1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
CHAPTER
1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
“To Over...
2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
“To Overspread the Continent”
I. Manifest Destiny and Changing Vision...
4 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Manifest Destiny and
Changing Visions of the West
A. The Trapper’s Wo...
5 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Trapper’s World
What function did the yearly rendezvous
play in t...
6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Trapper’s World
Rendezvous – A festive annual gathering
held in t...
7 Visions of America, A History of the United States
8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Manifest Destiny and the Overland Trail
What were the most important ...
10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Manifest Destiny and the Overland Trail
Manifest Destiny – A term co...
11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
12 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Native American Encounter
with Manifest Destiny
Why were tales o...
13 Visions of America, A History of the United States
14 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
How did Catlin represent
his Mandan subject for
an...
15 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
GEORGE CATLIN AND MAH-TO-TOH-PA:
REPRESENTING INDI...
16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
GEORGE CATLIN AND MAH-TO-TOH-PA:
REPRESENTING INDI...
17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Mormon Flight to Utah
How did the Mormon immigration differ from...
18 Visions of America, A History of the United States
19 Visions of America, A History of the United States
American Expansionism into the Southwest
A. The Transformation of No...
20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Transformation of Northern Mexico
What was the ranchero system?
...
21 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Transformation of Northern Mexico
Mission System – The colonial ...
22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
23 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Clash of Interests in Texas
Why did some Americans oppose the
an...
24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
25 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Republic of Texas and the
Politics of Annexation
How did the Lib...
26 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Republic of Texas and the
Politics of Annexation
Liberty Party –...
27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Polk’s Expansionist Vision
How did Polk pursue his expansionist
agen...
29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
30 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Mexican War and Its Consequences
A. A Controversial War
B. Image...
31 Visions of America, A History of the United States
A Controversial War
What were the most important differences
between...
32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
A Controversial War
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – Formally
ended the...
33 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
Thoreau opposed the annexation
of Texas bec...
34 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
Choices regarding civil disobedience
HENRY ...
35 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
Decision and consequences
• Thoreau refused...
36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
Continuing Controversies
•Is the notion of ...
37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images of the Mexican War
What role did images play in shaping
Ameri...
38 Visions of America, A History of the United States
39 Visions of America, A History of the United States
40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Wilmot Proviso and the
Realignment of American Politics
A. The W...
41 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Wilmot Proviso
Why was the Wilmot Proviso so
controversial?
42 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso – Bill that would have
banned slav...
43 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Sectionalism and the Election of 1848
Why does this political cartoo...
44 Visions of America, A History of the United States
45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
46 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Competing Visions
SLAVERY AND THE ELECTION OF 1848
Democrats
asserte...
47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Competing Visions
SLAVERY AND THE ELECTION OF 1848
The Free-Soil Par...
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Chapter 11: "To Overspread the Continent" Westward Expansion and Political Conflict, 1840-1848

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  • Chapter Opener: War News From Mexico (page 317)
    Text Excerpt: Richard Caton Woodville’s painting, War News from Mexico (1848), captures the excitement generated by the Mexican War, the first conflict in which news traveled almost instantaneously by telegraph from the frontlines back to Americans. Woodville’s painting shows a group of white men standing on the front porch of the “American Hotel,” a symbol of the American nation. The central figure reads the latest headlines from the war front. The expressions on the mens’ faces range from astonishment to concern, suggesting the diversity of opinions about the war. A white woman looking out from a window is safely inside the “American Hotel,” part of the same nation as the white men but not privy to their political discussion in the public area on the porch. Woodville’s painting also shows those excluded from power: A black man sits on the lowest step, and an African American girl stands outside the building.
    Background:
    The Mexican War was the first American conflict in which war news reached Americans almost instantaneously. The telegraph made it possible for information to travel back from Mexico almost in real time. The size of the American press had expanded enormously in the first few decades of the nineteenth century, and new methods of gathering and reporting news were developed including the use of war correspondents. As a result of these developments newspaper coverage of the war was extensive. The importance of the press in shaping popular reactions to the war are captured in Richard Caton Woodville’s painting, “War News from Mexico.” The scene portrayed is anchored by the newspaper at the center of the painting. All eyes gaze on the paper. The reactions of the men gathered on the porch of the “American Hotel” run the gamut of emotions from the wide eyed astonishment of the men reading the headline to the furtive whisper of the men beside him. The only woman visible in the scene peers from an adjacent window, clearly not a member of the political community gathered in the public space symbolized by the porch. Two African-American figures on the margins, look up, spectators on the political news of the day. The inclusion of these figures was portentous given the profound consequences the war would have for the future of slavery.
    Chapter Connections:
    The Mexican War helped America fulfill the idea of manifest destiny. Ironically, the geographical expansion of the nation did not usher in a golden era of peace and prosperity. Instead, the land wrested from Mexico intensified the domestic debate over slavery and contributed to the further polarization of American politics over this contentious issue. The Wilmot Proviso, an act that would have prohibited slavery in territory seized from Mexico divided Americans almost as much as the war had.
    Discussion Questions:
    What is the symbolic significance of the setting of this painting?
    What do the expressions of the men on the porch reveal about the Mexican War?
    Why do you think Woodville placed the African Americans below the porch looking up at the man reading the news?
  • Image 11.1: The Trapper and His Family
    Artist Charles Deas offers a glimpse into the world of the trapper in this watercolor image. The canoe represents the multicultural world created by trappers in miniature.
  • Image 11.2: Western Trails
    This map shows the main trails taken by Western emigrants on the way to Oregon, California, and Santa Fe.
  • Image 11.3 Emigrants Crossing the Plains (page 320)
    Caption: In Bierstadt’s painting, a caravan passing through Indian-controlled territory on the western trek to Oregon heads toward the bright sun, symbolic of America’s Manifest Destiny.
    Text Excerpt: Bierstadt depicts settlers pausing on their westward journey to allow their livestock to graze and drink. Above them rises a stunning Western landscape; in the foreground Bierstadt places the skeleton of a buffalo. These bones, like the Indian village barely visible in the distance, represent the West’s past, whereas the settlers symbolize its future. The sun’s location in the Western sky evokes God’s blessing and the optimistic vision of Manifest Destiny—a symbol of both the settler’s and the nation’s bright future.
    Background:
    Albert Bierstadt became one of nineteenth-century America’s best-known and most successful landscape painters. Born near Düsseldorf, Germany, he immigrated to America and spent his childhood in Massachusetts. He returned to Europe to study painting in Germany and Italy. In 1859, Bierstadt traveled west where he observed immigrant wagon trains heading to California. He also encountered the Rocky Mountains and California’s spectacular Yosemite Valley and its surrounding peaks. Bierstadt’s painting, “Emigrants Crossing the Plain” combined the artist’s own observations of westward migration with an appreciation for the awe inspiring landscapes of the western United States. Bierstadt carried forward the tradition of landscape painting of Thomas Cole and other members of the Hudson River School (Chapter 10). Bierstadt’s panoramic canvasses, many of them as large as 6 feet by 10 feet in size, featured towering mountain peaks, gushing waterfalls, and verdant valleys that went on seemingly without end. In this painting a group of settlers are shown against the backdrop of a dramatic outcropping of cliffs. The bright sun in the west symbolizes the promise of Manifest Destiny. Bierstadt also includes signs of the West’s past, a set of sun-bleached buffalo bones, and a small Indian encampment in the distance. In this vision the future of the West clearly belonged to European-Americans while the previous inhabitants, including Indians and Buffalo, were linked to a rapidly vanishing past.
    Chapter Connections:
    In 1845 John L. O'Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review, coined the term “Manifest Destiny” to describe the inevitable expansion of the nation to the Pacific. He wrote that it was America’s “Manifest Destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions." The idea of Manifest Destiny inspired immigrants heading West and politicians eager to wrest western lands from Mexico and the indigenous Indian populations. Artists, including Bierstadt, helped translate this vision into visual landscapes for Americans to admire. The term manifest destiny drew on a millennial protestant tradition stretching back to Puritanism. Indeed, this language, identifying America with a god-given mission to subdue the land and civilize it, continued to exert a profound influence on American culture throughout the nineteenth century. John Winthrop’s vision of a City upon a hill (chapter 2) was picked up by later Americans. "We Americans," novelist Herman Melville wrote "are the peculiar, chosen people—the Israel of our time."
    Discussion Questions:
    What does the bright sun in this painting represent?
    Why did the artist include an encampment of Indians in the distance?
    How do you think Americans, particularly those living in an increasingly urban America, have responded to this image?
  • Image 11.4: “Attack on Emigrant Train”
    Although Indian attacks on Western emigrants were rare, this image was so powerful that it influenced portrayals of Indians in Western movies made by Hollywood more than a century later.
  • Image 11.5 The Nauvoo Temple (page 324)
    Caption: The Mormon temple at Nauvoo stood on the highest point of land in the new town and towered over the surrounding landscape. Its architecture includes Greek Revival elements, Masonic symbolism, and ideas inspired by Mormon theology.
    Text Excerpt: The Mormon system of tithing (required donations to the church) enabled the church to buy land and build a monumental temple in Nauvoo. As this contemporary image shows, the temple dominated the landscape around it.
    Background:
    During its heyday from 1839-1846 the Mormon city of Nauvoo’s population grew to between 16,000 and 20,000, making it the largest city in Illinois, surpassing even Chicago. The Mormon inhabitants were extremely industrious. They dug canals to drain swamps and built brick houses in a region of the country were residents were more likely to dwell in simple log cabins. The Nauvo Temple was an impressive structure, perched on the highest bluff overlooking the Mississippi River with its spire dominating the landscape for miles. The light-gray limestone Temple was 128 feet long, 88 feet wide, rose 65 feet to the top of its front roof line, and boasted an octagonal tower which rose another 100 feet above the roof line. The stone work included symbols of the sun, moon, and stars, which were linked to Mormon theology and cosmology. There is also evidence that one of the windows was intended to have an “all-seeing eye” a familiar Masonic symbol. A weather vane at the top of the tower was fashioned in the shape of “an angel in his priestly robes with a book of Mormon in one hand and a trumpet." The angel also carried a compass and square, additional evidence of the strong masonic influences on Mormonism.
    Chapter Connections:
    Mormon religious practices and communally oriented economic behavior created friction with neighboring non-Mormons. The assassination of the Mormon leader Joseph Smith prompted the Mormon leadership to move west and establish a Mormon enclave free of the prejudice and suspicion that had plagued the community in its earlier settlements. In contrast to other immigrants moving westward for personal and economic reasons, the Mormon trek westward to the Great Salt Lake Basin was undertaken as a collective enterprise. The Mormons migrated en masse, and their strong communal organization helped them endure the hardships they encountered along the way.
    Discussion Questions:
    What architectural influences are evidenced in the Mormon temple at Nauvoo?
    What role did Masonic symbolism play in the Temple at Nauvoo?
    How did the Mormon westward migration differ from other westward movements by Americans in this era?
  • Image 11.6: View of the San Francisco Presidio
    This depiction of the mission system by a Russian artist captures the exploitation of the Indian population.
  • Image 11.7: “Fall of the Alamo—Death of Crockett”
    The heroism of the Alamo’s defenders is captured in this crude woodcut, which shows Crockett’s bravery in the face of battle.
  • Image 11.8 “Texas Coming In” (page 328)
    Caption: In this political cartoon Polk welcomes Texas, while Whigs including Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, vainly try to hold back the Lone Star Republic from joining the Union. The Whigs are dragged into the “Salt River,” a contemporary political term synonymous with a political dead end, oblivion, or an insurmountable obstacle.
    Text Excerpt: In this political cartoon from the election of 1844, the Whigs, led by Henry Clay, attempt to hold back Texas from entering the Union. James K. Polk stands with an American flag, ready to welcome Texas into the Union. Texans Stephen Austin (left) and Sam Houston (right) each wave the Lone Star flag of the Texas Republic. Polk’s expansionist agenda appealed to Southerners and Northerners who hoped that westward expansion would mean more land for agriculture.
    Background:
    The question of Texas annexation emerged as one of the most contentious issues in American politics during the early 1840s. President Tyler sought to annex Texas, but was frustrated by anti-slavery Democrats and anti-expansionist Whigs. This political cartoon from the election of 1844 shows the Democratic candidate James K. Polk welcoming Texas. Prominent Texas politicians Stephen Austin (shown on the left) and Samuel Houston (shown on the right) stand on what appears to be a type of vessel that is part steamboat and part railroad car labeled "Texas." The two wave the flags of the Lone Star Republic. The effort to prevent Texas from entering the Union is led by a trio of prominent Senate Whigs: Henry Clay (the Whig presidential nominee), Theodore Frelinghuysen, and Daniel Webster. The three are dragged into the Salt River by Texas. (The term Salt River was a popular synonym for political oblivion.) The cartoonist suggests that by attempting to block Texas from entering the Union, the three prominent Whigs were committing something akin to political suicide.
    Chapter Connections:
    The Texas question exacerbated the problem of slavery in American politics and created a serious problem for Whigs. Although this cartoon casts Clay as a strong opponent of Texas annexation, Clay’s stance on this issue was exceedingly complex. Clay opposed immediate annexation because he feared it would intensify sectional conflict in American politics and might plunge the nation into a war with Mexico. Democrats attacked Clay as opposing annexation on abolitionist grounds. Clay responded to this charge by attacking abolitionism and suggesting that under proper circumstances he might well support annexation. Clay’s apparent flip-flop may well have gained the support of pro-annexation Whigs in the South, but it alienated anti-annexation Whigs in the North. In the end, it was the militantly anti-annexation Liberty Party who proved to be the chief beneficiary of Clay’s shift. Some scholars argue this reversal shifted enough votes to the Liberty Party to cost the Whig’s the election of 1844.
    Discussion Questions:
    What do the “Lone Star” flags carried by the two Texans symbolize?
    Why are the Whig politicians being dragged into the “Salt River”?
    Why do some scholars believe Clay’s stance on annexation cost him the election?
  • Image 11.9: Mexican War
    This map depicts the major offensives of the war.
  • Image 11.10: Clay’s Grave
  • Image 11.11: “Death of Colonel Clay”
    These representations of the death of Henry Clay’s son capture radically different views of the war. The haunting daguerreotype (in the previous slide) was a deeply personal artifact, while the more widely distributed lithograph was more inspirational than morbid.
  • Image 11.12 “The Candidate of Many Parties” (page 335)
    Caption: A phrenologist probes General Zachary Taylor’s head, looking for some sign of what the presidential candidate thought about key issues. Taylor’s campaign tried to avoid taking stands on issues, such as the Wilmot Proviso, that might alienate voters.
    Text Excerpt: This humorous political cartoon from the election of 1848 shows a phrenologist (see Chapter 10) probing the general’s skull, supposedly to find clues to his political beliefs. The title, The Candidate of Many Parties, underscores Taylor’s attempt to be all things to all people.
    Background:
    This political cartoon from the Election of 1848 mocks the Whig Candidate Zachery Taylor, who attempted to portray himself as a man above partisanship, a republican statesmen, and military hero who would put the national interest ahead of narrow sectional allegiances. The artist shows renowned phrenologist Orson S. Fowler (see chapter 10) probing the candidate’s head to ascertain his political "principles.” Phrenology was a popular pseudo-scientific practice that purported to reveal a person’s true character. Taylor’s effort to cast himself as being above party was interpreted cynically by his opponents who saw it as an effort to avoid taking a stand on the difficult issues of the day, most notably the question of slavery in the new territory taken from Mexico. Given Taylor’s reluctance to reveal his true political self, the artist suggests phrenology as a means of prying these secrets from the reluctant Taylor.
    Chapter Connections:
    The Wilmot Proviso made the spread of slavery a central issue in American political life. The defeat of Mexico meant that Americans would have to decide what to do about the future spread of slavery into the territories taken from Mexico. Democrats hoped to avoid this explosive image by stressing their continuing commitment to states’ rights, including their new theory of popular sovereignty which left the issue of slavery up to the people of the states. Such a stance did little to prevent the “Barnburner” faction of the party from following Martin Van Buren into the newly formed Free Soil Party. Whigs also needed to hold their party together and prevent a sectional split over the slavery question. Taylor’s choice allowed Whigs to hold their coalition together. In the course of their campaign Whigs stressed that Taylor was a slaveholder in the South. Their Northern campaign stressed Taylor’s strong commitment to Whig constitutional ideals, including opposition to Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party’s support for executive power and the liberal use of presidential veto power. Taylor’s strong support for Whig constitutional ideals allowed him to implicitly offer assurances that he would never use the presidential veto to block a Wilmot Proviso-like law. Although this did not provide much solace for the most militantly anti-slavery faction within the Whig party, the Conscience Whigs who defected to the Free Soil party, it was enough assurance for many Northern Whigs.
    Discussion Questions:
    What was phrenology?
    Why is a phrenologist probing Zachery Taylor’s head?
    How did Taylor manage to appeal to Southern and Northern wings of his party?
  • Image 11.13: “Smoking Him Out”
    In this political cartoon Martin Van Buren is shown at the side of a burning barn, while proslavery Democrat Lewis Cass is perched on the roof ready to jump and rats flee the building. Antislavery democrats were nicknamed “Barnburners.”
  • The Buffalo Hunt
  • Chapter 11: "To Overspread the Continent" Westward Expansion and Political Conflict, 1840-1848

    1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States “To Overspread the Continent” Westward Expansion and Political Conflict, 1840–1848 11 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    3. 3. 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States “To Overspread the Continent” I. Manifest Destiny and Changing Visions of the West II. American Expansionism into the Southwest III. The Mexican War and Its Consequences IV. The Wilmot Proviso and the Realignment of American Politics WESTWARD EXPANSION AND POLITICAL CONFLICT, 1840–1848 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    4. 4. 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Manifest Destiny and Changing Visions of the West A. The Trapper’s World B. Manifest Destiny and the Overland Trail C. The Native American Encounter with Manifest Destiny D. The Mormon Flight to Utah
    5. 5. 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Trapper’s World What function did the yearly rendezvous play in the culture of fur trappers? How did reports of the West both impede and encourage migration?
    6. 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Trapper’s World Rendezvous – A festive annual gathering held in the Rocky Mountains in which Native Americans, mountain men, and traders would gather to exchange pelts for a variety of goods
    7. 7. 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    8. 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States Manifest Destiny and the Overland Trail What were the most important ideas associated with Manifest Destiny?
    10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States Manifest Destiny and the Overland Trail Manifest Destiny – A term coined by editor and columnist John O’Sullivan to describe his belief in America’s divine right to expand westward Overland Trail – The 2,000-mile route taken by American settlers traveling to new settlements in Oregon, California, and Utah
    11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    12. 12. 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Native American Encounter with Manifest Destiny Why were tales of Indian attacks on immigrants so popular in American culture?
    13. 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    14. 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History How did Catlin represent his Mandan subject for an American audience? GEORGE CATLIN AND MAH-TO-TOH-PA: REPRESENTING INDIANS FOR AN AMERICAN AUDIENCE
    15. 15. 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History GEORGE CATLIN AND MAH-TO-TOH-PA: REPRESENTING INDIANS FOR AN AMERICAN AUDIENCE Catlin’s journal informed his viewers that only a warrior of “extraordinary renown” was allowed to wear horns on his headdress. By omitting the chief’s war club, tomahawk, and so on, Catlin made him less frightening to an American audience.
    16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History GEORGE CATLIN AND MAH-TO-TOH-PA: REPRESENTING INDIANS FOR AN AMERICAN AUDIENCE Catlin painted Mah-to-toh-pa as if he were a Roman general, like this statue of George Washington.
    17. 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Mormon Flight to Utah How did the Mormon immigration differ from other westward migrations? How did Mormon communalism affect their experiences at Nauvoo?
    18. 18. 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    19. 19. 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States American Expansionism into the Southwest A. The Transformation of Northern Mexico B. The Clash of Interests in Texas C. The Republic of Texas and the Politics of Annexation D. Polk’s Expansionist Vision
    20. 20. 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Transformation of Northern Mexico What was the ranchero system? What advantages did Americans have over Mexicans in the lucrative trade with Santa Fe?
    21. 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Transformation of Northern Mexico Mission System – The colonial system devised by the Spanish to control the Native American population, forcing them to convert to Catholicism and work the land
    22. 22. 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    23. 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Clash of Interests in Texas Why did some Americans oppose the annexation of Texas? Who sought annexation and for what reasons? How did Anglo-Texans use their defeat at the Alamo to rally support for their cause?
    24. 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    25. 25. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Republic of Texas and the Politics of Annexation How did the Liberty Party affect the election of 1844?
    26. 26. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Republic of Texas and the Politics of Annexation Liberty Party – A short-lived staunchly antislavery and anti-annexation party • Captured 62,000 votes in the 1844 election • Liberty Party votes drew support away from Henry Clay and contributed to Polk’s election victory
    27. 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    28. 28. 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States Polk’s Expansionist Vision How did Polk pursue his expansionist agenda?
    29. 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    30. 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Mexican War and Its Consequences A. A Controversial War B. Images of the Mexican War
    31. 31. 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States A Controversial War What were the most important differences between the leadership style of Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott?
    32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States A Controversial War Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – Formally ended the war between the United States and Mexico (1848) • Settled the border dispute between Texas and Mexico • Gave the United States a significant swath of new territory in the Southwest
    33. 33. 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Thoreau opposed the annexation of Texas because he believed the war was an effort to extend slavery. Thoreau refused to pay his poll tax and was put in jail. Two years later, he gave a lecture that proposed the theory of civil disobedience. HENRY DAVID THOREAU AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
    34. 34. 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Choices regarding civil disobedience HENRY DAVID THOREAU AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE Accept the government’s decision and not criticize it Obey the law but work to change it Protest the law by refusing to obey it and suffer the legal consequences for challenging it
    35. 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and consequences • Thoreau refused to obey the law and spent a night in prison. • The theory of civil disobedience influenced many later protest movements. How significant was Thoreau’s essay when it was published? HENRY DAVID THOREAU AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
    36. 36. 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •Is the notion of a legal right of civil disobedience a contradiction in terms? HENRY DAVID THOREAU AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
    37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images of the Mexican War What role did images play in shaping American perceptions of the Mexican War? Why did the artist pose Henry Clay in the same posture as earlier artists had used for fallen leaders such as General Wolfe?
    38. 38. 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    39. 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    40. 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Wilmot Proviso and the Realignment of American Politics A. The Wilmot Proviso B. Sectionalism and the Election of 1848
    41. 41. 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Wilmot Proviso Why was the Wilmot Proviso so controversial?
    42. 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso – Bill that would have banned slavery from the territories acquired from Mexico Popular Sovereignty – An approach that would allow the people in each new territory to decide whether to permit slavery
    43. 43. 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Sectionalism and the Election of 1848 Why does this political cartoon show a phrenologist examining Taylor’s skull? Who were the Barnburners?
    44. 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    45. 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
    46. 46. 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions SLAVERY AND THE ELECTION OF 1848 Democrats asserted commitment to individual states’ rights to decide whether to allow slavery. Whigs avoided mentioning slavery and focused on the merits of their candidate, Zachary Taylor. What were the most important differences between the strategy of the Whigs and Democrats in the election of 1848?
    47. 47. 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions SLAVERY AND THE ELECTION OF 1848 The Free-Soil Party, which opposed the spread of slavery, met in Buffalo, New York. In this cartoon, Martin Van Buren, its candidate, is shown riding a buffalo.

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