Building Open BridgesCollaborative Remixing and Reuse of OpenEducational Resources across OrganisationsTim CoughlanHorizon...
Overview• Open Educational Resources (OER)• What practices emerge in using OER across educationalorganisations?• The Bridg...
Open Educational ResourcesOpen Educational Resources are teaching,learning or research materials that are in thepublic dom...
• Demand for education rapidly increasing worldwide• Costs rising in many countries• Lifelong learning expected• So OER ha...
• Online courses, multimedia, interactivedemonstrations, e-textbooks, lecture videos• Large-scale sharing of materials– MI...
Open Educational Practices• The use of OER is poorly understood or supportedbeyond simple sharing.• Practices need to be d...
A Case Study: Bridge to Success
Bridge to Success• Aim: Improve support fortransition to, and completionof US college education• Proven introductory onlin...
Organisations Involved• USA– Large College– Public University– Private Research University• UK– Original Authoring Univers...
Understanding Bridge to Success• Research embedded into the initiative to:– Identify best practices– Evaluate the impact o...
Motivations and Benefits
Common Issues Faced• Shared issues faced as educators across cultures• Math(s) is key in college completion and advanced s...
Empowerment• Ability to develop and use resources to fit, without largeinitial buy-in from the organisation• OER as a mech...
Learning from Each Other• Through remixing and reuse– Adapted course development from across the organisations– Opening up...
Remixing the OER
Courses and Effort1 Content Expert (US)1 Editor (US)UK-based ProductionTeam10+ Content Experts2 EditorsUS / UK ProductionT...
Envisaging the Audience• Extensive work to identify and elaborate on the envisaged audience.• Do not expect a tutor to be ...
Collaboration in Remixing• Individuals had difficulty in distinguishing culturaldifference from other’s beliefs in best pr...
Changes Made in Remixing
Changes Made in Remixing
Changes in Size and Unit StructureBefore:54,000 wordsAfter:45,000 words- 9,000
Changes in Size and Unit StructureBefore:82,000 wordsAfter:92,000 words+ 10,000
Changes in Size and Unit StructureBefore:82,000 wordsAfter:92,000 words+ 20,000
Adaptive Remixing• Efficiently make the resource suitable to theenvisaged audience• Judgments made as to whether contextua...
Creative Remixing• Taking existing work and building on it• Creating and integrating multimedia & interactivecontent• More...
Reusing the OER
Reuse• 16+ US-based organisations have used the materialsin less than a year– Colleges– Distance learning organisations– C...
Contextualisation• Organisations found diverse ways to utilise the OERin their context– Provide to newly enrolled students...
Wrapping• Not changing the resource itself• Educators often combine various resources in teaching• Different styles of use...
Discussion Points
Expectations of Open Collaboration• Numerous individuals• Voluntary effort• Largely independent work• Spontaneous actions(...
Openness Evolving
Evolution of Open Collaboration• Around 45% of those involved in Open Sourcesoftware projects are paid by companies to be(...
So…• Openness is increasingly intertwined with otherorganisational models and practices• Open collaboration varies from ou...
OpennessAcross Organisations• Openness legitimises new ways of working in and acrosseducational organisations• New practic...
Tensions in Conceptions of theAudience• Collaborative remixing involved developing a strong,shared perception of the inten...
Open Collaboration…but not as we know it• OER is an example of the evolving nature ofpractices around openness– In domains...
Thanks!The Bridge to Success initiative was funded by Educause. Further researchwas supported by RCUK, via Horizon Digital...
Collaborative Remixing and Reuse of Open Educational Resources - CHI 2013 Paper Presentation
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Collaborative Remixing and Reuse of Open Educational Resources - CHI 2013 Paper Presentation

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Presentation given at the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ( CHI ) 2013 conference: http://chi2013.acm.org/

Building Open Bridges: Collaborative Remixing and Reuse of Open Educational Resources across organisations

Tim Coughlan (University of Nottingham, UK)
Rebecca Pitt & Patrick McAndrew (The Open University, UK)

Paper available from: http://oro.open.ac.uk/36473/

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • How the concept is evolving in educationDescribe what we learnt from studying a large case study of cross-organisational open collaboration – B2SThis will explore the motivations and benefits expectedAnd then define the practices that emergedRaise some discussion points around general perceptions of open collaboration and the issues faced in OER
  • But I’m not going to talk so much about what they are as what educators do with them.
  • Rather than just understanding the resources, need to understand the practices that can be effective and support them.
  • Why get involved, what will come of it for all parties?
  • Particularly math(s) if we can’t agree whether there is an s at the end, UK and US can certainly agree that a huge number of people’s education is damaged by struggling to develop basic skills. In UK and US, students cannot graduate from many programs without some maths, and obviously its an important life skill and important for advanced study.
  • Two courses: A learning skills development course called Learning to Learn (originally Learning to Change in the UK). Lot of focus on how learning fits into and benefits people’s lives, techniques for studying etc.A maths course called Succeed with Math (originally Starting with Maths) aiming to build competencies in the major areas of mathematicsFrom a research point of view, it was interesting that the remixing of the courses was conducted in quite different ways
  • Structure was unchanged,All units shrunk in terms of word count. In total a loss of about 9000 words to 45000
  • Here we see something quite different. Two units were heavily expanded and split into four. In total an increase of 10000 words to 92000 words.But this doesn’t really explain everything. The focus of much of the creative work was on the original units 2 and 3, these actually expand by about 20000 words. The rest actually shrinks. This is because the team realised after a few months that they could not spend as long on the rest of the course, the type of remixing work they had undertaken was more time consuming than expected. So they had to rein things in a lot.
  • Here we see something quite different. Two units were heavily expanded and split into four. In total an increase of 10000 words to 92000 words.But this doesn’t really explain everything. The focus of much of the creative work was on the original units 2 and 3, these actually expand by about 20000 words. The rest actually shrinks. This is because the team realised after a few months that they could not spend as long on the rest of the course, the type of remixing work they had undertaken was more time consuming than expected. So they had to rein things in a lot.
  • Seen in Learning to Learn and latter half of Succeed with Math
  • Seen in first half of the maths course.
  • Now move on to the second objective of the project, which was to encourage and monitor reuse of the remixed OER.
  • Generally positive reception and some good Qualitative and Quantitative evidence that it has an impact on learning, but that is for another talk.
  • Our classic understanding of open collaboration in HCI comes largely from OSS projects like linuxand CBPP such as wikipedia
  • And these are some of the characteristics we expect to see(independent in comparison to work inside an organisations)
  • However, theopen concept is being carried in to a wider range of domains and evolvingFrom hardware to architecture, museum collections, and what we focus on here, education
  • Even looking at OSS, there are elements that don’t fit the classic understanding of open collaboration…So things are changing there
  • Hugely important to remixing
  • Collaborative Remixing and Reuse of Open Educational Resources - CHI 2013 Paper Presentation

    1. 1. Building Open BridgesCollaborative Remixing and Reuse of OpenEducational Resources across OrganisationsTim CoughlanHorizon Digital Economy ResearchUniversity of Nottingham, UKtim.coughlan@nottingham.ac.uk@t1mcRebecca Pitt & Patrick McAndrewInstitute of Educational TechnologyThe Open University, UKpatrick.mcandrew@open.ac.uk, r.e.pitt@open.ac.uk@BeckPitt , @openpad
    2. 2. Overview• Open Educational Resources (OER)• What practices emerge in using OER across educationalorganisations?• The Bridge to Success Initiative– Motivations and Benefits– Observed Practices• Discussion Points– Perceptions of Open Collaboration– Issues Raised
    3. 3. Open Educational ResourcesOpen Educational Resources are teaching,learning or research materials that are in thepublic domain or released with an intellectualproperty license that allows for free use,adaptation, and distribution(UNESCO)
    4. 4. • Demand for education rapidly increasing worldwide• Costs rising in many countries• Lifelong learning expected• So OER has the potential for huge impact– Lowering costs– Establishing or raising standards(Atkins et al. 2007)Open Educational Resources
    5. 5. • Online courses, multimedia, interactivedemonstrations, e-textbooks, lecture videos• Large-scale sharing of materials– MIT Open CourseWare since 2002– Open University OpenLearn– Apple iTunesUOpen Educational Resources
    6. 6. Open Educational Practices• The use of OER is poorly understood or supportedbeyond simple sharing.• Practices need to be developed to fulfil potential.(Conole, 2011)• Reuse is too often conceived as construction withOER as Lego bricks.• Openness should support more fine-grainedmodification and creativity - remixing content tobe appropriate for particular audiences.(Wiley, 2009)
    7. 7. A Case Study: Bridge to Success
    8. 8. Bridge to Success• Aim: Improve support fortransition to, and completionof US college education• Proven introductory onlinecourses for higher educationin the UK are shared as OER• Remixed for a US audience• Encourage and support reuse
    9. 9. Organisations Involved• USA– Large College– Public University– Private Research University• UK– Original Authoring University• Others involved along the way
    10. 10. Understanding Bridge to Success• Research embedded into the initiative to:– Identify best practices– Evaluate the impact of the OER• Interviews with project team pre, mid and post remixing• Reviewed communications, documentation, meeting notes• Visits to organisations who are reusing the materials• Interviews and surveys with educators and learners
    11. 11. Motivations and Benefits
    12. 12. Common Issues Faced• Shared issues faced as educators across cultures• Math(s) is key in college completion and advanced study. Butstudents in all countries struggle to reach competency“something that is independent of any particular cultureis…human behaviour and human attitudes towards mathematics”“There are similarities between the situation in the US and theUK, in that we’ve got a lot of people who are frightened ofmaths, think they can’t do it…but the approach to teaching mathsin the two countries is quite different”
    13. 13. Empowerment• Ability to develop and use resources to fit, without largeinitial buy-in from the organisation• OER as a mechanism for provoking changes to practicewithin the organisation“We were teaching from textbooks, we don’t have our ownmaterials”… (until now)“I’m really hoping that it does change some policy”
    14. 14. Learning from Each Other• Through remixing and reuse– Adapted course development from across the organisations– Opening up of internal systems and training each other“the whole philosophy for Open is that you can share solutions, you can share strategies,and I am seeing that happen”“initially we were so intent on just making sure that we had a solution… But we’ve learntso much along the way that…has really made this a very rich, rewarding experience”• Serendipitously“I’ve spoken to two teachers today, who have blind students in theirclassrooms…studying science. Now that is key to a project that I’m working on”
    15. 15. Remixing the OER
    16. 16. Courses and Effort1 Content Expert (US)1 Editor (US)UK-based ProductionTeam10+ Content Experts2 EditorsUS / UK ProductionTeam3 Months 9 Months
    17. 17. Envisaging the Audience• Extensive work to identify and elaborate on the envisaged audience.• Do not expect a tutor to be available, it is a bonus if they are.• Maintaining consistency is essential, so changes create overheads.the “important angle… (to view the process from) …is as the student who isseeing it for the first time, and that is critical in maintaining the instructionalintegrity,…consistency both in tone and in the actual instructional processes”“you know the fact that it’s difficult to ‘get’ maths online, and you know…(creating the right materials) takes time to do”
    18. 18. Collaboration in Remixing• Individuals had difficulty in distinguishing culturaldifference from other’s beliefs in best practice• Team decision making approaches emerge“It was a right, if two people object, their names are on thisproject… it’s not going to be suitable”
    19. 19. Changes Made in Remixing
    20. 20. Changes Made in Remixing
    21. 21. Changes in Size and Unit StructureBefore:54,000 wordsAfter:45,000 words- 9,000
    22. 22. Changes in Size and Unit StructureBefore:82,000 wordsAfter:92,000 words+ 10,000
    23. 23. Changes in Size and Unit StructureBefore:82,000 wordsAfter:92,000 words+ 20,000
    24. 24. Adaptive Remixing• Efficiently make the resource suitable to theenvisaged audience• Judgments made as to whether contextualdifferences were problematic• If in doubt about content, just remove it
    25. 25. Creative Remixing• Taking existing work and building on it• Creating and integrating multimedia & interactivecontent• More time consuming than expected• Concerns for ‘exuberance’ in integrating externalresources – potentially detrimental to quality andout of the team’s control.
    26. 26. Reusing the OER
    27. 27. Reuse• 16+ US-based organisations have used the materialsin less than a year– Colleges– Distance learning organisations– Charity initiatives for the long-term unemployed and ‘atrisk’ parents drop-in centre• 8000+ unique visitors• 1100+ registered users• Evidence of positive impact across contexts
    28. 28. Contextualisation• Organisations found diverse ways to utilise the OERin their context– Provide to newly enrolled students to fill the gap beforethe begin classes– Identify struggling students through data and present thisas an alternative approach to improve skills• Support needed for sharing these innovativepractices and evaluating success
    29. 29. Wrapping• Not changing the resource itself• Educators often combine various resources in teaching• Different styles of use and support needs• Success where combined with initiatives for improving accessand skills with technology• Support needed for individual ‘wrapping’ of parts of OER withdirections for learners
    30. 30. Discussion Points
    31. 31. Expectations of Open Collaboration• Numerous individuals• Voluntary effort• Largely independent work• Spontaneous actions(e.g.Yamauchi et al. 2000)
    32. 32. Openness Evolving
    33. 33. Evolution of Open Collaboration• Around 45% of those involved in Open Sourcesoftware projects are paid by companies to be(Crowston et al. 2012)• Open Hardware projects are generally undertaken bysmall groups, and well planned in advance, because ofthe nature of the product(Mellis and Buechley, 2012)
    34. 34. So…• Openness is increasingly intertwined with otherorganisational models and practices• Open collaboration varies from our originalexpectations across domains and cultures
    35. 35. OpennessAcross Organisations• Openness legitimises new ways of working in and acrosseducational organisations• New practices of taking ownership emerge– Individuals and organisations put their name on it– OER becomes ‘our’ resource as individuals work on it– OER can empower: Changing a lot with little cost• Maintaining some control in the open– Consistency and continuity of materials seen as essentialin remixing– Use of external resources and large or loose collaborationsseen as problematic
    36. 36. Tensions in Conceptions of theAudience• Collaborative remixing involved developing a strong,shared perception of the intended audience• But openness leads to valuable reuse emerging incircumstances distinct from these originalexpectations.• Contextualisation and wrapping occur in response,but systems and practices are immature.
    37. 37. Open Collaboration…but not as we know it• OER is an example of the evolving nature ofpractices around openness– In domains with different cultures and outcomes– As it interacts with organisational processes and demands• Creative and adaptive remixing, contextualisationand wrapping require further support– Balancing ownership and control with openness– Maintaining continuity and consistency– Varied use contexts lead to creativity in reuse
    38. 38. Thanks!The Bridge to Success initiative was funded by Educause. Further researchwas supported by RCUK, via Horizon Digital Economy ResearchTim CoughlanHorizon Digital Economy ResearchUniversity of Nottingham, UKtim.coughlan@nottingham.ac.uk@t1mcRebecca Pitt & Patrick McAndrewInstitute of Educational TechnologyThe Open University, UKpatrick.mcandrew@open.ac.uk, r.e.pitt@open.ac.uk@BeckPitt , @openpadCreative Commons images courtesy of bdesham and mag3737

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