Transcript of "Kenya's indigenous peoples and redd"
KENYAS INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND REDD By Edna Kaptoyo(IIN ) Daniel Kobei( OPDP)
Outline● Introduction● Challenges and opportunities regarding REDD(Participants perspective)● Policies and Acts in place/ongoing● REDD process in Kenya● Needs/Expectations
Introduction● Kenya had a vast forest cover in early 1980s to mid 1990s before the degradation and deforestation commenced● The country has many forests most of which are gazzeted by the government. Some of the forests are;Mt. Kenya, Mt.Elgon Forest, Aberdare forest,Cherangany forest, Mau complex and mukogogodo forest.● Mugogodo,Mau,mt.elgon and cherangany forest are the ones inhabited by the IPs(Ogiek,Yaaku etc)
Cont...● The forest cover at the moment is said to be 1.7% 2% according to the Kenya Forest service a department which is mandated by the governmen to oversee the forests in terms of protecting and improving forest cover in the country. This is low compared to the global requirement of 10%● With the realisation of the decreased forest cover the government issued a ban on illegal logging and cutting of trees for any use whatsoever, whether is by IPs/individuals personal use.● This resulted in the introduction of permits i.e one had to get a permit to cut a tree (building,fencing etc)
Drivers of deforestation● For quite some time the ban on illegal logging for timber worked until the early 2000, where demand for timber grew i.e for commercial purposes, thus the logging started and the permits were used to get timber from forests for commercial purposes and these was done massively by companies that deal with paper and pole(for electricity and telecoms ) production● Ban on logging caused people to illegal log● Poverty drove people to sell timber and fuel wood whose demand increased(other fuel sources are expensive)
Challenges● The government does not recognize the IPs despite effort made by IP memebrs and organisations to be accepted by the government which is a member of the African Commision● The REDD process is entirely rested on the hands of the government and IPs are not involved
Cont...● Good governance is an issue:The government has been a problem due to corruption REDD might be imposed on the forest dwellers without their FPIC basically for funding which might be used for personal gains● Opportunities are there but minimal. The govt prime minister has advocated for the forest dwellers in Mau for instance to be left to stay in the forest as opposed to the govt order of eviction. This is still a controversial issue since it has been politicised
Climate Change In Kenya● Climate change in Kenya has been experienced in Kenya and its effects has been devastating to the IPs who are living in already fragile ecosystems(ASALs)● Changes have occurred in terms of; rainfall patterns change thus affecting the planting and harvesting seasons, strong winds, floods and landslide, increased incedence of drought and hence the encroachment o desert into the arid lands. The livelihoods of Ips has been affected also● The 4th IPCC report also mentioned that Africa will be worst hit by a problem they least contributed to
Cont..● The govt has recognised that climate change is there but special considerations to the Ips has not been enough even with the creation of the ASAL ministry for development. This is because the ministry focuses on development perse not in factors affecting it● The introduction of monoculture is at an alrming rate in Kenya especially with the intoruction of fast growing eucalyptus
Needs● There is need for capacity building and sensitization of IPs to lobby the govt to implement REDD with the involvement of IPs and to also put in place measures to ensure good governance● We expect the meeting to make meaning, recommendations on the implementation of REDD
Policies and Acts in Place● Kenya has several policies for protecting forests● The Forest Act of 2005: This Act was passed in 2005 and it is said to be the best so far in terms of offering incentives for the improvement of forest cover as well as the management of indigenous forests. But there are challenges since IPs were not involved in its development at the drafting stages.
● The Act favors farm forestry and individual forests yet IPs have trust lands, group ranches. Community land under trust is managed by the council so community are disadvantage since to manage the forest they have to claim it back from council and the process is bureaucratic● We have the EMCA Act which governs the environment and has 77 laws. These is importantfor forests
REDD Process● Lack of information on REDD. More people know more about the carbon trade rather than the REDD. This is so despite the fact that Kenya was selected as a pilot● The process is to be undertaken by the ministry of Agriculture in the notion that agriculture is the main driver of deforestation(this is not the case- charcoal/fuelwood is the major driver)