources