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EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION
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EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION

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I am rajan an school teacher by profession with post graduation in English,psychology,economics and post graduate diploma in teaching English have been working in a school for 25 years,a remote …

I am rajan an school teacher by profession with post graduation in English,psychology,economics and post graduate diploma in teaching English have been working in a school for 25 years,a remote village in kerala I came in this field not by chance as many in our
place but deliberately.I like this profession very much But I have very limited like minded people to share my views.I want to discuss with such people

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  • 1. EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION Gokul Das N N ‘ Buddha’ Mannuthy Thrissur, Kerala Email: [email_address]
  • 2. EVIDENCES FROM
    • Morphology & Comparative Anatomy
    • Embryology
    • Physiology & Biochemistry
    • Palaeontology
    • Biogeography
    • Taxonomy
    • Genetics & Molecular Biology
  • 3. EVIDENCES FROM MORPHOLOGY & COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    • Homologous structures
    • Vestigial Organs
    • Analogous Structures
    • Parallel Evolution
    • Convergent Evolution
    • Adaptive Radiation
    • Atavism
    • Connecting Links
  • 4. Homologous structures
  • 5. HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8. ALL VERTEBRATE BRAINS SHARE THE SAME BASIC THREE-PART STRUCTURE
  • 9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTITUENT PARTS OF BRAIN VARIES ACROSS THE EVOLUTIONARY SCALE .
    • In fish, the cerebrum is dwarfed by the rest of the brain and serves mostly to process input from the senses. Cerebellum is well developed
    • In reptiles and amphibians, the cerebrum is proportionally larger
    • Birds have well-developed optic lobes, making the cerebrum even larger. Cerebellum is also well developed
    • Among mammals, the cerebrum dominates the brain.
    • Cerebrum is most developed among primates, in whom cognitive ability is the highest.
  • 10. HEART IN VERTEBRATES
  • 11. HYPOTHETICAL ANCESTRAL HEAT
  • 12. HEART IN VERTEBRATES
  • 13. HEART IN VERTEBRATES
  • 14.  
  • 15. CRUSTAEAN APPENDAGES
  • 16. INSECT MOUTH PARTS
  • 17. VESTIGIAL ORGANS
  • 18. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION IN SHAPES
    • Ichthyosaurs, Dolphins and Sharks
    • Living in the open ocean as a fish eater requires a streamlined body and the ability to move very quickly when needed. These pressures caused first sharks, then ichthyosaurs and finally dolphins, to all adopt a very similar body shape and method of movement.
    • In all these animals the tail is the major motor, other flippers and fins are used merely for steering and the body has taken on a shape that has the least resistance to water.
  • 19.  
  • 20. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION
  • 21.  
  • 22. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION IN SYSTEMS FLIGHT
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION THYLACINES AND DINGOES
    • This is a favorite of most Australians. The Thylacine was a marsupial the same shape and size as the placental dingo. The Thylacine evolved in Australia from the same stock as quolls and native mice. It lived on the mainland as well as the island of Tasmania until the arrival of people. People brought with them dingoes, which are wild dogs.
    • The dingoes had the same lifestyle and diet as the Thylacines, but they had stronger jaws. Over a long time the dingoes out competed the Thylacines which wiped them out on the mainland.
  • 26. ADAPTIVE RADIATION
  • 27. DARWIN’S FINCHES
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32. EVIDENCES FROM EMBRYOLOGY
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • Vertebrates that evolved from fish pass through similar embryonic stages. As a flexible notochord develops in the back, blocks of tissue called somites form along each side of it. These somites will become major structures, such as muscle, vertebrae, connective tissue, and, later, the larger glands of the body. Just above the notochord lies a hollow nerve cord..
  • 35.
    • Such similarities formed the basis for German biologist Ernst Haeckel’s biogenetic law, which states that an animal’s embryonic development recapitulates its evolution. Although scientists now know that this law does not hold absolutely, Haeckel’s idea has remained influential
  • 36. AORTIC ARCHES
  • 37. EVIDENCES FROM PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
    • Immunology
    • Nucleic acid studies
    • Protein structure
  • 38. GENETICS
    • Down’s Syndrome in Chimpanzees
    • Bleeding Disorders in dogs & horses
    • Genetic Code is Universal !
  • 39. ATAVISM
  • 40. CONNECTING LINKS
  • 41. NEPHRIDIA IN NEOPILINA ARE A SIGN FOR METAMEROUS ORGANISMS LIKE THE SEGMENTED WORMS ( ANNELIDA ), THAT IN EACH SEGMENT POSSESS THE SAME NUMBER OF EQUALLY BUILT ORGANS.
  • 42.  
  • 43. LUNG FISHES
  • 44. PALAEONTOLOGICAL EVIDENCES
  • 45. EVOLUTION OF HORSE
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50. EVIDENCES FOR HUMAN EVOLUTION
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
  • 57. EXAMPLES OF ADAPTATIONS
  • 58. ANCESTRAL FOX ADAPTATION
  • 59. SELECTION PRESSURE
  • 60. Thank You All