Website Usability | Day 3

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  • The above example is from a website's "About Us" pages. The heatmap clearly shows users' tendency to read in an "F" pattern, and their focus on information that's presented in bulleted lists. In this case, there's also a small amount of attention to the "see also" area, but no viewing of the promotions in the rightmost column. \n
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  • Web users tend to ignore everything that looks like advertisement and, what is interesting, they’re pretty good at it. Although advertisement is noticed, it is almost always ignored. Since users have constructed web related schemata for different tasks on the Web, when searching for specific information on a website, they focus only on the parts of the page where they would assume the relevant information could be, i.e. small text and hyperlinks. Large colourful or animated banners and other graphics are in this case ignored.\nJakob Nielsen reports in his AlertBox entry that most users are essentially blind to ad banners. If they’re looking for a snippet of information on a page or are engrossed in content, they won’t be distracted by the ads on the side.The implication of this is not only that users will avoid ads but that they’ll avoid anything that looks like an ad, even if it’s not an ad. Some heavily styled navigation items may look like banners, so be careful with these elements.\n\n
  • On Web pages, we tend to focus on people’s faces and eyes, which gives marketers a good technique for attracting attention. But our attraction to people’s faces and eyes is only the beginning; it turns out we actually glance in the direction the person in the image is looking in.\n\n
  • Here’s an eye-tracking study that demonstrates this. We’re instinctively drawn to faces, but if that face is looking somewhere other than at us, we’ll also look in that direction. Take advantage of this phenomenon by drawing your users’ attention to the most important parts of your page or ad. Eye-tracking heat map of a baby looking directly at us, from the UsableWorld study.\n\n
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  • Examples\nGood IA: Supermarket puts chocolate together with other snack foods\nBad IA: nAll grocery items by manufacturer \n
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  • you can see parallels. similarities but travel on the web is magical. you just appear at the next point in your journey from page to page. no experience of the landscape unfolding before you as a series of landmarks.\n
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  • Consistency is the golden rul of interface design and way finding, but paradox is if everything looks the dame, THERE ARE NO EDGES. in a corporate site if y ou move from one region to another, from marketing to HR, you ought to notice that you just passed an important regional bouncary.\n
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  • The Paradox of Choice, Barry Schwartz give users choice is the matra but too many will overwhelm them.\n
  • As pages get more complex you risk overwhelming the user with the “times Square effect” of too many competing visual stimuli.\n
  • Orientation cuse are particularly important since users often arrive at a page without having followed a deliberate and repeatable pateh.\n
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  • Orientation cuse are particularly important since users often arrive at a page without having followed a deliberate and repeatable pateh.\n
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  • Orientation cuse are particularly important since users often arrive at a page without having followed a deliberate and repeatable pateh.\n
  • Orientation cuse are particularly important since users often arrive at a page without having followed a deliberate and repeatable pateh.\n
  • Orientation cuse are particularly important since users often arrive at a page without having followed a deliberate and repeatable pateh.\n
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  • Website Usability | Day 3

    1. 1. WHAT IS USABILITY TESTING?
    2. 2. WELL, WHAT IS USABILITY?“Usability really just means making sure that somethingworks well: that a person of average (or even below average)ability and experience can use the thing - whether its a Website, a fighter jet, or a revolving door - for its intendedpurpose without getting hopelessly frustrated.” (Steve Krug)
    3. 3. USABILITY TESTINGTesting is a technique to ensure that the intended users canperform the intended tasks efficiently, effectively andsatisfactorily. Without frustration!
    4. 4. WHAT TOOLS ARE AVAILABLE? Surveys Interviews Eyetracking studies Usability testing Online testing tools
    5. 5. SURVEYSAllow users to review the site.Distribute surveys.Ask them to answer questions Survey
    6. 6. INTERVIEWSAllow users to review the site.Make user comfortable.Ask users questions.See handout. Interview
    7. 7. EYETRACKING STUDIES
    8. 8. EYETRACKING AND THE EYEEyetracking is following the trail of where a person is looking.Equipment can be built into the computer.Eyetracking software keeps track of what’s on screen whileuser is looking at it. How does it work?
    9. 9. FIXATIONWhen the eye is resting on something.Last between one-tenth and one-half.Red spots are fixations.
    10. 10. SACCADESThe eye’s rapid movements from one fixation to the next.Last between one-hundredth and one-tenth of a second.Thin red line connecting the dots are saccades betweenfixations. Eyetracking Study
    11. 11. HEAT MAPSVisualization technique for eyetracking studies.A color-coded screenshot that shows the user’s fixations.Red: where users looked most.Yellow: indicate fewer fixations.Blue: indicate least view areas.Gray: no fixations. Facebook Heatmap
    12. 12. F - PATTERN
    13. 13. BANNER BLINDNESS
    14. 14. USERS FOCUS ON FACES
    15. 15. USERS FOCUS ON FACES
    16. 16. USABILITY TESTINGSeries of tasks for participants to perform on an actualwebsite or prototype.Tasks are formulated from user and business goals.Measures the success of failure of a design.What you need?Pen and clipboard, computer with Internet connection,perhaps a tape recorder.
    17. 17. STEPS
    18. 18. #1 INTRODUCTION (5-10 MINS)Make participant feel comfortable.Let them know they can have a break any time.If video taping, get permission.Ask questions about them – include demographics,occupation, education level, Internet experience.Explain equipment if necessary.Assure them that there is no right or wrong.
    19. 19. #2 TASKS (10 - 15 MINS )Be sure to read the task aloud.Encourage participant to think aloud.Have a written version that you leave in front of the user.DO NOT HELP THE USER THROUGH THE TASK.No small talk!
    20. 20. TECHNOLOGYMorae®: A recorder that captures onscreen activity of theuser’s computer and a camera video of the user.Creates a synchronized index of events occurring behind thescenes in applications and in the operating system. Morae Website
    21. 21. COMMON ERRORSStrategic Errors - premature testing, not enough time orwill to make changes.Inadequate Planning - do a pilot test to uncover problemswith plan and materials.Read script aloud.Allow enough time between test sessions (minimum 30minutes)
    22. 22. COMMON ERRORSPoor Task Design - test core functionality and areasidentified as problematic.If scenarios were used, convert into tasks to ensure keyinteractions are studied.Accidental Revelation - revealing too much. Watch yourlanguage.Unprofessional Demeanor - need to be professionallydetached and neutral. Don’t finish user’s sentence!
    23. 23. TEST PARTICIPANTSGet representative users - Craig’s list, LinkedIn,employmentagencies, market research agencies.Use questionnaires to screen.Offer incentives.Send reminders.
    24. 24. ENVIRONMENT
    25. 25. TEST PARTICIPANTSSchedule 5 - 8 users.Only need 5 - account for no shows, botched tests.Test up to 3 groups of 5 - 1 test after iterations made.
    26. 26. http://www.xperienceconsulting.com/en/research/lab_usability_test.php
    27. 27. http://happyuser.xperienceconsulting.com/tag/test-de-usuarios/
    28. 28. http://usit.com.au/introducing-cider-or-why-i-dont-like-the-term
    29. 29. USING THE DATA
    30. 30. USING THE DATATransform both qualitative and quantitative data to makerecommendations
    31. 31. QUANTITATIVE DATAAny information that can be measured:Ease of useSatisfactionVerbal descriptions of people’s experiencesExamples: The time it takes to complete a task, or thecompletion rate of a task.
    32. 32. QUALITATIVE DATAInformation that requires interpretationIdentifies trends or categories of user’s behaviorExample: How well users can complete a taskWhere they are encountering problemsLevel of frustration
    33. 33. COMB THE DATA
    34. 34. FROM INTERVIEWS Preferences Needs Stories Current Behaviors Pain Points Satisfaction Level
    35. 35. FROM USER TESTING Success New Behaviors Usage Patterns Pain Points Time to complete Assists required
    36. 36. ONLINE TESTING TESTING SITES - Usabilla - Infomaki - Chalkmark CARD SORTING - Optimal Sort - XSort (desktop app for Mac) NAVIGATION TESTING - Treejack - Five Second Test
    37. 37. ORGANIZING THE DATAOrganize the data into categories or findings.Find themes and put in table.
    38. 38. AFFINITY DIAGRAMSOrganizes items into common themes.Helpful when you have a large amount of data.You have many facts or ideas in apparent chaos.When issues seem too large and complex.When group consensus is needed.
    39. 39. AFFINITY DIAGRAMS 1. Record each idea on sticky note and layout on wall 2. Look for groups 3. Repeat till all notes are grouped 4. If a note seems to belong in two groups, make a second note 5. Discuss patterns and reason for groupings 6. Find headers
    40. 40. SPREADSHEETSUse to track stories, needs, pain points, successesProvides Quantitative layer over Qualitative informationMore difficult to collaborate than affinity diagrams Example
    41. 41. WORKSHOP # 1 - USABILITY TEST Please break into twos. Person A tests Person B Follow format: Orientation Tasks - read aloud to participant - careful not to “help” - be sure to ask about expectations - let mistakes happen Debriefing
    42. 42. WORKSHOP # 1 - USABILITY TEST Anything surprise you? Any new insight? Anything go wrong? Was the site used in a way that you did not expect? Did you discover any usability problems?
    43. 43. WORKSHOP # 1a- USABILITY TEST Please break into twos. Person B tests Person A Follow format: Orientation Tasks - read aloud to participant - careful not to “help” - be sure to ask about expectations - let mistakes happen Debriefing
    44. 44. WORKSHOP # 1a - USABILITY TEST Anything surprise you? Any new insight? Anything go wrong? Was the site used in a way that you did not expect? Did you discover any usability problems?
    45. 45. DESIGNING FOR WEB USABILITY
    46. 46. USER EXPERIENCE"User experience isnt a layer or component of a product orservice. Its really about the design of the whole systems andtheir interconnections."- Andre Hinton, Senior IA at Vanguard
    47. 47. WHY TEST?If a user can’t find what a product, they won’t buy.If they can’t find what they are looking for, they will lookelsewhere.The holder of the mouse rules!
    48. 48. NAVIGATION & WAYFINDING
    49. 49. NAVIGATION“Navigation isn’t just a feature of a website, it is the web site,in the same way that the building, the shelves, and thecash register are Sears. Without it, there’s no there there.”-Steve Krug
    50. 50. WAYFINDINGCoined by Kevin Lynch in The Image of the City, 1960.Describes the elements that allow us to navigate successfullyin cities and towns.
    51. 51. 4 CORE COMPONENTS1. Orientation: Where am I now?2. Route decisions: Can I find the way to where I want to go?3. Mental mapping: Are my experiences consistent and understandable enough to know where I’ve been and to predict where I should go next?4. Closure: Can I recognize that I have arrived in the right place?
    52. 52. ELEMENTS OF MENTAL MAPS1. Paths: streets, transit lines, canals, railroads - channelsthat people regularly move.2. Edges: physical barriers; walls, fences, rivers, shore -boundaries that create linear breaks in continuity/separateand relate two distinct regions.3. Districts: Major sections of a city that have a commonidentifying character: Chinatown, Wall Street, GreenwichVillage.
    53. 53. ELEMENTS OF MENTAL MAPS4. Nodes: Intersections, enclosed squares, street corners,subway stations - all serve as points of reference, transitionand destination.5. Landmarks: Towering buildings, golden domes,mountains, signs, storefronts, trees - physical objects thatserve as spatial reference points.
    54. 54. ON THE WEBNo sense of scale or movement in space.No compass: no direction.You are here: navigation interface.Paths: lead the way: site navigation, breadcrumbs.
    55. 55. PATHSConsistent, predictable navigational links.Appear the same throughout the site.Can be habitual.Explicit elements: breadcrumbs.
    56. 56. EDGES & DISTRICTSEffective interface design uses consistent page grid,terminology, navigation links.Uses visual flexibility to create identifiable regions andedges within the larger space.
    57. 57. Landmarks along the wayREGION REGION REGION REGION REGION REGION
    58. 58. NODESThe local coffee shop or Times Square?Too much choice causes stress, slows decisions, makes usless satisfied and more likely to walk away.
    59. 59. LANDMARKS “YOU ARE HERE”Search function cuts across all the normal wayfindingboundaries.Orientation cues are particularly important since users oftenarrive at a page without having followed a deliberate andrepeatable path.
    60. 60. Headers: “You are here” markers
    61. 61. SUMMARY1. Paths: create consistent, well-marked navigation paths.2. Regions: create a unique but related identity for each site region.3. Nodes: don’t confuse the user with too many choices.4. Landmarks: use consistent landmarks in site navigation and graphics to keep the user oriented.Web Style Guide, 3rd Edition
    62. 62. PAGE LAYOUT
    63. 63. ELEGANCE & SIMPLICITYUse economy of expression.Most powerful designs are result of a process ofsimplification and refinement.
    64. 64. MINIMALISM“A designer knows he has achieved perfection not whenthere is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left totake away.”- Anoine de Saint Exupéry-
    65. 65. ADVANTAGES Approachability: easy to tell at a glance what it is and designs invite further exploration. Recognizability: recognized easily, easily assimilated, understood and…REMEMBERED. Immediacy: have greater impact because they can be immediately recognized and understood with minimal effort. Usability: simplicity enhances usability.
    66. 66. PRINCIPLES Unity Refinement Fitness All the elements must be unified to produce a coherent whole. The parts and whole must be refined to focus user attention and the fitness of the solution to the communication problem must be ensured at every level.
    67. 67. HOW Reduction Regularization Leverage Reduce the design to its essence, regularize the elements of the design, then combine them for maximum leverage.
    68. 68. INFORMATION...... consists of differences that make a difference.- Edward Tufte, Envisioning Information
    69. 69. SCALE, CONTRAST, PROPORTIONThe subtle interrelationship of scale, contrast andproportion can be seen in all harmonious designs.
    70. 70. SCALEDescribes the relative size of a design element in relation tothe other design elements and the composition as a whole.
    71. 71. CONTRASTResults from the differences that can be seen between thedesign elements.Provides visual distinctions in: shape, size, color, texture,position, orientation, and movement.
    72. 72. PROPORTIONDetermines the balance and harmony of the relationshipbetween the elements.
    73. 73. ORGANIZATION & STRUCTUREProvide the user with visual pathways needed to experiencea site in a systematic way.Must be introduced by establishing relationships among thedesign elements.
    74. 74. PRINCIPLES Grouping Hierarchy Relationships Balance
    75. 75. GROUPINGStart by grouping display elements into higher order units.(Note: words in a book are grouped into columns,paragraphs, sections etc).Higher-level structures orient the user.Binds functional units tightly together.Use spacing and alignment for effectiveness.
    76. 76. HIERARCHYEye looks for visual hierarchies for orientation.Most important elements must be large enough to draw theviewer closer.Specifics follow.
    77. 77. RELATIONSHIPSGrouping and hierarchy are reinforced when visualelements are related.Position, size and value provide visual cues.Alignment helps form visual relations.
    78. 78. BALANCEEnsures that the elements remain stable in their position onthe page.A composition is balanced when the visual weight of theelements on either side of the piece are approximately equal.
    79. 79. WORKSHOP # 2 - PAGE LAYOUT Please break into three groups. Find websites that illustrate: 1. Scale 5. Grouping 2. Contrast 6. Hierarchy 3. Proportion 7. Relationships 4. Organization & Structure 8. Balance
    80. 80. HOMEPAGES
    81. 81. FIRST CHANCEcan be your first (and possibly last) chance to attract a user
    82. 82. IDENTITYinclude a tag line that summarizes what the company does
    83. 83. FRONT PAGEshould be like the front page of a newspaper
    84. 84. TELL YOUR STORYshould say who you are, what you do or what products your offer and what sets you apart from the competition
    85. 85. SHOW COMPANY LOGO
    86. 86. PRIORITYemphasize highest priority tasks so there is a clear starting point
    87. 87. SHOULD BE UNIQUEdesign to be clearly different from all other pages on the site
    88. 88. ESTABLISH TRUST & CREDIBILITY
    89. 89. HAVE CLEAR NAVIGATION
    90. 90. THE FINE PRINTgroup all corporate information in one distinct area
    91. 91. INCLUDE SEARCH BAR
    92. 92. CALLS TO ACTIONreveal site content with calls to action
    93. 93. USE MEANINGFUL GRAPHICS
    94. 94. DESIGN CONVENTIONS
    95. 95. Link to home page Primary location for search, shopping carts LOGO Calender | A-Z Index Search This Site GO Navigation and search The tagline would go here... Identity and titles Header Navigation links Navigation | Navigation | Navigation | Navigation Tab navigation Selected Tab Unselected Tab Unselected Tab Navigation Home page > Section > Page Breadcrumb trail Alternate right location Navigation for scan column Navigation navigation and searchLocal Navigation Navigation Navigation Common location for Navigation banner ads Navigation Navigation Search, banner ads, Left scan column Right scan column Main content column contact (optional) (optional) information Contact information, Footer Copyright 2012 | Company Name | Company Address | New York, NY | 555-555-5555 copyrights, dates
    96. 96. WEB STANDARDS“The experienced web designer, like the talented newspaperart director, accepts that many projects she works on willhave headers and columns and footers. Her job is not towhine about emerging commonalities but to use them tocreate pages that are distinctive, natural, brand-appropriate,subtly memorable and quietly but unmistakably engaging.”- Jeffery Zeldman-
    97. 97. ABOVE THE FOLDAbove the fold - a graphic design concept that refers to thelocation of an important news story or a visually appealingphotograph on the upper half of the front page of anewspaper.In web design, top 600 to 700 pixels (on 19” - 22” monitor)Just a guideline.
    98. 98. BREAKING THE RULESMore sites now will put important content beneath the fold.People will scroll if the content is interesting. 37signals Acumen Fund Zipcare
    99. 99. PURPOSE OF GRAPHIC DESIGNUnlike a print, web users interact with information.GUI (graphic user interface) must convey function andmeaning.Graphics are integral to the user’s experience.
    100. 100. PURPOSE OF GRAPHIC DESIGNCreate visual hierarchy so you can see what’s important.Define functional regions of the page.Group page elements that are related, so you can seestructure in the content.
    101. 101. CONSISTENT LAYOUTHeader - mini versions of the homepage.Footer - about house keeping and and legal matters.Global NavigationLocal NavigationContent, Features, ProductsBanner Ads
    102. 102. PAGES SHOULD INCLUDE Informative title Identity Copyright statement Link back to home Navigational links Heading or title to clarify content Link to contact information Alternate (alt) text identifying graphics on the page
    103. 103. WHAT GOES INTO A HEADER? Site identity Major navigation links/utility navigation Search box (not always) Link back to home
    104. 104. POSSIBLE HEADER COMPONENTSIndividual designs rarely use them all. Advertising Search This Site GO Cart Navigation | Navigation | Navigation | Navigation LOGO Site titles, section identity, or advertising Selected Tab Unselected Tab Unselected Tab
    105. 105. Variations
    106. 106. WHAT GOES INTO A FOOTER? Contact information. Copyright statement. Page author. Links to related sites or to larger enterprise. Utility links can go here. Redundant navigation for long pages.
    107. 107. WRITING FOR THE WEB
    108. 108. CONTENT IS KING“Ultimately, users visit your website for its content.Everything else is just the backdrop. The design is there toallow people access to the content.”- Jakob Nielsen-
    109. 109. PAPER VERSUS MONITORBecause screen resolution is low (72 to 110 dpi), it places astrain on the human eye.Because we read on a screen, we are forced to view from amore or less fixed position - with print you can readanywhere in any position.Can lay papers out on the floor. (Can’t do a search though.)
    110. 110. PAPER VERSUS MONITORScreen glare is not an obstacle when reading on paper.Monitor Flick: looks like a solid image, but the screen isrefreshing so fast that you are fooled into seeing a solidimage, but the brain is alway correcting for the flicker.Reading is 25% slower on a screen. (Jacob Nielsen)
    111. 111. READING ON THE WEB - Scrolling is clumsy - people don’t like it and they lose their place. - Readers scan on-screen, then print content for reading. - Web reading is not stationary - text jumps from link to link and page to page. - Many web pages end up as fragments of information taken from larger context.
    112. 112. 3 GUIDELINES 1. Be succinct - write no more than 50% of the test that you would have used in print. 2. Write for scanability - use short paragraphs, subheadings, bulleted lists. 3. Use hypertext to split up long information into multiple pages.
    113. 113. SCANABILITY - Studies show that almost 80% of users initially scan a webpage. - Users pick out key words, sentences and paragraphs of interest - They skip over the text they are not concerned with. - Write articles with two or three levels of headlines for easy scanability. - Use general page headings plus subheads and sub-subheads if needed.
    114. 114. SCANABILITY - Use meaningful headlines - Tell the user what the page or section is about. - Use bulleted lists and similar design elements to break text blocks. - Use highlighting and emphasis to catch the users eye. - Be sure to distinguish from link colors so as to avoid confusion.
    115. 115. USE PLAIN LANGUAGE - Start each page with the conclusion - most important material should come up front. - Users should be able to tell in a glance what the page is about. - Users often only read the first line of a paragraph - use topic sentences, one idea per paragraph. - Use simple sentence structure - avoid convoluted writing and complex words. - Use caution with metaphors and humor - readers may take you literally.
    116. 116. CHUNKING - Use hyperlinks to make text short. - Keep links visible, ideally above the fold. - Split the information into “chunks” that focus on a certain topic. - Move long, detailed info to secondary pages. - Avoid using links to break long articles into separate pages - is disruptive and makes printing difficult.
    117. 117. HEADLINES - Online headlines are different than printed headlines. - Online headlines are often displayed out of context: as part of an article, in a search list, in a bookmark list. - Headline must stand on it’s own even when the rest of content is unavailable. - Online headlines and their content are often hard to see in a single glance on the window so it is difficult for the user to learn enough just from the surrounding data.
    118. 118. LEGIBILITY Use colors that have a high contrast between the text and the background. Use plain color-backgrounds or subtle patterns. Use fonts big enough that people can read. Make the text stand still – moving blinking or zooming text is hard to read. Keep sentences to 7 - 10 words as that is what the eye can comfortably track.
    119. 119. LEGIBILITY Try to left justify text when possible.
    120. 120. LEGIBILITY AVOID THE USE OF ALL CAPS FOR TEXT BECAUSE RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT IT IS 10 PERCENT SLOWER TO READ THAN TEXT IN MIXED CASES, BECAUSE IT IS HARDER FOR THE EYE TO RECOGNIZE THE SHAPE OF WORDS AND CHARACTERS IN THE MORE UNIFORM AND BLOCKY APPEARANCE. DONT DO IT. Legibility depends on the tops of all the letters. Legibility depends on the tops of all the letters. 2. Use plain color-backgrounds or subtle patterns. 3. Use fonts big enough that people can read. 4. Make the text stand still – moving blinking or zooming text is hard to read.
    121. 121. REMEMBER Explain what the article is about in terms that relate to the user. Write in plain language. Avoid teasers that try to entice people to click. Try to make the first word an important, information-carrying one.
    122. 122. WORKSHOP # 3 HEADLINES Stay in your groups. Remove every word you can from the passages below and create a catching headline. 1. Government officials involved in the Olympics call it a fiasco, that is, the extent of chaos that has thrown security plans into disarray upon learning that of the shortfall of civilian guards. 2. If “Ghosts in the Machine” an ambitious exhibition at the Met were itself a machine, it would have lots of moving parts but not all would be performing with equal efficiency. 3. Apple announced that its’ bestselling MacBook laptop just got its newest makeover. It’s a thing of beauty, clad in aluminum like its more expensive Pro siblings. A
    123. 123. WEB TYPOGRAPHY
    124. 124. TYPOGRAPHYTypography is the process of arranging letters, manyterms are left over from the days of letterpressOn computers we use fonts, whether for digital printing oron the web.
    125. 125. HISTORY OF WEB TYPOGRAPHYAt first browsers had no way of embedding fonts.1995: Netscape introduces <font> tag1998: CSS2 allows for more type configuration2005: CSS3 introduces @font-face, allowing fonts to behosted online
    126. 126. WEB-SAFE FONTSCome preinstalled on most computers.Arial, Comic Sans MS, Courier,Georgia, Impact, TahomaTimes New Roman, Verdana
    127. 127. @FONT-FACELets the browser load a font from a remote server, meaningthat pages can display text in the specified font even if theuser does not have it installed on their computer.Allows for greater design customization without sacrificingaccessibility or SEO.
    128. 128. IMAGE REPLACEMENTGood for logos. Bad for accessibility and SEO.
    129. 129. CHOOSING THE RIGHT FONT
    130. 130. SERIF VS SANS SERIFSerifSans SerifSlab SerifDisplay
    131. 131. HEADERS VS COPYYou can use decorative fonts for headers...Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Praesent sodales,sapien ut porta blandit, metus dui imperdiet ipsum, id eleifend est nulla euorci. Mauris lectus eros, rutrum at lobortis ut, eleifend eget eros. Nulla atfelis eget neque aliquam convallis.
    132. 132. X-HEIGHTLorem ipsum Lorem ipsumLorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipiscing elit. Praesent sodales, sapien ut adipiscing elit. Praesent sodales, sapien utporta blandit, metus dui imperdiet ipsum, id porta blandit, metus dui imperdiet ipsum, ideleifend est nulla eu orci. Mauris lectus eros, eleifend est nulla eu orci. Mauris lectus eros,rutrum at lobortis ut, eleifend eget eros. Nulla rutrum at lobortis ut, eleifend eget eros. Nullaat felis eget neque aliquam convallis. at felis eget neque aliquam convallis.
    133. 133. OUR FAVORITESOur favorite web fonts available for free from Google Fonts.Open Sans Open Sans Open Sans Open Sans Open SansLato Lato Lato LatoLora Lora Lora LoraVollkorn Vollkorn Vollkorn Vollkorn
    134. 134. WEB TYPOGRAPHY TIPS
    135. 135. INCREASE LEADINGLine height should be at least 120% of font size.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipiscing elit. Praesent sodales, sapien ut adipiscing elit. Praesent sodales, sapien utporta blandit, metus dui imperdiet ipsum, id porta blandit, metus dui imperdiet ipsum, ideleifend est nulla eu orci. Mauris lectus eros,rutrum at lobortis ut, eleifend eget eros. Nulla eleifend est nulla eu orci. Mauris lectus eros,at felis eget neque aliquam convallis. rutrum at lobortis ut, eleifend eget eros. Nulla at felis eget neque aliquam convallis.
    136. 136. DO
    137. 137. DON’T
    138. 138. MAINTAIN LEGIBILITYLight colors are hard to read, even on white. Beware of #666.Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipiscing elit. Praesent sodales, sapien ut adipiscing elit. Praesent sodales, sapien utporta blandit, metus dui imperdiet ipsum, id porta blandit, metus dui imperdiet ipsum, ideleifend est nulla eu orci. Mauris lectus eros, eleifend est nulla eu orci. Mauris lectus eros,rutrum at lobortis ut, eleifend eget eros. Nulla rutrum at lobortis ut, eleifend eget eros. Nullaat felis eget neque aliquam convallis. at felis eget neque aliquam convallis.Test your legibility with AccessColor.
    139. 139. DO
    140. 140. DON’T
    141. 141. COLUMN WIDTHThe eye can only comfortable track 7-10 words per line,which is about 40 to 80 characters.Multiply your text size by 30 to determine maximumcolumn width.10px type x 30 = 300px column width
    142. 142. DO
    143. 143. DON’T
    144. 144. IMPLEMENT HIERARCHYUse multiple typefaces to differentiate between elements onthe page.Mix between categories (serif, sans serif, slab serif, display)Don’t go too crazy! Don’t use more than 2 or 3 fonts.
    145. 145. DO
    146. 146. DON’T
    147. 147. RESOURCES FOR WEB FONTSGOOGLE WEB FONTSFONTSQUIRRELTYPEKIT
    148. 148. WORKSHOP # 4 CREATE SITE Please go into the group you worked with when creating personas. CREATE CONTENT FOR THE WEBSITE USING THE PERSONAS AND SCENARIOS. What content would the user you defined find on the site? Establish content Establish information architecture Create site map Create navigation Create wireframes or other prototype Do a prototype test Make improvements
    149. 149. WORKSHOP #4 SCENARIOS GROUP #1: Site is to provide info for people starting own business; some of them have experience in he business world; others this is their first exposure to issues running a business. GROUP #2: Site is to provide info for people looking to place parents in assisted living. GROUP #3: Site is to provide info for people looking to compare car insurance.

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