English li̇nguistics


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English li̇nguistics

  1. 1. Introduction to Linguistics The scientific study of language Tarık İNCE ELT Teacher Training Course
  2. 2. Topics 1. What is Language? 2. Brain and Language 3. Morphology: The Words of Language 4. Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language 5. The Meanings of Language 6. Phonetics: The Sounds of Language 7. Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language 8. Language Acquisition 9. Language Processing: Humans and Computer 10. Language in Society 11. Language Change: The Syllables of Time 12. Writing: The ABCs of Language
  3. 3. UNIT 1 : THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE We simply do not know how language originated. We do not know that spoken language developed well before written language. Yet we have no physical evidence relating to speech of our ancestors Because of this absence of evidence speculations about origins of human speech have been developed. The Divine Source ― If infants were allowed to grow up without hearing any language, then they would spontaneously begin using the original God-given language. ― The Natural Sound Source ― Primitive words could have been imitations of the naturel sounds which early men & women heard around them ― Examples : cuckoo, splash, bang, boom. This view has been called ― bow-wow theory ― of language origin and these words echoing naturel sounds are called ― onomatopoeic words ― A similar suggestion : ― The original sounds of language came from naturel cries of emotion such as pain, anger & joy. Examples : Ouch! , Ah!, Hey! Yo-heave-ho Theory The sounds of a person involved in physical effort could be the source of our language, especially when that physical effort involved several people and had to be coordinated. The importance of yo-heave-ho theory is that it places the development of human language in some SOCIAL CONTEXT.
  4. 4. The Oral-Gesture Source The theory comes from the idea that there is a link between physical gesture & orally produced sounds. First of all a set of physical gestures was developed as a means of communication. Then a set of oral gestures specially involving the mouth developed in which the movements of the tongue, lips & so on where recognized according to patterns of movement similar to physical gestures. Glossogenetics The focus is on the biological basis of the formation. In the evolutionary development there are certain physical features, best thought of a partical adaptations that appear to be relevant for speech. By themselves, such features would not not lead to speech production, but they are good clues that a creature possessing such features probably has the capacity for speech. Physiological Adaptations Human teeth, lips, mouth, tongue, larynx, pharynx & brain have been created in such a way to coordinate in producing speech sounds. Their places, connections & coordinative functions make humankind different from all the living creatures. Interactions & Transactions There are two major functions of language: • Interactional Function : It is related with how human use language to interact with each other socially or emotionally, how they Express therir feelings or their ideas. • Transactional Function : It is related with how human use their linguistic abilities to transfer knowledge from onegeneration to the next.
  5. 5. UNIT 2 : THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRITING Much of the evidence used in the reconstruction of ancient writing systems comes from inscriptions on stone or tablets found in the ruble of ruined cities. Pictograms & Ideograms A Picture representing a particular image in a consistent way it is called Picturewriting or Pictogram. There must be a link between the pictogram and its meaning. So, we can easily understand what is refers to when we look at the pictogram. More abstracts forms of pictograms are called Ideograms. The relationship between the entity & the symbol is not easily understood like pictograms. • A shared property of both pictograms & ideograms is that they do not present words or sounds in a particular language. Logograms When symbols come to be used to represent words in a language they described as examples of word-writing or logograms. Logographic writing was used by Sumerians & their particular inscriptions are called CUNEIFORM WRITING . Cuneiform means wedge-shaped and it was produced by pressing a wedge- shaped implement into soft clay tablets. When we consider the relationship between the written form & the object it represents, it is arbitrary. We may accept the cuneiform inscriptions of Sumerians as ‖ the earliest known writing system ―
  6. 6. Rebus Writing The symbol for one entity is taken over as the symbol for the sound of the spoken word used to refer to that entity. One symbol can be used in many different ways, with a range of meanings. This brings a sizeable reduction in the number of symbols needed in a writing system. Syllabic Writing When a writing system employs a set of symbols which represent the pronunciations of syllables it is described as syllabic writing. There are no purely syllabic writing systems in use today, but modern Japanese can be written with a single symbols which represent spoken syllables & is consequently often described as having a syllabic writing or a syllabary. Alphabetic Writing An alphabet is essentially a set of written symbols which each represent a single type of sound. Written English • The spelling of written English took place in 15 th century, via printing, so Latin & French affected the written forms. • Many of the early printers were Dutch, so they were not very successful in English pronounciation . • Since the 15 th century spoken English has undergone a lot of changes.
  7. 7. 1. What is language? 1. system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permit all people in a given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture, to communicate or to interact (Finocchiaro). 2. system of communication by sound, operating through organs of speech and hearing, among members of a community, using vocal symbols possessing arbitrary conventional meanings (Pei). 3. any set or system of linguistic symbols as used in a more or less uniform fashion by people who are enabled to communicate intelligibly with one another (Random House). 4. system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Wardhaugh). 5. a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings (Gove). 6. Other definitions found in introductory textbooks on linguistics include concepts of: a) the generatively or creativity of language, over writing, and b) the presumed primacy of speech c) the universality of
  8. 8. A Consolidation of the Definitions 1. Language is a set of arbitrary symbols. 2. Those symbols are primarily vocal, but may also be visual. 3. The symbols have conventionalized meanings to which they refer. 4. Language is used for communication. 5. Language operates in a speech community or culture. 6. Language is essentially human, although possibly not limited to humans. 7. Language is acquired by all people in much the same way—language and language learning both have universal characteristics.
  9. 9. What Does Knowing a Language Mean? We know a system that relates sounds (or hand and body gestures) with meanings When you know a language you know this system. We know the grammar of a language. We have a limited set of rules that comprise the grammar of a language. This mental grammar is learned when you acquire the language. What is Grammar? the sound system (the phonology), the structure of words (the morphology), how words may be combined into phrases and sentences (the syntax), the ways in which sounds and meanings are related (semantics), and words or lexicon.
  10. 10. Competence and Performance Linguistic knowledge is different from linguistic behavior. Linguistic competence refers to our knowledge of the language we speak. Linguistic performance refers to actual use of language or how our knowledge of the language is put into use. Our linguistic performance does not always truly reflect our linguistic competence. Universal Grammar The more linguists investigate languages and describe ways in which they differ from each other, the more they discover that these differences are limited. There are linguistic universals that pertain to all parts of grammars, the ways in which these parts are related and the forms of rules. These principles comprise Universal Grammar, which forms basis of specific grammars of all possible human languages. They are aspects of lang that all lang have in common.
  11. 11. Types of Grammar 1. Descriptive Grammar 2. Pedagogical Grammar 3. Prescriptive Grammar 4. Reference Grammar 5. Theoretical Grammar 6. Traditional Grammar
  12. 12. 1. Descriptive Grammar describes grammatical constructions without making any evaluative judgments about their standing in society. These grammars are commonplace in linguistics, where it is practice to investigate a 'corpus' of spoken or written material, describe in detail patterns it contains. 2. Pedagogical Grammar A book specifically designed for teaching a foreign language, or for developing an awareness of the mother tongue Such 'teaching grammars' are widely used in schools, so much so that many people have only one meaning for the term 'grammar': a grammar book. 3. Prescriptive Grammar A manual that focuses on constructions where usage is divided, and lays down rules governing the socially correct use of language. These grammars were a formative influence on language attitudes in Europe and America during the 18th and 19th centuries. Their influence lives on in handbooks of usage widely found today, such as the Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926) by Henry Watson Fowler (1858-1933).
  13. 13. 4. Reference Grammar tries to be as comprehensive as possible, so that it can act as a reference book for those interested in establishing grammatical facts (like reference lexicon dictionary) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (1985) by Randolph Quirk (1920-) et al. 5. Theoretical Grammar goes beyond the study of individual languages, to determine what constructs are needed in order to do any kind of grammatical analysis, and how these can be applied consistently in the investigation of linguistic universals. 6. Traditional Grammar A term often used to summarize the range of attitudes and methods found in the period of grammatical study before the advent of linguistic science. It includes work of classical Greek and Roman grammarians, Renaissance writers, and 18th-century prescriptive grammarians. It is difficult to generalize about such a wide variety of approaches, but linguist generally use the term pejoratively, identifying an unscientific approach to grammatical study, in which languages were analyzed in terms of Latin, with scant regard for empirical facts. However, many basic notions used by modern approaches can be found in these early writings, and there is now fresh interest in study of traditional grammar
  14. 14. Properties of Language Properties of Human Language and Animal Communication Systems Mode of Communication (vocal-auditory channel) refers to the means by which the messages are transmitted. Reciprocity (Interchangeability) ability of individuals to both send and receive messages. Specialization refers to the fact that linguistic signals do not normally serve any other type of purpose, such as breathing or feeding. Non-directionality refers to the fact that linguistic signals can be picked up by anyone within hearing, even unseen. Rapid fade refers to the fact that linguistic signals are produced and disappear quickly. Unique Properties of Human Language Displacement is the property of human language that allows the users of language to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment. Arbitrariness refers to the property of having signals for which the form of the signals is not logically related to its meaning. Productivity is a feature of all languages that novel utterances are continually being created. Cultural transmission is the need for some aspect of a communication system to be learned through communicative interaction with other users of the system.
  15. 15. Phonetics: The Sounds of Language
  16. 16. Sound/symbol correspondence enough through thorough thought bough [ʌf] [u:] [ə] [ɔ:] [aʊ] think [θ] those [ð] church chemistry [tʃ] [k] thistle [θ] thong [θ] loch [x] [ʃ] Cheryl
  17. 17. Phonetics: Definition and Purpose Phonetics is the science of speech sounds. It is concerned with describing speech sounds that occur in the languages of the world. We want to know: 1. what these sounds are, 2. how they fall into patterns, and 3. how they change in different circumstances. It provides set of features or properties that can be used to describe and distinguish sounds Sound Segments Knowledge of a language permits to segment continuous sound into linguistic units-words, morphemes, sounds. physical sounds are physical representations of strings of discrete linguistic segments cat consists of 3 sounds, initial sound represented by the letter c, second by a, and final sound by t. not and knot also include 3 sounds even though first sound in knot represented by two letters kn. pyscho has six letters which represent only four sounds – ps, y, ch, o. Spelling and Speech Alphabetic spelling represents the pronunciation of words. sounds are rather unsystematically represented by orthography — that is, by spelling. Examples: 1. Did he believe that Ceasar could see the people seize the seas?
  18. 18. The Phonetic Alphabet discrepancy between spelling and sounds cause a movement of ―spelling reformers‖ called orthoepists. They wanted to revise the alphabet so that one letter would correspond to one sound and one sound to one letter, thus simplifying spelling. This is a phonetic alphabet. The major phonetic alphabet in use is that of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). It includes modified Roman letters and diacritics by means of which the sounds of all human languages can be represented. To distinguish between the orthography, or spelling, of words and their pronunciations, phonetic transcriptions may be put between square brackets, as in [f´netik] for phonetic.
  19. 19. spelling reformers believe there is need for phonetic alphabet: 1. Several letters may represent a single sound: to too two through threw clue shoe 2. A single letter may represent different sounds: dame dad father call village many 3. A combination of letters may represent a single sound: shoot character Thomas physics 4. Some letters have no sound at all in certain words: mnemonic whole resign ghost 5. Some sounds are not represented in the spelling. In many words the letter u represents a y sound followed by a u sound: cute (compare: coot) futile (compare: rule) 6. One letter may represent two sounds; final x in Xerox represents a k followed by an s: Spelling though Pronunciation [Do] through [Tru]
  20. 20. Branches of Phonetics We can describe the speech sounds at any stage. The study of of the physical properties of the sounds themselves is acoustic phonetics. The study of the way listeners perceive these sounds is auditory phoneticss. Our primay concern in today’s class is articulatory phonetics, the study of how the vocal tract produces speech sounds; the physiological characteristics of speech sounds
  21. 21. Articulatory Phonetics The production of any speech sound involves the movement of air. Most speech sounds are produced by pushing lung air through the opening between the vocal cords. This opening is called the glottis. It is located in the larynx ( ―voice box‖) – through the tub in throat called pharynx, out of oral cavity through mouth and sometimes also through nasal cavity and out nose.
  22. 22. The Classification of Sounds Sounds of all languages fall into two major natural classes: Consonants (C) Vowels (V) Consonants Consoantal sounds are produced with some restriction or closure in the vocal tract as the air from the lungs is pushed through the glottis out the mouth. There are two important criteria in classifying consonants: places of articulation and manners of articulation.
  23. 23. Consonants: Places of Articulation
  24. 24. Manners of Articulation Voiced and Voiceless Sounds If the vocal cords are apart during airflow, the air flows freely through the glottis and supraglottal cavities (part of the vocal tract above the glottis). The sounds produced in this way are voiceless sounds: [p], [t], [k], and [s] in the English words. seep [sip], seat [sit], and seek [sik]. If the vocal cords are together, the airstream forces its way through and causes them to vibrate. Such sounds are voiced and is illustrated by the sounds [b], [d], [g], [z] in the English words bate [bet], date [det], gate [get], and cob [kab]. Put a finger in each ear and say the voiced ―z-z-z-z-z‖. Vibrations are felt. Put a finger in each ear and say the voiced ―s-s-s-s-s‖. No vibration is felt.
  25. 25. Aspirated and Unaspirated Sounds Voiceless sounds may also be aspirated or unaspirated. In the production of aspirated sounds the vocal cords remain apart for a brief time after the stop closure is released. This produces a puff of air at the time of the release. • tick [tᵸ ık] • pit [pᵸ ıt] stick [stık] spit [spıt] Hold your palm about 5 centimeters in front of your lips say pit. You will feel a puff of air, which you will not feel when you say spit.
  26. 26. Nasal and Oral Sounds Sounds produced with the velum up, blocking the air from escaping through the nose, are oral sounds, since the air can escape only through the oral cavity. Most sounds in all languages are oral sounds. When the velum is not in its raised position, air escapes through both the nose and the mouth. Sounds produced this way are nasal sounds. The sound [m] is a nasal consonant. Thus [m] is distinguished from [b] because it is a nasal sound, while [b] is an oral sound. Nasal sounds in English: [m], [n], and [ᵸ ]
  27. 27. Stops [p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] In producing consonants, airstream may completely stopped or just partially obstructed. Sounds that are completely stopped in the oral cavity for a brief period are called stops. sound [t] is a stop, but sound [s] is not,that is what makes them different speech sounds. Fricatives [s] [z] [f] [v] [T] [D] [S] [Z] In the production of some consonants (continuants), the airflow is so severely obstructed that it causes friction. The sounds are therefore called fricatives. Labiodental Fricatives: [f] and [v] Interdental Fricatives: [ᶱ and [ᵸ ] ] Alveolar Fricatives: [s] and [z] Palatal Fricatives: [ᶱ and [ᶱ ] ]
  28. 28. Vowels The quality of a vowel is determined by the particular configuration of the vocal tract in the production of that sound. Vowels are classified according to three questions: 1. How high is the tongue? 2. What part of the tongue is involved; that is, what part is raised or lowered? 3. What is the position of the lips? DIPHTHONGS In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, "diphthongos", literally "with two sounds," or "with two tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination. It involves a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another. It is often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. While "pure" vowels, or monophthongs, are said to have one target tongue position, diphthongs have two target tongue positions. Pure vowels are represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by one symbol: English "sum" as /sʌm/, for example. Diphthongs are represented by 2 symbols, English "same" as /seɪm/, where two vowel symbols represent approximately beginning and ending tongue positions
  29. 29. Phonology The Sound Patterns of Language
  30. 30. Phonetics vs. Phonology Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. Phonology is the study of the sound patterns found in human language. Phonetics provides the means to describe speech sounds, showing how they differ; phonology tells us which sounds function as phonemes to contrast the meanings of words. Phonetics is part of phonology. Phonological Knowledge Phonological knowledge permits a speaker to produce sounds which form meaningful utterances, recognize a foreign accent, make up new words, add the appropriate phonetic segments to form plurals and past tenses, produce aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops in the appropriate context, know what is or is not a meaning-distinguishing sound in one’s language, and know that different phonetic strings may represent the same meaningful unit.
  31. 31. Phoneme Phonemes are the distinctive phonological units of language that contrast or distinguish words. sip, zip 􀃆 /s, z/ are phonemes fine, vine 􀃆 /f, v/ are phonemes The forms of the two words, their sounds, are identical except for the initial consonants. /s/ & /z/ or /f/ & /v/ can therefore distinguish or contrast words. They are distinctive sounds in English. Such distinctive sounds are called phonemes. Minimal Pair When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment that occurs in the same place in the string, the two words are called a minimal pair. Examples: cold [kold], gold [gold] 􀃆 /k, g/ sip [sIp], zip [zIp] 􀃆 /s, z/ lead [lid], read [rid] 􀃆 /l, r/ bite [bajt], but [b√t] 􀃆 /aj, √/ sit [sIt], seat [sit] 􀃆 /I, i/ bar [bar], rod [rAd] 􀃆 (not a pair) said [sEd], soup[sup] 􀃆 (not a pair) “pill” and “bill” are called minimal pair. /p/ and /b/ are able to distinguish words (meanings). They are distinctive sounds in English. /p/ and /b/ are distinctive sounds, and thus are called