Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of
monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from
one place to another.
Navigation, in a broader sense, can refer to any skill or study that
involves the determination of position and direction
Objectives of GPS navigation
To know your position.
Efficient use of fuel.
Maintain a flight schedule.
Avoid traffic congestion.
To increase the time of delivery.
Four general categories
1. Land navigation,
2. Marine navigation,
3. Aeronautic navigation,
4. Space navigation
Modern navigation methods
A. Non-Electronic Navigation System:
1. Dead reckoning
3. Celestial navigation
B. Electronic navigation
1. Radio navigation
2. Radar navigation
3. Satellite navigation
• Dead reckoning or DR, in which one advances a prior position
using the ship's course and speed. The new position is called a DR
position. It is generally accepted that only course and speed
determine the DR position. Correcting the DR position for leeway,
and steering error result in an estimated position or EP. An inertial
navigator develops an extremely accurate EP.
• Celestial navigation involves reducing celestial measurements to
lines of position using tables, spherical trigonometry, and almanacs.
• Radio navigation uses radio waves to determine position by radio
direction finding systems
• Radar navigation uses radar to determine the distance from or
bearing of objects whose position is known.
• Satellite navigation uses artificial earth satellite systems, such as
GPS, to determine position.
• Global Navigation Satellite System or GNSS is the term for
satellite navigation systems that provide positioning with global
• A GNSS allow small electronic receivers to determine their
location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres
using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from
• Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be used
to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific
• There are three satellite Navigation System
1.GPS by USA
2.GLONASS by Russia
3.GALILEO by European union
Governments and industrial organizations around the world are working together to
develop performance standards for Electronic Chart Display and Information
Systems, which use GPS and/or DGPS for positioning information.
GPS playing as increasingly important role in the management of marine port
facilities. E.g. the management and operation of automated container placement in
the world’s largest port facilities.
GPS information is embedded within a system known as the Automated
identification System (AIS) transmission.
Benefit of Marine Navigation
• Allows access to fast and accurate position, course, and speed
information, saving navigators time and fuel through more efficient traffic
• Provides precise navigation information to boaters.
• Enhances effieiency and economy for container management in port
• Increases safety and security for vessels using the AIS.
Rail Transportation & GNSS Applications
• Rail systems throughout the world use GPS to track the
movement of locomotives, rail cars, maintenance vehicles, and
wayside equipment in real time
• Modern railways in several different countries are using Positive Train
Control (PTC) systems to prevent collisions, derailments, work zone
incursions, and passage through switches in the wrong position. PTC is the
combination of real-time location information with sophisticated
command and control systems to monitor and control train movements.
• GPS gives dispatchers and passengers more accurate information on train
• GPS also synchronizes the timing of railroad communication systems,
including data transmissions for PTC, voice contact between locomotive
engineers and dispatchers, and intermodal communications among trains,
rail stations, ports, and airports.
Road & Highway Applications
• The availability and accuracy of the Global Positioning System
(GPS) offers increased efficiencies and safety for vehicles
using highways, streets, and mass transit systems. Many of
the problems associated with the routing and dispatch of
commercial vehicles is significantly reduced or eliminated
with the help of GPS. This is also true for the management of
mass transit systems, road maintenance crews, and
GPS enables automatic vehicle location and in-vehicle navigation
systems that are widely used throughout the world today.
• Using GPS technology to help track and forecast the
movement of freight has made a logistical revolution,
including an application known as time-definite delivery. In
time-definite delivery, trucking companies use GPS for
tracking to guarantee delivery and pickup at the time
promised, whether over short distances or across time zones.
“The promise of GPS
technology for increasing
safety and security,
reducing congestion, and
improving efficiency are
limitless. Quite simply, GPS
has become the enabling
Jeffrey N. Shane, Former Under
Secretary for Policy, U.S.
Department of Transportation
• GPS Guide for Beginners by GARMIN International, Inc.
• GPS & Principles of Navigation: http://suite101.com/article/gps---the-